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Abbey, Cherie D., Ed. 

Biography Today: Profiles of People of Interest to Young 
Readers. Author Series, Volume 14. 

ISBN-0-7808-0652-2 

2004-00-00 

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ABSTRACT 

~ This special subject volume of biographies of authors was 
created to appeal to young readers in a format they can enjoy reading and 
readily understand. Each entry provides at least one picture of the 
individual profiled, and bold-faced rubrics lead the reader to information on 
birth, youth, early memories, education, first jobs, marriage and family, 
career highlights, memorable experiences, hobbies, and honors and awards. 

Each of the entries ends with a list of easily accessible sources designed to 
lead the student to further reading on the individual. This volume profiles: 
Orson Scott Card; Russell Freedman; Mary Grandpre; Nikki Grimes; Dan 
Greenburg; Laura Hillenbrand; Stephen Hillenburg; Norton Juster; Lurlene 
McDaniel; and Stephanie S. Tolan. (PM) 



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Orson Scott Card 



o 0! 

ERIO 

I O 



FEATURING . . . Orson Scott Card, Russell Freedman, Mary GrandPre, 
Dan Greenburg, Nikki Grimes, Laura Hillenbrand, Stephen Hillenburg, 
Norton Juster, Lurlene McDaniel, and Stephanie S. Tolan 






Biography Today 



High Interest Biographies for 
Today’s Young Reader. 




Who and Why 

Biography Today features current, high- 
profile individuals of interest to young readers. 
These include authors, actors, musical 
performers, business and political leaders, 
athletes, scientists, inventors, and more — 
people who are making a difference right now. 

At Biography Today, we’re committed to 
getting the facts straight through our 
extensive research process. We're also 
committed to presenting the information in 
a format that's consistent and easy to read, 
both for enjoyment and for research. 



The Biography Today Library 

The General Series, covering a wide variety of people in the news, is published three 
times a year in paperback and also in a hard-bound annual cumulation volume. 

In addition, the Subject Series includes six targeted areas: 

• Artists • Scientists & Inventors 

• Authors • Sports 

• Performing Artists (new in 2003) • World Leaders 

And, in 2003 — for the first time ever — a selection of current profiles is now 
published in Spanish, called Biografias Hoy! 

We Want to Hear from You! 

The editors of Biography Today want to know what you think — and who you 
want to read about. If you have a comment or a suggestion, please write to us at 
editor@biographytoday.com. Thanks! 

Visit us online at www.biographytoday.com 

See the inside back cover for a complete list of titles in the Biography Today 
Library or to order your copy today. 



Profiles 
of People 
of Interest 
to Young 
Readers 



Authors 



Volume 14 



Cherie D. Abbey 

Managing Editor 

Kevin Hillstrom 

Editor 




(S^mr^jotcs 



615 Griswold Street • Detroit, Michigan 48226 



Cherie D. Abbey, Managing Editor 
Kevin Hillstrom, Editor 

Laurie Hillstrom, Staff Writer 

Barry Puckett, Research Associate 

Allison A. Beckett and Linda Strand, Research Assistants 



Omni graphics, Inc. 

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Frederick G. Ruffner, Jr., Chairman 



Copyright © 2004 Omnigraphics, Inc. 

ISBN 0-7808-0652-2 

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or trans- 
mitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including pho- 
tography, recording, or any other information storage and retrieval system, 
without permission in writing from the publisher. 

The information in this publication was compiled from the sources cited and 
from other sources considered reliable. While every possible effort has been 
made to ensure reliability, the publisher will not assume liability for damages 
caused by inaccuracies in the data, and makes no warranty, express or im- 
plied, on the accuracy of the information contained herein. 




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Printed in the United States 



Contents 



Preface 5 

Orson Scott Card 1951- 9 

American Writer of Science Fiction and Fantasy Books, Author 
of Ender's Game, Speaker for the Dead, and "The Tales of Alvin 
Maker" Series 

Russell Freedman 1929- 31 

American Author of Nearly 50 Nonfiction Books for Children, 

Winner of the 1988 Newbery Medal for Lincoln: A 
Photobiography, Recipient of the 1998 Laura Ingalls Wilder 
Award for His Body of Work 

Mary GrandPre 1954- 53 

American Artist and Illustrator of the American Editions of the 
"Harry Potter" Series 

Dan Greenburg 1936- 70 

American Writer, Author of the "Zack Files" and the 
"Maximum Boy" Series 

Nikki Grimes 1950- 83 

American Poet and Novelist, Winner of the 2003 Coretta Scott 
King Award for Bronx Masquerade 

Laura Hillenbrand 1967- 100 

American Writer, Author of the Award-Winning Nonfiction 
Book Seabiscuit: An American Legend 

Stephen Hillenburg 1961- 121 

American Animator, Writer, Marine Biologist, and Creator of 
the Nickelodeon Animated Television Series "SpongeBob 
SquarePants" 



Norton Juster 1929- 136 

American Writer, Architect, Professor of Design, and Author of 
the Children's Classic The Phantom Tollbooth 

Lurlene McDaniel 1944- 151 

American Writer of Novels for Young Adults, Including Six 
Months to Live and Don't Die, My Love 

Stephanie S. Tolan 1942- 167 



American Writer for Children and Young Adults, Author of 
Surviving the Applewhites, the "Great Skinner" Series, and 



Guiding the Gifted Child 

Photo and Illustration Credits 182 

How to Use the Cumulative Index 185 

Cumulative Index 187 

(Includes Names, Occupations, Nationalities, and 
Ethnic and Minority Origins) 

Places of Birth Index 225 

Birthday Index 237 

(By Month and Day) 

The Biography Today Library 247 



Preface 



Welcome to the 14th volume of the Biography Today Author Series. We 
are publishing this series in response to suggestions from our readers, who 
want more coverage of more people in Biography Today. Several volumes, 
covering Artists, Authors, Performing Artists, Scientists and Inventors, 
Sports Figures, and World Leaders, have appeared thus far in the Subject 
Series. Each of these hardcover volumes is 200 pages in length and covers ap- 
proximately 10 individuals of interest to readers ages 9 and above. The length 
and format of the entries are like those found in the regular issues of Biogra- 
phy Today, but there is no duplication between the regular series and the 
special subject volumes. 



The Plan of the Work 

As with the regular issues of Biography Today, this special subject volume on 
Authors was especially created to appeal to young readers in a format they 
can enjoy reading and readily understand. Each volume contains alphabeti- 
cally arranged sketches. Each entry provides at least one picture of the indi- 
vidual profiled, and bold-faced rubrics lead the reader to information on 
birth, youth, early memories, education, first jobs, marriage and family, career 
highlights, memorable experiences, hobbies, and honors and awards. Each of 
the entries ends with a list of easily accessible sources designed to lead the 
student to further reading on the individual and a current address. Obituary 
entries are also included, written to provide a perspective on the individual's 
entire career. Obituaries are clearly marked in both the table of contents and 
at the beginning of the entry. 

Biographies are prepared by Omnigraphics editors after extensive research, 
utilizing the most current materials available. Those sources that are general- 
ly available to students appear in the list of further reading at the end of the 
sketch. 



Indexes 

A new index now appears in all Biography Today publications. In an effort to 
make the index easier to use, we have combined the Name and General 
Index into one, called the Cumulative Index. This new index contains the 
names of all individuals who have appeared in Biography Today since the se- 
ries began. The names appear in bold faced type, followed by the issue in 




5 



which they appeared. The Cumulative Index also contains the occupations, 
nationalities, and ethnic and minority origins of individuals profiled. The 
Cumulative Index is cumulative, including references to all individuals who 
have appeared in the Biography Today General Series and the Biography 
Today Special Subject volumes since the series began in 1992. 

The Birthday Index and Places of Birth Index will continue to appear in all 
Special Subject volumes. 



Our Advisors 

This series was reviewed by an Advisory Board comprised of librarians, chil- 
dren's literature specialists, and reading instructors to ensure that the concept 
of this publication — to provide a readable and accessible biographical maga- 
zine for young readers — was on target. They evaluated the title as it devel- 
oped, and their suggestions have proved invaluable. Any errors, however, are 
ours alone. We'd like to list the Advisory Board members, and to thank them 
for their efforts. 



Sandra Arden, Retired 

Assistant Director 

Troy Public Library, Troy, M3 

Gail Beaver 

University of Michigan School of 

Information 

Ann Arbor, MI 

Marilyn Bethel; Retired 

Broward County Public Library System 

Fort Lauderdale, FL 

Nancy Bryant 
Brookside School Library, 

Cranbrook Educational Community 
Bloomfield Hills, MI 

Cindy Cares 

Southfield Public Library 
Southfield, MI 

Linda Carpino 
Detroit Public Library 
Detroit, MI 

Carol Doll 

Wayne State University Library and 
Information Science Program 
Detroit, MI 

Helen Gregory 

Grosse Pointe Public Library 

Grosse Pointe, MI 



Jane Klasing, Retired 

School Board of Broward County 

Fort Lauderdale, FL 

Marlene Lee 

Broward County Public Library System 
Fort Lauderdale, FL 

Sylvia Mavrogenes 

Miami -Dade Public Library System 

Miami, FL 

Carole J. McCollough 
Detroit, MI 

Rosemary Orlando 

St. Clair Shores Public Library 

St. Clair Shores, M3 

Renee Schwartz 

Broward County Public Library System 
Fort Lauderdale, FL 

Lee Sprince 

Broward West Regional Library 
Fort Lauderdale, FL 

Susan Stewart, Retired 
Bimey Middle School Reading 
Laboratory, Southfield, MI 

Ethel Stoloff, Retired 
Bimey Middle School Library 
Southfield, MI 




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Our Advisory Board stressed to us that we should not shy away from contro- 
versial or unconventional people in our profiles, and we have tried to follow 
their advice. The Advisory Board also mentioned that the sketches might be 
useful in reluctant reader and adult literacy programs, and we would value 
any comments librarians might have about the suitability of our magazine for 
those purposes. 



Your Comments Are Welcome 

Our goal is to be accurate and up-to-date, to give young readers information 
they can leam from and enjoy. Now we want to know what you think. Take a 
look at this issue of Biography Today, on approval. Write or call me with your 
comments. We want to provide an excellent source of biographical informa- 
tion for young people. Let us know how you think we're doing. 

Cherie Abbey 

Managing Editor, Biography Today 
Omnigraphics, Inc. 

615 Griswold Street 
Detroit, MI 48226 

editor@biographytoday.com 

www.biographytoday.com 



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Orson Scott Card 1951- 

American Writer of Science Fiction and Fantasy Books 
Author of Ender's Game , Speaker for the Dead, and "The 
Tales of Alvin Maker" Series 



BIRTH 

Orson Scott Card was born on August 24, 1951, in Richland, 
Washington. He is the son of Willard Richards Card, a teacher, 
and Peggy Jane Park Card, a school administrator. He has a 
brother, Arlen Card, who is a musician and composer. 




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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL. 14 



YOUTH 

Although he was born in the state of 
Washington, Card spent most of his 
childhood and adolescence in Cali- 
fornia and Arizona. Looking back on 
his early years, Card believes that his 
family's strong Mormon faith played 
an important part in shaping his out- 
look on life. Mormonism is a religious 
movement founded in the United 
States in the 1820s by Joseph Smith 
Jr. The Mormon Church, also known 
as the Church of Jesus Christ of Lat- 
ter-Day Saints, is particularly strong 
in Utah and its capital city, Salt Lake 
City. 

Card credits Mormonism with giving 
him a strong sense of community, 
and he claims that his religious back- 
ground became an important foun- 
dation of his writing. In fact, he cites 
the Book of Mormon, Mormonism's 
most sacred text, as a lifelong influ- 
ence. "The Book of Mormon was probably the first adult book I read all the 
way through," he said. "Much of my writing still reflects the cadence of the 
language in the scriptures." 

Card recalls that he had a "reasonably happy childhood" and that he al- 
ways posted top grades. Although he enjoyed the company of adults, Card 
admits that "[I] had a harder time fitting in with kids my age. As athletics 
became more and more important, I became less and less involved with 
other boys. I found that most of my close friends were girls, because girls 
valued talking and were more aware of the culture and did not judge me 
by my athletic ability." 

Although Card struggled with football, basketball, and other popular 
sports, he was not afraid to go outside and skin his knees. "I loved rough 
and ready exploration in the creeks and woods and orchards near my 
home in California and wandering through the Arizona desert when my 
family lived there," he stated. "I actually enjoyed physical activity, I was 
simply too lousy at it to make it fun to play sports with other boys. But soli- 
tary things like hiking, climbing, even shooting baskets, those I enjoyed." 



U 

"My mother's greatest 
natural talent — and she had 
many great talents! — was 
the gift of encouragement. 
She could make anybody feel 
proud of their accomplish- 
ments. And she did it without 
fawning or flattering — she 
honestly found something 
good and praised it warmly. 
Not only her children, but 
everybody else she has come 
in contact with has been 
helped by that gift. " 

» 



ORSON SCOTT CARD 



Card also spent much of his free time reading books on all sorts of subjects. 
"I was profoundly introverted and loved my solitary time — especially my 
reading time," he remembered. "It is my love of solitude and my devotion 
to reading that led me toward a career as a writer. . . . And yet I was also a 
bom performer and loved to speak or sing or (later) act for audiences." 

Card credits his love for literature and other creative activities to his up- 
bringing. "I grew up surrounded by arts of all kind, and above all I lived in 
a family where excellent grammar was used with a high level of vocabu- 
lary," he explained. "We were all aware of the subtleties of language and 
we delighted in them, enjoying each other's wit and forming a community 
of raconteurs [skillful storytellers] that I have rarely found matched outside 
my own family." 



Looking back on his childhood, Card notes that both of his parents were 
enormously positive influences, though in very different ways. "My moth- 
er's greatest natural talent — and she had many great talents! — was the 
gift of encouragement," he remembered. "She could make anybody feel 
proud of their accomplishments. And she did it without fawning or flatter- 
ing — she honestly found something good and praised it warmly. Not only 
her children, but everybody else she has come in contact with has been 



helped by that gift. My father was sup- 
portive in a different way — he was 
always ready to lend a hand, give a 
ride, build, paint, photograph . . . 
whatever it took to get any project 
finished. He was resourceful and 
clever in his solutions to problems, 
and you always knew that he would 
come up with a solution, so any pro- 
ject I undertook, my dad was there." 

EDUCATION 

Card attended elementary and high 
school in California and Arizona, and 
he earned his high school diploma at 
age 16. In 1967 he enrolled at Brig- 
ham Young University (BYU) in Salt 
Lake City, Utah, a college with strong 
ties to the Mormon Church. He inter- 
rupted his studies in 1971 to spend 
time working as a missionary. In the 
Mormon Church, male members are 



a 

"My father was supportive 
in a different way — he was 
always ready to lend a hand, 
give a ride, build, paint, 
photograph . . . whatever 
it took to get any project 
finished. He was resourceful 
and clever in his solutions to 
problems, and you always 
knew that he would come 
up with a solution, so any 
project I undertook, my dad 
was there." 

yy 




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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL. 14 



generally expected to devote two years of service to the church at their 
own expense, usually in their early 20s. Card did his missionary work in 
Brazil. He came back to the United States in 1973, and in 1975 he graduat- 
ed from BYU with a bachelor's degree in theater studies. He later returned 
to school, and in 1981 he earned a master's degree in English from the 
University of Utah. 

BECOMING A WRITER 

Card wrote dozens of plays for school and church during his years at BYU, 
and he continued to write plays after graduating. Working during the day 
as a copy editor for Brigham Young University Press, he spent many of his 
evenings laboring over his latest play. His passion for the theater became 
so great that he even founded a small theatrical group in 1975 that per- 
formed plays written by himself and other area playwrights. 

Within a matter of months, however, growing financial debts convinced 
Card to leave the theater behind and find a new job. In 1976 he became an 
assistant editor for the Ensign, a magazine of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-Day Saints. "My college training was primarily in theater, with an eye 
to becoming a director, actor, or producer," he later explained. "I fell into 
playwriting accidentally, took some classes in it, and also took creative writ- 
ing classes, but I really didn't expect it to be a career because I didn't believe 
there was a way to make money as a playwright without being lucky and I 
didn't feel particularly lucky. I also didn't want to spend my life doing the 
tough slugwork you have to do, facing rejection after rejection. So while I 
enjoyed writing plays for the Mormon audience in college, I thought my 
editorial work was what I'd do as a living until, someday (maybe when I 
was 45), I write something so good it would get published." 

The late 1970s proved to be an immensely busy and rewarding period in 
Card's life. In 1977 he married Kristine Allen, with whom he eventually had 
five children. One year later, Card left Ensign to take a job writing plays 
based on Mormon scripture and church history for a publisher based in 
Ogden, Utah. He continued to pursue his education during this time as 
well, and in 1981 he earned a master's degree in English from the 
University of Utah. Finally, despite these many other demands on his time, 
Card also somehow managed to nurture a modest but promising career as 
a fiction writer. 

CAREER HIGHLIGHTS 

Today, Orson Scott Card stands as one of the world's most respected and 
popular writers of science fiction (sci fi) and fantasy. In fact, he remains the 



12 



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ORSON SCOTT CARD 



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only author ever to have won science 
fiction's top two awards in two con- 
secutive years, for Ender's Game (the 
1985 Nebula Award and the 1986 Hu- 
go Award) and for Speaker for the Dead 
(the 1986 Nebula and 1987 Hugo). 

Writing in Science Fiction Writers, critic 
Gary Westfahl attributed Card's suc- 
cessful career to "prodigious energy, 
superb storytelling skills, and a gen- 
uinely passionate voice." Indeed, these 
qualities are evident in almost all of 
Card's fiction, from the popular "Tales 
of Alvin Maker" series to his retellings 
of old fairytales and Bible stories. 

Seeking a Career Writing 
Science Fiction 

According to Card, success as a writer 
of fantasy and science fiction actually 
came fairly quickly for him. "I was a 
playwright for several years, and did 
all my horrible amateur writing for 
the stage," he explained. "By the time 
I turned to fiction, I already knew 
enough and had mastered enough of 
the fundamentals of storytelling that I 
sold the first story that I wrote specif- 
ically for publication. ... I had a few 
missteps after that, and it took me 
four novels before I actually under- 
stood novel structure, [but] almost all 

my work was published on first submission. Thus I have no stories to tell 
of noble persistence in the face of rejection. I simply served my apprentice- 
ship somewhere else." 



"I was a playwright for 
several years, and did all my 
horrible amateur writing 
for the stage. By the time I 
turned to fiction, I already 
knew enough and had 
mastered enough of the 
fundamentals of storytelling 
that I sold the first story that 
I wrote specifically for 

publication I had a few 

missteps after that, and it 
took me four novels before 
I actually understood novel 
structure, [but] almost all my 
work was published on first 
submission. Thus I have no 
stories to tell of noble persis- 
tence in the face of rejection. 
I simply served my appren- 
ticeship somewhere else." 

yy 



Card chose to write science fiction in part because he enjoyed reading the 
genre. But he also concentrated on science fiction because its large fan 
base had a reputation for being receptive to new authors. "More than any 
other genre, science fiction thrives on new blood," Card explained. "We 
have to have fresh ideas and challenges to any kind of established view of 
the future. If we start with a consensus future, we're dead. New writers are 




15 



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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 




o 

ERIC 



14 



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BEST COPY AVAILABLE 




ORSON SCOTT CARD 



the life blood of science fiction, and the result is that science fiction readers 
are not skeptical of them; they're eager to discover them. I found that that 
worked to my benefit. The first true science fiction story I wrote ["Ender's 
Game"] sold and received a lot of attention." 

Indeed, Card's first published science fiction story caused quite a sensation 
in the world of sci fi. The short story "Ender's Game" was ori gin ally pub- 
lished in 1977 in Analog, a major magazine for science fiction. This tale of a 
boy genius trained to defend Earth against an alien invasion was widely 
hailed as the work of a talented new writer. In fact, the World Science Fiction 
Convention gave Card its 1977 John W. Campbell Award as the year's best 
new writer on the strength of "Ender's Game." This short story eventually 
became the basis for Card's 1985 novel Ender's Game, one of his most fa- 
mous and beloved books. "That story worked," stated Card. "It's still the 
most popular and most reprinted of my stories, and I still have people tell 
me that they like it better than the novel — though I think maybe that's 
because they read the story first, so they came upon it with a great sense of 
surprise, and the novel can never do the same thing for them." 

Card also published his first books in the late 1970s, but they did not re- 
ceive a great deal of popular or critical attention. His first book was the 
short story collection Capitol (published in 1978), a series of stories about 
the troubled population of a distant planet. Other early efforts included 
Hot Sleep (1978), A Planet Called Treason (1978), and Unaccompanied Sonata 
and Other Stories (1980). None of these books garnered strong sales, and 
some of them were criticized for being excessively violent. But in the 1979 
novel Songmaster, Card showed glimpses of the imagination and story- 
telling power that have marked much of his later books. Songmaster told the 
story of a young boy named Ansset whose beautiful singing voice makes him 
a prized slave to Mikal, the ruthless ruler of a vast interstellar empire. A re- 
viewer for Washington Post Book World praised Songmaster as a skillfully told 
tale of "personal growth and exploration melded [with] interplanetary poli- 
tics and court intrigue." 

The "Ender's Game" Series 

After publishing a fantasy called Hart's Hope (1983) and a historical novel 
about Mormonism titled A Woman of Destiny (1984), Card burst back into 
the science fiction spotlight with the 1985 novel Ender's Game. Based on his 
1977 short story of the same name, Ender's Game follows the adventures of 
Ender Wiggin, a six-year- old genius who is seen as Earth's only hope in 
staving off an invasion from an alien race called the "Buggers." As the 
novel progresses, young Ender undergoes intensive military training so 




17 



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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 



that he can guide Earth's space 
fleet against the deadly and de- 
structive alien Buggers. But Ender 
learns that the Buggers are not ex- 
actly what they seem. 

Ender's Game proved enormously 
popular with science fiction read- 
ers and critics alike. The New York 
Times called the book "an affecting 
novel full of surprises that seem in- 
evitable once they are explained." 
A contributor to the West Coast 
Review of Books praised it as "the 
best novel I've read in a long time. 
. . . Ender Wiggin is a unique cre- 
ation. Orson Scott Card has creat- 
ed a character who deserves to be 
remembered with the likes of 
Huckleberry Finn. Ender's Game is 
that good." And the reviewer for 
Booklist said that "Card has taken the venerable sci fi concepts of a super- 
man and interstellar war against aliens and, with superb characterization, 
pacing, and language, combined them into a seamless story of compelling 
power. This is Card at the height of his very considerable powers — a major 
sci fi novel by any reasonable standards." In addition to earning such high 
praise from critics, Card's novel soon won several important awards. Ender's 
Game eventually captured both the 1985 Nebula Award and the 1986 Hugo 
Award, the biggest honors in the world of science fiction. 




One year later, Card published a sequel to Ender's Game called Speaker for the 
Dead. In this novel, Ender's sorrow over his role in the destruction of most of 
the Bugger aliens has led him to roam the stars as a "Speaker for the Dead." 
As he travels through space, he studies the lives of people who have recently 
died. He also carries the lone surviving member of the Bugger race, a hive 
queen carrying thousands of eggs. Ender hopes to find a planet where he 
can leave the Bugger queen to repopulate the race. After 3,000 years of 
searching, he finally finds what he hopes will be a suitable world — 
Lusitania. 



Speaker for the Dead proved to be another huge hit for Card. It quickly be- 
came one of the year's best-selling science fiction books, and reviewers 
hailed the author for his interesting characters, intriguing plot, and chal- 




16 



BEST COPY AVAILABLE 




ORSON SCOTT CARD 



lenging themes. A number of critics 
even claimed that Speaker for the 
Dead was superior to Ender's Game. 

In Fantasy Review, for example, 

Speaker for the Dead was praised as 
''the most powerful work Card has 
produced. Speaker not only com- 
pletes Ender's Game but transcends 
it." In subsequent months, Speaker 
for the Dead received both the 
1986 Nebula Award and the 1987 
Hugo Award. Card thus became 
the first writer ever to win science 
fiction's top awards in consecutive 
years — a feat that has never been 
duplicated. 

In later years, Card returned to the 
world and characters he created in 
Ender’s Game and Speaker for the 
Dead. His 1991 novel Xenocide and 
1996 book Children of the Mind continue the story of Ender Wiggin and the 
other inhabitants of Lusitania. Neither of these works quite matched the 
popular or critical success of the first two books in the series, but they did 
bring Ender's adventures to a satisfying and entertaining conclusion. Card 
would later return to this fictional world with his later works, Ender's 
Shadow, Shadow of the Hegemon, Shadow Puppets, and First Meetings in the 
Enderverse. 

The "Tales of Alvin Maker" Series 

Card's first novel after Speaker for the Dead was Wyrms, a 1987 fantasy 
novel that follows the adventures of a teenage princess named Patience 
whose kingdom has been seized by a warlord. The author then cranked up 
a new fantasy series called the "Tales of Alvin Maker." The Alvin series 
takes place in the early 19th century in an alternative version of American 
frontier history. In Card's imaginary world, British colonists never fought 
for independence or formed the United States. Instead, the colonies exist 
side-by-side in the early 19th century with other European colonies and 
various Indian tribes in a world where many people possess magical pow- 
ers. In fact, "spells and hexes are everywhere, as natural a part of life as the 
wind and the rain," observed a reader in the West Coast Review of Books. 



The Hugo and Nebula Award-winning novel 




AUTHOR'S 
DEFINITIVE EDITION* 

ORSON SCOTT CARD 



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The title character — Alvin "Maker" 
Smith — possesses particularly po- 
tent magical abilities, for he is the 
seventh son of a seventh son. 

The first book in the series was 
Seventh Son (1987), which intro- 
duces young Alvin and the magical 
frontier world in which he lives. It 
was warmly praised by critics and 
readers as an imaginative "recasting 
in fantasy terms of the tall tale in 
America," according to Washington 
Post Book World. One year later, 
Card released Red Prophet , the sec- 
ond book in the series. Reviewers 
praised Red Prophet as the work of a 
master storyteller. For example, a 
contributor to the West Coast 
Review of Books stated that "Card 
creates episodes and images that 
stun with the power of their emo- 
tions." Card's sensitive examination of the actual treatment of American 
Indians in Red Prophet drew particularly strong praise from critics. 

Over the next several years Card added to the "Alvin Maker" series with 
Prentice Alvin (1989), Alvin Journeyman (1995), and Heartfire (1998), all of 
which have been popular with fantasy readers and critics alike. In each of 
these books, Card blended fantasy with an exploration of major issues in 
American history, such as religion, slavery, and women's rights. "There are 
a lot of different things going on in the 'Tales of Alvin Maker,'" stated Card. 
"One of the most important is that it's a retelling of the spiritual life of 
Joseph Smith, the founder of Mormonism. Mormons who read these 
books almost instantly recognize elements from Joseph Smith's life. At the 
same time, I wanted to write them so that people who hadn't the faintest 
idea of what was going on in that respect would still be getting 90 percent 
of what's there. That's only one of the things I'm doing. It was the reason I 
started writing the books, but it's by no means the main purpose of wnting 
them now." 

For example, after Card completed Prentice Alvin, the third book in the se- 
ries, in 1989, he stated that "the issue that is probably most important in 
my fiction right now is what makes a community: what creates bonds 
among people, both at the micro level of the family and at the macro level 




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of a city or a nation; what makes people surrender a part of themselves to 
become a greater whole. ... I think there's a real struggling going on be- 
tween good and evil in each person, and what I'm trying to do is bring a 
clear understanding of what that goodness is, that it consists in large mea- 
sure of the willingness to sacrifice oneself for the good of others within a 
community." 

Today, the "Tales of Alvin Maker" series continues to rank as one of Card's 
major triumphs as a writer. The St. James Guide to Young Adult Writers de- 



scribes the series as the "most broadly 
appealing of his works." It further 
notes that although the books contain 
plenty of suspense and adventure, 
each one also "focuses on Alvin's per- 
sonal problems as a gifted young per- 
son, such as learning to get along with 
his family and his various teachers, to 
live in his society, to use his gifts for 
good deeds, and discovering what he 
should ultimately do with his life. . . . 
These stories also explore major Ameri- 
can themes such as race and slavery, 
gender roles, religious fanaticism, and 
humanity's relationship with nature." 
Card's latest installment in the "Tales 
of Alvin Maker" series, called The 
Crystal City, is scheduled for publi- 
cation in November 2003. 

One of Sci Fi's Most Prolific 
Writers 

In the six-year gap between Prentice 
Alvin in 1989 and Alvin Journeyman in 
1995 — the third and fourth books in 
the "Tales of Alvin Maker" series — 
Card produced a wide variety of other 
works. 

In 1989 he wrote a popular noveliza- 
tion of the movie The Abyss. In 1992 
he wrote Lost Boys, in which a subur- 
ban family fights to save their eight- 



€€ 

"There are a lot of different 
things going on in the 'Tales 
of Alvin Maker.' One of the 
most important is that it's a 
retelling of the spiritual life 
of Joseph Smith, the founder 
ofMormonism. Mormons 
who read these books almost 
instantly recognize elements 
from Joseph Smith's life. At 
the same time, I wanted to 
write them so that people 
who hadn't the faintest idea 
of what was going on in that 
respect would still be getting 
90 percent of what's there. 
That's only one of the things 
I'm doing. It was the reason 
I started writing the books, 
but it's by no means the 
main purpose of writing 
them now." 

yy 



ERIC 



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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL. 14 



year-old son from a mysterious force. Two years later, he published Love- 
lock, a novel about a genetically altered monkey who chronicles the life of a 
brilliant scientist who is leading an expedition to colonize a distant world. 
Publishers Weekly praised Lovelock as "a moral fable about freedom, respon- 
sibility, and the arrogance of human beings in treating other living things as 
unfeeling property." During this same period, meanwhile, Card served as a 
writing instructor at a variety of schools and workshops, including Brig- 
ham Young University, the Univer- 
sity of Utah, the University of Notre 
Dame, and Antioch Writers' Work- 
shop. 

Card also launched another science 
fiction series in the early 1990s. In the 
"Homecoming" books, the author 
tapped into his Mormon faith to cre- 
ate a series that parallels many events 
described in the Book of Mormon. "My 
early science fiction stories were defi- 
nitely not Mormon, since I was ex- 
plicitly trying to write to 'the world' 
and not to 'the Church,"' Card said. 
"Mormon beliefs and concerns crept 
into my work anyway, because I'm a 
believing Mormon and what seems 
true to me is always going to be more 
or less consonant [in agreement] 
with Mormon theology as I under- 
stand it and Mormon culture as I 
have experienced it." 

The first novel in the "Homecoming" 
series was The Memory of Earth (1992), 
which introduces readers to a distant 
planet called Harmony. For 40 million 
years, the inhabitants of Harmony have been guided by a powerful com- 
puter intelligence called the Oversoul. But when the Oversoul recognizes 
that its ability to watch over the planet is fading, it recruits a boy named 
Nafai and several other citizens to return to Earth. The planet Earth had 
been abandoned many years before, after humanity ruined its environ- 
ment, but it holds the keys to repairing the Oversoul. 

The "Homecoming" series continues in the follow-up novels The Call of 
Earth (1992), The Ships of Earth (1994), Earthfall (1995), and Earthbom (1995). 



U 

"My early science fiction 
stories were definitely not 
Mormon, since I was 
explicitly trying to write to 
'the world' and not to 'the 
Church.' Mormon beliefs 
and concerns crept into my 
work anyway, because I'm a 
believing Mormon and what 
seems true to me is always 
going to be more or less 
consonant [in agreement] 
with Mormon theology 
as I understand it and 
Mormon culture as I have 
experienced it." 

» 



ORSON SCOTT CARD 



As the series progresses, Nafai and 
his companions discover ancient 
starships used by their ancestors to 
reach Harmony, and they use these 
vessels to journey back to Earth. 

Upon arriving, however, they dis- 
cover that the planet is now domi- 
nated by humanoid races descend- 
ed from rats and bats. In the last 
book in the series, Earthbom, the 
scientist Shedemei battles to save 
Earth from falling once again into a 
cycle of warfare and self-destruc- 
tion. 

The "Homecoming" series proved 
popular with many science fiction 
critics and fans. According to Kir- 
kus Reviews, "More than parable, 
not quite allegory. Card's far-future 
religious saga manages, brilliantly, 
to be at once entertaining, unobjec- 
tionable, and edifying." In addition, reviewers noted that the books dis- 
played Card's usual creativity and concern with important themes. "[The 
series] includes alien societies, mutated rats and bats, high-tech space trav- 
el, and faster- than -light communications," observed the St. James Guide to 
Science Fiction Writers. "Yet at its core is Card's persistent theme of establish- 
ing and maintaining true human community." But other reviewers felt that 
the "Homecoming" series did not rank at the top of Card's efforts. "The 
Homecoming Saga certainly qualifies as an immensely readable story," 
wrote Gary Westfahl in Science Fiction Writers, "but these books ultimately 
do not seem to be as important as other Card novels because they contain 
no startling ideas, unforgettable images, or breathtaking novelties." 

After Card wrapped up the "Homecoming" series in 1995, he turned to a 
novel about time travel. His 1996 book Pastwatch: The Redemption of 
Christopher Columbus tells the story of a technologically advanced people 
who journey back in time to alter events associated with Christopher 
Columbus's famous voyage of discovery of the New World. Pastwatch gar- 
nered some of the best reviews of Card's long and distinguished career. 
Booklist called the novel "a superior addition to a superior body of work," 
noting that the book contains "a marvelous, enormously powerful portrait 
of Columbus himself." Westfahl, meanwhile, called Pastwatch "a stunning 
novel totally unlike anything he had written before." 




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Returning to Ender's World 

In 1999 Card decided to write a 
new series of books based on the 
world and characters he created in 
Ender's Game. The first book in the 
series, Ender's Shadow (1999), in- 
troduces readers to Bean, a child 
with superhuman mental abilities 
who befriends Ender when they 
are both sent to Battle School. As 
the novel progresses. Bean devel- 
ops both his warrior abilities and 
his capacity to love and trust other 
people. Publishers Weekly offered 
praise for the novel, saying that "as 
always, everyone will be struck by 
the power of Card's children, al- 
ways more and less than human, 
perfect yet struggling, tragic yet 
hopeful, wondrous and strange." 

In Shadow of the Hegemon (2001), Bean has matured into a young man who 
finds himself trapped in a power struggle between two men eager to rule 
the world for themselves. Publishers Weekly commented that the book's 
"impeccable prose, fast pacing, and political intrigue will appeal to adult 
fans of spy novels, thrillers, and science fiction." Library Journal added that 
"the author's graceful storytelling and engaging cast of youthful characters 
add an extra dimension to an already gripping story of children caught up 
in world-shaking events." In 2002 Card added Shadow Puppets, another in- 
stallment in the series. Bursting with political intrigue, suspense, and an 
exploration of difficult moral issues, this book also proved popular with 
readers and critics. Publishers Weekly commented that "Card discusses im- 
portant topics here — the nature of the parent-child relationship; the roles 
of love and service — that are implicitly part of coming of age." Library 
Journal praised the author's "thoughtful storytelling and compassionately 
moral characters." 

In 2003, Card published a slightly different type of work about Ender. First 
Meetings in the Enderverse contains a reprint of the original "Ender's World" 
story. In addition, it collects three other stories or novellas that explore the 
origins and destiny of Ender Wiggin. Critics were quick to praise this new 
work about Ender's universe, or the "Enderverse," as in this comment from 
Booklist: "These stories demonstrate the assured scene setting, apparently 




22 



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ORSON SCOTT CARD 



effortlessly sustained suspense, and 
moral preoccupation with the re- 
sponsibilities of kinship and friend- 
ship that distinguishes Ender's en- 
tire saga." That reaction was echoed 
in this review from Publishers Week- 
ly: "Even those who are intimately 
familiar with the concepts of the 
Game will be struck anew by Card's 
virtuosity. His powerful voice and 
startlingly clear vision will draw 
many new readers into a lifelong 
love of science fiction." 

Other Recent Works 

Card's vivid imagination and his 
varied interests have also taken him 
down other storytelling paths in 
recent years. In 1998, for example, 
he completed a musical called Barefoot to Zion at the request of the Mormon 
Church. Card's story, set to music composed by his brother Arlen Card, 
tells the story of the Mormons who settled in Utah in the 19th century. The 
musical was unveiled in the summer of 1998, and it attracted huge crowds 
throughout the state for the next several months. 

One year later. Card published Enchantment, in which he blends the story 
of Sleeping Beauty with tales from Russian folklore. "Enchantment is an en- 
thralling story," wrote high school student Laura Esslinger in the Charles- 
ton Gazette. "It has everything: adventure, romance, history, giant bears that 
are really gods and married to witches, and even a poor, misunderstood 
time traveler who accidentally wears girls' clothing. What more could you 
ask for?" Critics offered similar praise for the novel. Booklist, for example, 
declared that "in the hands of a gifted storyteller like Card, this classic tale 
becomes a compelling adventure." 

Card has also written a number of books that retell stories from the Bible. 
In 1997, for example, he published Stone Tablets, which tells the story of 
Moses' difficult relations with his siblings. Publishers Weekly praised the 
novel, noting that Card "exhibits the same profound and compassionate 
understanding of human nature that marks his best sf and fantasy efforts." 
In 2000, meanwhile, he published Sarah, the first in a series of books about 
women in the Bible. According to Publishers Weekly, "This novel is not an 




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epic volume rich in cultural and his- 
torical detail about ancient Meso- 
potamia, Canaan, and Egypt. Its focus 
is more on what Card does best: ex- 
ploring human motives and relation- 
ships, and the role of faith in individ- 
ual lives." 

Even though Card ranks as one of 
the world's most popular science fic- 
tion and fantasy writers, he makes a 
special effort to communicate with 
his readers. He willingly sits down 
for interviews, and he has made nu- 
merous personal appearances at 
bookstores, science fiction conven- 
tions, and other venues in order to 
chat with his fans. Card also main- 
tains two web sites that he uses to 
interact with fans and comment on 
issues that are important to him. 
Hatrack River (hatrack.com) is the author's official web site. It contains a 
variety of information on his background, his books and stories, and other 
aspects of his career. In addition, Card maintains a site called The Ornery 
American (ornery.org). He contributes a weekly column on current events 
to this site, which he describes as a place for ordinary people to engage in 
"serious discussion about events, ideas, leaders, candidates, parties, princi- 
ples, governments, religious philosophies, and programs." 

Card is also involved in a number of other activities related to his popular 
"Ender's Game" series. In July 2002 Card hosted the first ever EnderCon, 
a science fiction convention dedicated to celebrating the "Ender's Game" 
universe. The event was held at Utah Valley State College in Salt Lake City. 
That same year, the Warner Brothers movie studio announced that it had 
reached agreement with Wolfgang Petersen, director of The Perfect Storm, to 
bring the "Ender's Game" series to the big screen. Card has agreed to 
write the script for the film, and he is also developing a series of computer 
and video games based on the series. 

ADVICE TO YOUNG WRITERS 

Card encourages young people who are thinking about pursuing a career 
in writing to develop their skills at an early age. "For those who are think- 
ing of becoming writers 'when they grow up,' my advice is: Writers never 





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grow up, so don't wait, start now," he said. "The publishers don't care how 
old you are, they only care if the story is good. And since every writer has 
about 10,000 pages of utter drivel in them, you might as well start now so 
you can get a good portion of that out of your way while you're still young. 
After all, you learn more about writing from writing a 100,000-word man- 
uscript than you ever will from any writing class or writing book (and I say 
that as teacher of writing classes and a writer of writing books)." 



Card also urges high school and col- 
lege students to devote most of their 
studies to history or science instead of 
English or journalism. "The goal, I tell 
them, is to learn everything about 
everything, especially about human 
nature and the things that people 
do," he explained. "Go straight to the 
sources and read history and biogra- 
phy and archeology and anthropolo- 
gy to learn about human behavior, 
and physics and biology to learn 
about the nature world." But he also 
states that it is important for young 
writers to read literature in their free 
time. "Get your own relationship 
with [famous] writers, like them or 
hate them as you will, without refer- 
ence to whether they are considered 
'great' by critics and academics," he 
said. "Also read everything ELSE, at 
least a sampling of every genre, be- 
cause they all have something to 
teach you, if only to teach you some 
of the strange things that portions of 
the reading public hunger for." 



a 

"For those who are thinking 
of becoming writers 'when 
they grow up,' my advice is: 
Writers never grow up, so 

don't wait, start now 

[Since] every writer has 
about 10,000 pages of utter 
drivel in them, you might as 
well start now so you can get 
a good portion of that out of 
your way while you're still 
young. After all, you learn 
more about writing from 
writing a 100,000-word 
manuscript than you ever 
will from any writing class 
or writing book." 



Card also tells young writers not to yy 

be discouraged when they suffer set- 
backs such as "writer's block," in which 

a writer is unable to make any progress on a story. "I regard [writer's block] 
as my unconscious mind telling me that I'm making a gross mistake in the 
project I'm working on. It's not a problem, it's a blessing, and the mystery 
is to find out the mistake, toss out the ineffective section, and write a new 
version that works. This sometimes means throwing away as much as a 
hundred pages — sometimes more — but I have never found 'writer's 



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block' to be wrong. Whenever I'm stopped on a project, it's because I was 
doing something false or weak, and when I get it right, it becomes more 
powerful and true." 

Finally, Card encourages young people to write about things that really con- 
cern or fascinate them. "Do not think about what is 'popular' right now, or 
which kind of story is hot," he has said. "Today's hot story will be cold by the 
time you get your knock-off written. Instead write the stories you care about 
and believe in, and then when they're done, market them as best you can. 
There is no other way." 



a 

"I regard [writer's block] 
as my unconscious mind 
telling me that I'm making a 
gross mistake in the project 
I'm working on. It's not a 
problem, it's a blessing, and 
the mystery is to find out 
the mistake, toss out the 
ineffective section, and write 
a new version that works. 
This sometimes means 
throwing away as much as a 
hundred pages — sometimes 
more — but I have never 
found 'writer's block' to be 
wrong. Whenever I'm 
stopped on a project, it's 
because I was doing some- 
thing false or weak, and 
when I get it right, it becomes 
more powerful and true.'' 

» 



MARRIAGE AND FAMILY 

In 1977 Card married Kristine Allen, 
with whom he had five children. Two 
of their children are deceased. In 1997 
they lost their daughter Erin Louisa, 
who died within a day of her birth. In 
2000 they lost their son Charles Ben- 
jamin Card, who had been afflicted 
with cerebral palsy since his birth in 
1983. Their other children are Michael, 
Emily, and Zina. "My priorities are 
first to be as good a father as I can to 
my children," Card states. "I try to be 
a good husband to my wife, a good 
Mormon, and after that, that's when I 
start trying to be a good writer, which 
is pretty far down the line." 

HOBBIES AND OTHER 
INTERESTS 

Card has a wide range of interests 
outside of the world of literature. "I 
listen to music constantly, of many 
kinds, by many artists," he said. "I sing 
whenever people will listen, I con- 
duct a choir from time to time, I love 
directing amateur musicals because I 
can help people learn how to sing 
for performance." He is also an avid 
bike rider and movie buff, and he 



ORSON SCOTT CARD 



has been an active member of the Utah state Democratic Party for many 
years. 

SELECTED WRITINGS 

The "Ender's Game" Series 

Ender's Game, 1985 

Speaker for the Dead, 1986 

Xenocide, 1991 

Children of the Mind, 1996 

Ender's Shadow, 1999 

Shadow of the Hegemon, 2001 

Shadow Puppets, 2002 

First Meetings in the Enderverse, 2003 

The "Tales of Alvin Maker" Series 

Seventh Son, 1987 
Red Prophet, 1988 
Prentice Alvin, 1989 
Alvin Journeyman, 1995 
Heartfire, 1998 

The "Homecoming" Series 

The Memory of Earth, 1992 
The Call of Earth, 1992 
The Ships of Earth, 1994 
Earthfall, 1995 
Earthbom, 1995 

The "Women of Genesis" Series 

Sarah, 2000 
Rebekah, 2001 

Other Novels 

Capitol, 1978 (short stories) 

Hot Sleep, 1978 

A Planet Called Treason, 1978 (revised version published as Treason in 1988) 
Songmaster, 1979 

Unaccompanied Sonata and Other Stories, 1980 (short stories) 



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Hart's Hope, 1983 

A Woman of Destiny, 1984 (published as Saints, 1988) 

Wyrms, 1987 

The Folk of the Fringe, 1989 

The Abyss, 1989 (with James Cameron) 

Maps in a Mirror, 1990 (short stories) 

The Worthing Saga, 1990 
Lost Boys, 1992 
Lovelock, 1994 

Pastwatch: The Redemption of Christopher Columbus, 1996 

Treasure Box, 1996 

Stone Tablets, 1997 

Homebody, 1998 

Enchantment, 1999 

Magic Mirror, 1999 (picture book) 

Nonfiction 

Character and Viewpoint, 1988 

How to Write Science Fiction and Fantasy, 1990 

A Storyteller in Zion, 1993 

HONORS AND AWARDS 

John W. Campbell Memorial Award for Best New Writer (World Science 
Fiction Convention): 1977 

Nebula Award (Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America): 1985, for 
Ender's Game; 1986, for Speaker for the Dead 
Hugo Award (World Science Fiction Society): 1986, for Ender's Game; 1987, 
for Speaker for the Dead 
Locus Award: 1987, Speaker for the Dead 
Geffen Award: 1999, for Pastwatch 
Grand Prix de l'lmaginaire: 2000, for Heartfire 

FURTHER READING 
Books 

Authors & Artists for Young Adults, Vol. 11, 1993; Vol. 42, 2002 
Collins, Robert A., and Robert Latham, eds. Science Fiction and Fantasy Book 
Review Annual, 1988 

Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series, Vol. 27, 1989; Vol. 73, 1999; Vol. 
102, 2002; Vol. 106, 2002 



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Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, 1993 
Science Fiction Writers, 1999 

Something About the Author, Vol. 83, 1996; Vol. 127, 2002 

St. James Guide to Fantasy Writers, 1996 

St. James Guide to Science Fiction Writers, 1999 

St. James Guide to Young Adult Writers, 1999 

Who's Who in America, 2002 

World Authors 1990-1995, 1999 

Writers Directory, 18th edition, 2002 

Periodicals 

Booklist, Dec. 1, 1995, p.586; May 15, 1998, p.1566; Mar. 1, 1999, p.103; July 
1999, p.1892; July 2002, p.1796 
Chicago Tribune, Mar. 2, 2001, Tempo section, p.l 
Fantasy Review, Apr. 1986, p.20 
Fort Lauderdale Sun- Sentinel, Aug. 11, 1996, p.D8 

Library Journal, Apr. 15, 1998, p.lll; Sep. 15, 1999, p.115; Dec. 2000, p.196; 
Aug. 2002, p.152 

Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, Jan. 1980, p.35 
New York Times Book Review, June 16, 1985; Oct. 18, 1987, p.36; Sep. 1, 1991, 
p.13; July 9, 1995, p.18 

Publishers Weekly, Nov. 30, 1990, p.54; Jan. 31, 1994, p.80; June 20, 1994, 
p.97; Apr. 10, 1995, p.58; June 24, 1996, p.45; June 29, 1998, p.40; July 5, 
1999, p.63; Sep. 11, 2000, p.71; July 15, 2002, p.59; Aug. 12, 2002, p.281 
Salt Lake City Deseret News (Utah), July 3, 2002, p.C6 
School Library Journal, June 2001, p.183 
Science Fiction Review, Feb. 1986, p.14 
Seattle Times, July 15, 1991, p.El 
Washington Post, Sep. 24, 1995, p.8 

Washington Post Book World, Aug. 24, 1980, p.6; Feb. 23, 1986, p.10 
West Coast Review of Books, July 1986; Number 4, 1988 

Online Articles 

http://www.fictionfactor.com 

(Fiction Factor, "Interview with Orson Scott Card," undated) 
http://www.hatrack.com 

( Hatrack River — Official Website of Orson Scott Card, "Book Casts Spell 
Over this Reader," by Laura Esslinger, Charleston Gazette, July 15, 2000; 
"Orson Scott Card Interview," 1997; "Orson Scott Card Interview," 
undated; "Orson Scott Card's Bibliography," undated) 





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http : / /www. writers write .com 

(' Writers Write: The Internet Writing Journal, "A Conversation with Orson 
Scott Card," Sep. 1999) 

Online Databases 

Biography Resource Center Online, 2003, articles from Authors and Artists for 
Young Adults, 2002; Contemporary Authors Online, 2002; St. James Guide to 
Fantasy Writers, 2003; St. James Guide to Science Fiction Writers, 1996, St. 
James Guide to Young Adult Writers, 1999 

ADDRESS 

Orson Scott Card 
Tor Books 
175 Fifth Avenue 
New York, NY 10010 

WORLD WIDE WEB SITES 

http : //www. hatrack . com 
http://www.omery.org 




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Russell Freedman 1929- 

American Author of Nearly 50 Nonfiction 
Books for Children 

Winner of the 1988 Newbery Medal for 
Lincoln: A Photobiography 
Recipient of the 1998 Laura Ingalls Wilder 
Award for His Body of Work 



BIRTH 

Russell Bruce Freedman was born on October 11, 1929, in San 
Francisco, California. His father, Louis Freedman, was a West 
Coast sales representative for a large publishing company. His 




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mother, Irene Freedman, was an actress and a sales clerk at a San Fran- 
cisco bookstore. Russell was one of two children in the family. 

Russell's last name could have been Garbowitz, which was his father's 
name at birth. When Louis Garbowitz was 14, however, he decided that he 
wanted to join the military and fight in World War I. Since he was too 
young to enlist, he lied about his age and adopted the last name of his best 
friend, Freedman. 



a 

"I had the good luck to 
grow up in a house 
filled with books 
and with the lively 
conversations of 
visiting authors. I knew 
at an early age that 
I wanted to be a 
writer, like those strange, 
wonderful men and 
women who sat at 
our dinner table and 
told stories that were 
always fascinating and 
sometimes hard 
to believe." 

» 



YOUTH 

Russell Freedman grew up in a family 
that loved books. In fact, his parents 
met over a stack of best-sellers when 
his father paid a sales call at the 
bookstore where his mother was 
working. Whenever famous authors 
visited the San Francisco area, Louis 
Freedman always invited them home 
for dinner. Some of the family's guests 
included John Steinbeck, author of 
The Grapes of Wrath and Of Mice and 
Men; Margaret Mitchell, author of 
Gone with the Wind; and John Mase- 
field, the poet laureate of England. "I 
had the good luck to grow up in a 
house filled with books and with the 
lively conversations of visiting au- 
thors," Russell recalled. "I knew at an 
early age that I wanted to be a writer, 
like those strange, wonderful men 
and women who sat at our dinner 
table and told stories that were al- 
ways fascinating and sometimes hard 
to believe." 



Freedman enjoyed reading throughout his childhood. Some of his favorite 
books included Robert Louis Stevenson's classic adventure novel Treasure 
Island and Ernest Thompson Seton's popular nonfiction book Wild 
Animals I Have Known. "In those innocent days I didn't worry about dis- 
tinctions like fiction and nonfiction. I [don't] think I knew the difference. I 
did know that I was thrilled by both of those books," he noted. "What is 
important is that I read Wild Animals I Have Known with as much pleasure 



RUSSELL FREEDMAN 



and satisfaction as I have any novel or story. And I've remembered the 
book ever since." 

Another of Freedman's favorite books was The Story of Mankind by 
Hendrik Willem Van Loon. This nonfiction book won the highest honor in 
children's literature, the Newbery Medal, in 1922, the first time it was ever 
presented. Freedman read it over the summer when he was 10 years old. 
He later claimed that the book contributed to his lifelong interest in histo- 
ry. "It was a history book, to be sure, unmistakably a book of nonfiction, yet 
I read it that summer not to fulfill an assignment or write a report, but be- 
cause I wanted to," he recalled. "I read it for pleasure, for the thrill of dis- 
covery. I think it was the first book that gave me a sense of history as a liv- 
ing thing, and it kept me turning the pages as though I were reading a 
gripping novel." 

Although Freedman spent a great deal of his spare time reading, he also 
pursued a number of other activities common to young boys. "We lived 
near San Francisco's Golden Gate Park, where I loved to ride my bike 
through the fog," he related. "I listened to the 'Lone Ranger' on the radio, 
played trombone in the school band, and collected comic books." 

EDUCATION 

Freedman was a good student but also a bit of a troublemaker in elemen- 
tary school. His teachers often sent him to the principal's office, where he 
would sit under a portrait of President Abraham Lincoln to wait for his 
punishment. "George Washington may have been the father of our coun- 
try, but Lincoln was the one who always knew when I was in trouble," he 
joked. 

Freedman's writing talents became apparent at an early age, and he re- 
ceived special attention from at least one of his teachers. "I was inspired 
to write by my fifth-grade teacher, Miss Tennessee Kent, who looked at 
what I wrote in class and encouraged me to realize my dream of being a 
real writer," he stated. Freedman practiced his craft by writing comic 
strips in elementary school, mystery stories in high school, and poetry in 
college. 

After graduating from high school in San Francisco in 1947, Freedman at- 
tended San Jose State College for two years. He then transferred to the 
University of California at Berkeley, from which he graduated with a bach- 
elor's degree in English in 1951. Immediately after college, Freedman was 
drafted into the U.S. Army and sent to fight in the Korean War. He served 
in combat with the Second Infantry Division in Korea from 1951 to 1953. 



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CAREER HIGHLIGHTS 

Russell Freedman is one of the foremost writers of nonfiction books for 
children. Since publishing his first book in 1961, he has written nearly 50 
books on topics ranging from animal behavior to historic events to the 
lives of famous people. Most of his books feature historic photographs and 
artwork that enhance the text. Though his books are aimed at children 
from the fourth grade on up, they are also read and enjoyed by adults. 



a 

"That's where I really 
learned to write "Freedman 
said about the Associated 
Press (AP). "At the AP, a story 
had to be clear, accurate, and 
to the point. You couldn't 
spend all day messing 
around with it. I learned to 
organize my thoughts, respect 
facts, and meet deadlines." 

» 



Over the years, Freedman's work has 
earned nearly every major award in 
children's literature, including the 1988 
Newbery Medal for Lincoln: A Photo- 
biography and the 1998 Laura Ingalls 
Wilder Award for his body of work. 
Writing in Horn Book, Mary M. Bums 
called Freedman "an exciting writer 
who can make readers feel that they 
are witnesses to significant happen- 
ings." In his book Writers for Young 
Adults, Richard F. Abrahamson added 
that "You can be sure [Freedman's] 
books will be filled with interesting 
true stories, accurate quotations, and 
carefully selected photographs and 
prints that help make his subjects live 
again for today's young adult readers." 



Stumbling into Writing Children's Nonfiction 

Upon completing his military service, Freedman secured a position in San 
Francisco as a reporter for the Associated Press (AP, a news organization 
that distributes stories to newspapers and other media). "That's where I re- 
ally learned to write," he noted. "At the AP, a story had to be clear, accurate, 
and to the point. You couldn't spend all day messing around with it. I learned 
to organize my thoughts, respect facts, and meet deadlines." A1 though he 
gained valuable skills from his work as a reporter, Freedman felt that he had 
not yet found his true calling as a writer. In 1956 he quit his job and moved 
to New York City, where he accepted a position at an advertising agency. 
For the next four years he worked as a publicity writer for network televi- 
sion shows, including Kraft Television Theater and Father Knows Best. "My 
friends thought I had a glamorous job, but I didn't think so," he recalled. "I 
wanted to write about people and things that I cared about." 



RUSSELL FREEDMAN 



In 1960, Freedman stumbled by ac- 
cident into a career as a writer of 
nonfiction books for children. One 
day he read an article in the New 
York Times about a 16-year-old boy 
who invented a Braille typewriter. 

He later discovered that the Braille 
alphabet — a system of raised dots 
that enables blind people to read — 
was invented in France by another 
16-year-old boy, Louis Braille. The 
stories of these talented teenagers 
inspired Freedman to write his first 
book, Teenagers Who Made History. 

First published in 1961, the book 
was an immediate success and re- 
mained in print for 20 years. 

After writing his first book, Freed- 
man knew that he had finally fig- 
ured out what he wanted to do with his life. "I hadn't expected to become 
a writer of nonfiction books for children. I had wandered into the field by 
chance and immediately felt right at home. I couldn't wait to get started on 
my next book. It was as if I had found myself — even though I hadn't really 
known that I had been lost," he explained. "I'm happy to say that I've been 
a full-time writer ever since, which is exactly what I wanted to be. One of 
the best things about my work is the opportunity it gives me to explore 
subjects that, for some reason, excite my curiosity, my enthusiasm, or my 
concern. Pick a subject, a good subject, and you're sure to find kids who are 
interested in it." 

The next subjects Freedman tackled included biographies of author Jules 
Verne and inventor Thomas Alva Edison. In 1969 he published How Ani- 
mals Learn, the first in a series of books about animal behavior. Reviewers 
praised the series — which eventually grew to include over 20 titles — for 
presenting scientific concepts in a readable manner. 

Adding Photographs to His Work 

In the mid-1970s Freedman was inspired to add photographs to his work. 
"I came upon a close-up photograph of a mother bat flying past the cam- 
era," he recalled. "Clutching her furry chest was a scrawny, helpless baby. 
Its eyes were closed, and it was hanging on with its teeth and claws as its 



teenagers Wlu, 



Made History 




1 1 * M I II N ( I I 1 i I » I t V I t I I 

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JD 



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r 

hanging Oi^ 





HOW 

ANIMALS 

CARRY 

THEIR 

YOUNG 



Russell 

Freedman 



! 

! 



mother flew about, hunting for insects. She was a bat, to be sure, but the 
photo presented a timeless and powerful image of a mother and her in- 
fant. The photograph was an enormously affecting one because the in- 
fant's very life depended on its ability to hang on to its mother." Freedman 
included this photograph in his book Hanging On: How Animals Cam j 
Their Young, which was published in 1977. 

The following year Freedman attended an exhibit of old photographs of 
poor children at the New York Historical Society. "The walls of the exhibit 
rooms were lined with big, blown-up photos dating back to the mid-19th 
century showing children playing, working, going to school, in tenement 
apartments, and just hanging out on the New York City streets of that era," 
he noted. "What impressed me most of all was the way that those old 
photographs seemed to defy the passage of time. They were certainly of 
their own time, for they depicted, in their vivid details, a particular era from 
the past. And yet those same photographs were also timeless. They cap- 
tured scenes from life that are as familiar and recognizable today as they 
were then, scenes that have been frozen and preserved for future genera- 
tions to see." 



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The exhibit helped convince Freedman that photographs provided a pow- 
erful tool for communicating with young people who were raised in the 
era of television. He decided to tell the story of the children in the pho- 
tographs — many of whom had come to the United States from other 
countries — in his 1980 book Immigrant Kids. He continued using old pho- 
tographs in his future works, including Children of the Wild West (1983), 
Cowboys of the Wild West (1985), and Indian Chiefs (1987). "[Photographs 
are] an essential part of the story I want to tell, the information I want to 
convey," Freedman explained. "Ideally, the photographs should reveal 
something that words alone can't express." 

Writing about Abraham Lincoln 

By the late 1980s Freedman had pub- 
lished more than 30 nonfiction books 
for children and was widely recog- 
nized as one of the leading writers in 
his field. In 1987 he launched a new 
project that was very close to his heart: 
a biography of Abraham Lincoln, the 
16th president of the United States. 

Freedman had been interested in Lin- 
coln since his school days, when he 
sat under the former president's por- 
trait in the principal's office. He was 
finally inspired to write about Lincoln 
after hearing stories about his dark 
and moody temperament. He wanted 
to uncover the truth about the great 
man and share it with young readers. 

Freedman knew that writing a fresh and interesting book about Lincoln 
would be a challenge. After all, hundreds of books had already been writ- 
ten about the former president. In order to provide a new perspective on 
Lincoln's life, Freedman conducted extensive research. First he visited a 
bookstore dedicated to Lincoln to get advice on what sources to use. Next 
he visited a number of historical sites that were important in Lincoln's life, 
including his birthplace in Kentucky and the place that he was fatally shot, 
Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. Along the way, Freedman examined 
numerous original documents, from Lincoln's personal letters to hand- 
written drafts of the Emancipation Proclamation and the Gettysburg 
Address. Finally, Freedman searched photographic archives to find just the 
right pictures to use to illustrate his work. 



ii 

"[Photographs are] an 
essential part of the story 
I want to tell, the 
information I want to 
convey. Ideally, the 
photographs should 
reveal something that 
words alone can't 
express." 

» 




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Freedman found writing about Lincoln to be a fascinating experience. 
"The more I learned about him, the more I came to appreciate his sub- 
tleties and complexities," he recalled. "The man himself turned out to be 
vastly more interesting than the myth. Of course, I was never able to un- 
derstand him completely. I doubt if it's possible to understand anyone 
fully, and Lincoln was harder to figure out than most people." 



ii 



Winning the Newbery Medal for 

Lincoln: A Photobiography 

The results of Freedman's work were 
published in 1987 as Lincoln: A Photo- 
biography. The text covers Lincoln's 
life in detail, from his birth in a log 
cabin to the trials of his presidency 
during the Civil War. The book also 
includes a sampler of quotations from 
Lincoln's writings and speeches, a list 
of historical sites, and more than 80 
photographs. Lincoln: A Photobiogra- 
phy received glowing reviews from 
critics, some of whom called it Freed- 
man's best work. "Few, if any, of the 
many books written for children about 
Lincoln can compare with Freedman's 
contribution," Elaine Fort Weischedel 
wrote in School Library Journal. "Well- 
organized and well-written, this is an 
outstanding example of what juvenile 
biography can be." A reviewer for 
Booklist added that "This eminently well-researched photobiography is out- 
standing; the man, his times, and his contemporaries are compellingly por- 
trayed." 



"The more I learned about 
[Lincoln], the more I came 
to appreciate his subtleties 
and complexities. The man 
himself turned out to be 
vastly more interesting than 
the myth. Of course, I was 
never able to understand 
him completely. I doubt if 
it's possible to understand 
anyone fully, and Lincoln 
was harder to figure out 

than most people." 

» 



Lincoln: A Photobiography received the 1988 Newbery Medal as the finest 
work of children's literature published that year. It became one of only a 
handful of nonfiction books to win the coveted prize, and the first to do so 
in more than 30 years. "I'm grateful to the members of this year's Newbery 
Committee for honoring my book and for recognizing that a work of non- 
fiction can be worthy of this award," Freedman said in his acceptance 
speech. "When I learned of their decision, I was thrilled. And I was aston- 
ished, as, I am sure, were many others who didn't expect a nonfiction book 
to win a Newbery Medal." 



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Publishing More Award-Winning Biographies 

After winning the Newbery Medal for his Lincoln book, Freedman used 
the photobiography format for several more works about famous Ameri- 
cans. In 1991 he wrote about the 32nd president of the United States in 
Franklin Delano Roosevelt. In this book, Freedman shows how Roosevelt 
enjoyed a wealthy upbringing that left him with little understanding or 
concern about people less fortunate than himself. But his views changed 
after he contracted polio and struggled to deal with the resulting paraly- 



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sis. This experience helped Roose- 
velt overcome his prejudices and 
develop compassion for the plight 
of poor people. These feelings were 
reflected in his progressive social 
programs during the Great Depres- 
sion, a period of severe financial 
hardship that affected the United 
States and many other countries 
around the world during the 1930s. 

Once again, critics praised Freed- 
man for bringing an important his- 
torical figure to life for young read- 
ers. "Freedman has taken a larger- 
than-life historical figure about 
whom innumerable volumes have 
been written and has retold the story of one man's life in the context of his 
times," wrote Luann Toth in School Library Journal. "Even students with lit- 
tle or no background in American history will find this an intriguing and 
inspirational human portrait." Writing in Booklist, Hazel Rochman added 
that "It's the photo essay at its best: serious, uncondescending, drawing 
you in with the ease of a magazine article." 

For his next book, Freedman chose to cover Orville and Wilbur Wright, 
the pioneering brothers who built the first working airplane in 1903. As 
part of his research, Freedman visited the Wright brothers' hometown of 
Dayton, Ohio, and saw their original airplane. This experience helped 
Freedman capture the mechanical secrets of the vehicle in The Wright 
Brothers: How They Invented the Airplane. "The Wright brothers' great dis- 
covery — their breakthrough insight — was the realization that they 
could control an aircraft in flight by changing the air pressure above 
each wing," Freedman explained. "They accomplished that by twisting 
the wingtips in one direction or another. Now when I started work on 
The Wright Brothers: How They Invented the Airplane, my own knowledge 
of aeronautics was limited to my ability to fasten a seatbelt. And at first, 
I found it maddeningly difficult to understand just how their wing- 
twisting actually worked." But Freedman was able to overcome this 
problem by sitting in the plane and working the controls for himself. 
"That unexpected hands-on experience was quite a thrill, and it proved 
to be an invaluable part of my research," he recalled. "It helped me un- 
derstand, and explain to my readers, just how the pilot navigated that 
early airplane." 




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The Wright Brothers: How They Invented the Airplane features 94 photo- 
graphs of the brothers and their inventions, including several that were 
taken by the subjects themselves. It won a Golden Kite Award and was se- 
lected as a runner-up for the Newbery Medal in 1992. Critics praised it as 
an engrossing portrait of the men and their monumental achievement. A 
writer for Kirkus Reviews claimed that the familiar story of the Wright 
brothers is "retold in a manner so fresh and immediate that reading it is 
like discovering the material for the first time." A Publishers Weekly review- 
er called it a "vivid, superior biography" and noted that "youngsters cannot 
fail to come away with a heightened understanding of the Wrights' dedica- 
tion to manned flight and to the painstakingly slow process of invention." 

In 1993 Freedman followed up his biography of Franklin Delano Roosevelt 
by publishing a book about his First Lady, Eleanor Roosevelt: A Life of 
Discovery. "While I was working on [Franklin Delano Roosevelt ], Eleanor 
emerged as a unique and fabulous character who deserved a book of her 
own," the author explained. "Her story is an aspect of American social his- 




Russel! Freedman 

With Original Photographs by Wilbur and Orville Wright 



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tory that wasn't appropriate to cover in my biography of FDR I was ir- 

resistibly drawn to her as a subject, and I had already done half the re- 
search!" 

In Eleanor Roosevelt, Freedman describes his subject's difficult early life and 
her resulting dedication to social reform. He also covers Eleanor's relation- 
ship with her husband, including her reaction to his affair with his secre- 
tary. "If you're writing a biography for kids in the 1990s, you have to be 
honest. Kids don't have to be protected in the same way they did a genera- 
tion or two ago," Freedman stated. "You can't write an honest book about 
either Franklin Roosevelt or Eleanor Roosevelt without mentioning 
Franklin's affair with Lucy Mercer, because that changed his life, and it 
changed Eleanor's life even more. It helped her liberate herself. It gave her 
permission to assert herself. It isn't fair to kids to conceal that." 

Eleanor Roosevelt: A Life of Discovery won a number of prestigious awards, 
including the Golden Kite Award and the Boston Globe-Horn Book Award. It 
was also selected as a runner-up for the Newbery Medal. "Freedman + bi- 
ography = a wonderful treat, and he has done it again with his eloquent 
new biography of Eleanor Roosevelt," wrote Mary Jane Santos in Voice of 
Youth Advocates. "Freedman has scrupulously researched this fascinating 
woman and literally brought her to life on every page." 

Adding to Rich Body of Work 

Freedman continued to produce award-winning biographies through the 
late 1990s. His subjects included Crazy Horse, the Sioux Indian chief and 
warrior who led the resistance against U.S. forces; Louis Braille, the inven- 
tor of the Braille alphabet for the blind; Martha Graham, the American 
dancer and choreographer who became a leading figure in modern dance; 
and Babe Didrikson Zaharias, the Olympic gold medalist and golfer who is 
widely considered the top female athlete of the 20th century. 

In the early 2000s, Freedman expanded into American history for his 
books Give Me Liberty! The Story of the Declaration of Independence (2000) 
and In Defense of Liberty: The Story of America's Bill of Rights (2003). "I 
thought the stories behind these fundamental American documents would 
be interesting to readers," he said in an interview with Biography Today 
Authors. "I started with the Declaration of Independence and then went on 
to the Bill of Rights. I had wanted to write about the Bill of Rights for many 
years but was always intimidated by it. The subject has engaged me ever 
since I watched the McCarthy hearings on television when I was in col- 
lege. [The McCarthy hearings were a series of public hearings in the early 
1950s led by U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy in which a number of well- 





42 



RUSSELL FREEDMAN 




known citizens were accused of being Communists.] Writing the book 
gave me a chance to learn more about the subject." 

An extended trip to China inspired one of Freedman's most ambitious bi- 
ographies. Confucius: The Golden Rule, published in 2002, covers the life and 
teachings of the ancient Chinese philosopher. "Confucius is an interesting 
character," Freedman noted. "This is someone who lived over 2,500 years 
ago and is still speaking to us. That people are still reading and repeating 



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what he said so long ago is some- 
thing I find quite fascinating." As 
usual, the work drew praise from re- 
viewers. "This is Freedman's first 
Asian subject and his work set fur- 
thest back in history," wrote a critic 
for Kirkus Reviews, "and it is a tribute 
to his writing that he can make the 
ideas of an ancient philosopher seem 
so modern and fascinating to young 
readers." 

In 2003 Freedman completed a biog- 
raphy of African-American singer 
and civil rights activist Marian An- 
derson; it's expected to be published 
in 2004. "Her Lincoln Memorial con- 
cert in 1939 is considered the fore- 
runner of modem civil rights demon- 
strations," he told Biography Today 
Authors. "It established the Memorial 
as the moral high ground for demon- 
strators. It was also the first mass 
demonstration on behalf of civil rights 
and a pivotal event in the early civil rights movement. Though her person- 
al story is inspiring, I tried not to make it a conventional biography but the 
story of her role in the civil rights movement." For his next project, Freed- 
man plans to write a biography of Marco Polo, the Venetian explorer who 
traveled to China in the 13th century. 

Thoughts on Writing Nonfiction Books for Children 

Freedman generally completes one book per year. During that period, he 
immerses himself in each subject, visiting historic sites and conducting 
painstaking photographic research. He writes the first draft of his books in 
longhand on pads of legal paper. Then he types the text on a computer, re- 
vising as he goes. "If I start at the first word and have to type the whole 
thing, I have the rhythm of the prose," he explained. "I catch things that 
are missing. I see things that are in there that shouldn't be." 

Though Freedman has published books on a variety of subjects, he enjoys 
writing biographies the best. "Writing a biography is like getting to know a 
person. You get to know that person better than you know yourself. You 
study them with such intensity. You read everything there is to read about 



U 

"Writing a biography is 
like getting to know a 
person. You get to know that 
person better than you 
know yourself. You study 
them with such intensity. 
You read everything there is 
to read about them and 
everything they ever said 
about themselves. You go 
to bed thinking about that 
person. You wake up thinking 
about that person." 

» 



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them and everything they ever said about themselves. You go to bed think- 
ing about that person. You wake up thinking about that person/' he noted. 
"Starting a new book is like trying to solve a puzzle. You have to decide 
what to include, and what to leave out, how to begin, what to emphasize 
and where, how to balance facts and interpretation, how to breathe life 
into the subject and convey your own enthusiasm to the reader. The 
process of viewing the material, of seeing what belongs where, is a mystery 
I never resolve once and for all." 

Freedman relishes the challenge of making nonfiction books accessible 
and enjoyable for young readers. "From a kid's point of view, classifications 
like fiction and nonfiction are irrelevant. A book is either absorbing and 
fun to read, or it's stuffy and boring," he stated. "As a writer of nonfiction, I 
have a pact with the reader to stick to the facts, to be as factually accurate 
as human frailty will allow. What I write is based on research. And yet 
there are many storytelling techniques that I can use without straying from 
the straight and narrow path of factu- 
al accuracy. Facts in a literal sense do 
not rule out art, imagination, or cre- 
ativity. . . . Storytelling means creating 
vivid and believable people, places, 
and events — creating a convincing, 
meaningful, and memorable world. It 
means pulling the reader into that 
world." 

Freedman particularly enjoys writing 
for children, because he believes that 
his work will have the greatest impact 
on this audience. "You are writing for 
an audience of impressionable young 
readers. You must keep in mind that 
your book may be their introduction 
to that particular subject, the first they 
have ever read. It may linger in their 
minds and imaginations for years, 
coloring their view of the past and in- 
fluencing their understanding of the 
present. That is why a deceptively 
simple children's book can have an 
impact on the future that few adult 
best-sellers can match," he explained. 

"But beyond that, writing nonfiction 



U 

"Starting a new book is 
like trying to solve a puzzle. 
You have to decide what to 
include, and what to leave 
out, how to begin, what to 
emphasize and where, 
how to balance facts and 
interpretation, how to 
breathe life into the subject 
and convey your own 
enthusiasm to the reader. 
The process of viewing the 
material, of seeing what 
belongs where, is a mystery 
I never resolve once 
and for all." 

yy 




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for children gives me, or any writer, tremendous artistic freedom. I can 
write about almost any subject that interests me and that I believe will in- 
terest a child. ... A nonfiction children's book requires concision, selection, 
judgment, lucidity, unwavering focus, and the most artful use of language 
and storytelling techniques. I regard such books as a specialized and de- 
manding art form." 



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Freedman's books have won nearly every major award in children's litera- 
ture. Yet the author draws his greatest satisfaction from the reaction of young 
readers to his work. "I'm grateful for the awards I've won, but you don't 
write with awards in mind," he stated. "You write because you have some- 
thing you want to say. If there's a se- 
cret to writing, that must be it. The ii 

most satisfying award is a letter from 
some kid who has been touched by 
one of your books." Freedman also 
finds the work of writing biographies 
satisfying in itself. "There's nothing 
more interesting than the story of 
someone's life," he said in his Biogra- 
phy Today interview. "Seeing how they 
live, cope, succeed, fail, and manage to 
get through life with some achieve- 
ments helps us live our own lives. 

Biographies are the most fundamental 
stories of all." 



Aspiring young writers often ask 
Freedman for advice on getting start- 
ed. "First, read what really interests 
you, no matter what it is, and when 
you come to a passage that affects you 
strongly, reread it and ask yourself 
why," he responds. "And second, write 
every day. Keep a journal of your expe- 
riences. Test yourself on school assign- 
ments and letters to friends." 



"Whatever my subject, 

I always feel that I have a 
story to tell that is worth 
telling. I want to tell it as 
clearly and simply and 
effectively as I can, in a way 
that will stretch the reader's 
imagination and make that 
reader care. I'm hoping to 
change the landscape of 
the reader's mind, if just a 
little — to leave the reader 
with a thought, a perception, 
an insight, perhaps, that she 

or he did not have before 

I want to write a book that 
will be read willingly, read 
from beginning to end with a 
sense of discovery and, yes, 
with a feeling of genuine 
pleasure." 



Freedman's ultimate goal in writing is 
to influence young readers the way 
that his favorite books influenced him 
in his childhood. "Whatever my sub- 
ject, I always feel that I have a story to 

tell that is worth telling. I want to tell yy 

it as clearly and simply and effectively 

as I can, in a way that will stretch the reader's imagination and make that 
reader care," he stated. "I'm hoping to change the landscape of the read- 
er's mind, if just a little — to leave the reader with a thought, a perception, 

an insight, perhaps, that she or he did not have before I want to write a 

book that will be read willingly, read from beginning to end with a sense of 
discovery and, yes, with a feeling of genuine pleasure." 



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HOME AND FAMILY 

Freedman, who has never been married, lives in an apartment on the 
Upper West Side of Manhattan in New York City. 

HOBBIES AND OTHER INTERESTS 

When he is not writing, Freedman enjoys photography and travel. He usu- 
ally takes a long trip after he finishes each book project. For example, he 
went to mainland China for three months after winning the Newbery 
Medal in 1988. Other destinations have included Australia, Europe, 
Indonesia, and Mexico. "Traveling to some distant place helps clear my 
mind and offers a fresh point of view," the author explained. "Seeing peo- 
ple and places for the first time gives you a chance to look at the world 
with the eyes of a child, to recapture some of that childish curiosity." 

SELECTED WRITINGS 

Teenagers Who Made History, 1961 

Two ThousandYears of Space Travel, 1963 

Jules Verne: Portrait of a Prophet, 1965 

Thomas Alva Edison, 1966 

Scouting with Baden-Powell, 1967 

How Animals Learn, 1969 (with James E. Morriss) 

Animal Instincts, 1970 (with James E. Morriss) 

Animal Architects, 1971 

The Brains of Animals and Men, 1972 (with James E. Morriss) 

The First Days of Life, 1974 

Growing Up Wild: How Young Animals Survive, 1975 
Animal Fathers, 1976 
Animal Games, 1976 

Hanging On: How Animals Carry TheirYoung, 1977 
How Birds Fly, 1977 
Getting Bom, 1978 

How Animals Defend Their Young, 1978 
Immigrant Kids, 1980 

Tooth and Claw: A Look at Animal Weapons, 1980 

They Lived with the Dinosaurs, 1980 

Animal Superstars: Biggest, Strongest, Fastest, Smartest, 1981 

Farm Babies, 1981 

When Winter Comes, 1981 

Can Bears Predict Earthquakes? Unsolved Mysteries of Animal Behavior, 1982 
Killer Fish, 19S2 





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RUSSELL FREEDMAN 





Killer Snakes, 1982 

Children of the Wild West, 1983 

Dinosaurs and Their Young, 1983 

Rattlesnakes, 1984 

Cowboys of the Wild West, 1985 

Sharks, 1985 

Indian Chiefs, 1987 

Lmcoln: A Photobiography, 1987 

Buffalo Hunt, 1988 

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1990 

The Wright Brothers: How They Invented the Airplane, 1991 

An Indian Winter, 1992 

Eleanor Roosevelt: A Life of Discovery, 1993 

Kids at Work: Lewis Hine and the Crusade against Child Labor, 1994 

The Life and Death of Crazy Horse, 1996 

Out of Darkness: The Story of Louis Braille, 1997 



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Martha Graham: A Dancer's Life, 1998 

Babe Didrikson Zaharias: The Making of a Champion, 1999 

Give Me Liberty! The Stony of the Declaration of Independence, 2000 

In the Days of the Vaqueros: America's First True Cowboys, 2001 

Confucius: The Golden Rule, 2002 

In Defense of Liberty: The Story of America’s Bill of Rights, 2003 



ERIC 



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SELECTED HONORS AND AWARDS 

Western Heritage Award (National Cowboy Hall of Fame): 1984, for 
Children of the Wild West 

Jefferson Cup Award: 1986, for Children of the Wild West; 1988, for Lincoln: 
A Photobiography; 1991, for The Wright Brothers: How They Invented the 
Airplane 

Newbery Medal (American Library Association): 1988, for Lincoln: A 
Photobiography 

Orbus Pictus Award (National Council of Teachers of English): 1991, for 
The Wright Brothers: How They Invented the Airplane 
Washington Post/Children's Book Guild Nonfiction Award: 1992, for distin- 
guished work in the field of nonfiction for children 
Golden Kite Award: 1991, for The Wright Brothers: How They Invented the 
Airplane; 1993, for Eleanor Roosevelt: A Life of Discovery; 1994, for Kids at 
Work: Lewis Hine and the Crusade against Child Labor; 1998, for Martha 
Graham: A Dancer's Life 

Boston Globe-Horn Book Award: 1994, for Eleanor Roosevelt: A Life of 
Discovery 

Spur Award (Western Writers of America): 1996, for The Life and Death of 
Crazy Horse; 2002, for In the Days of the Vaqueros 
Laura Ingalls Wilder Medal (American Library Association): 1998, for body 
of work 

Silver Medallion (University of Southern Mississippi): 1999, for life's work 
in children's literature 

FURTHER READING 
Books 

Author Talk: Conversations with Judy Blume, 2000 
Authors and Artists forYoung Adults, Vol. 24, 1998 
Children's Books and Their Creators, 1995 
Sixth Book of Junior Authors and Illustrators, 1989 
Something about the Author, Vol. 71, 1993 
St. James Guide to Young Adult Writers, 1999 
Who's Who in America, 2003 
Writers forYoung Adults, Vol. 2, 1997 

Periodicals 

Booklist, Sep. 15, 1998, p.224 

Chicago Tribune, May 23, 1988, Tempo sec., p.l 





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Horn Book, Jan.-Feb. 1986, p.27; July- Aug. 1988, pp. 444, 452; July- Aug. 

1998, p.455; Nov.- Dec. 2002, p.695 
Journal ofYouth Services in Libraries, Summer 1998, p.353 
Publishers Weekly, July 19, 1993, p.228; Feb. 14, 2000, p.98 
School Library Journal, Mar. 1994, p.138 

Online Articles 

http://www.lib.usm.edu/ 

(de Grummond Children's Literature Collection, "Russell Freedman 
Honored as 30th Recipient of USM Medallion," 1999) 
http ://www2 . scholastic .com/ 

(, Scholastic.com , "Russell Freedman's Interview Transcript," 2002) 

Online Databases 

Biography Resource Center Online, 2003, articles from Authors and Artists for 
Young Adults, 1998; Contemporary Authors Online, 2002; and St. James Guide 
to Young Adult Writers, 1999 

Other 

Additional information for this profile was gathered through a personal in- 
terview with Russell Freedman for Biography Today Authors, conducted on 
July 7, 2003. 

ADDRESS 

Russell Freedman 
Scholastic Inc. 

Arthur A. Levine Books 
557 Broadway 
New York, NY 10012 

WORLD WIDE WEB SITES 

http://teacher.scholastic.com/authorsandbooks/events/freedman 




52 



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Mary GrandPre 1954 “ 

American Artist and Children's Book Illustrator 
Illustrator of the American Editions of the "Harry 
Potter" Series 



BIRTH 

Mary GrandPre (pronounced grand-PRAY) was bom on Febru- 
ary 13, 1954, in Aberdeen, South Dakota. Her father, Thomas 
GrandPre, worked as a carpenter, while her mother, Isabelle 
GrandPre, was a grocery supervisor. Mary was the youngest of 
their four children. She has two older sisters, loan and Linda, 
and an older brother, Tom. 




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YOUTH 

GrandPre grew up in Bloomington, Minnesota, where her family moved 
when she was a baby. She was inspired by various forms of art from an 
early age. When she attended the local Catholic church, for example, she 
stared up at the stained glass windows with their rich colors and intricate 
designs. She also recalled being mesmerized by the animated films of Walt 
Disney. "1 didn't grow up around a lot of books," she noted, "but I have 
vivid memories of going to the movies — Peter Pan, Snow White, Pinocchio." 
Another of GrandPre's early influences was her father, an accomplished 
storyteller and amateur cartoonist. She claimed that her father's stories 

helped fuel her imagination. "He made 
up a cast of characters who came and 
went in different adventures," she re- 
called. "We sat and listened to him 
night after night." 

GrandPre first gained attention for her 
own artistic skills at the age of five, 
when she drew a picture of Mickey 
Mouse. "I remember my parents prais- 
ing me for it," she noted, "then I con- 
tinued with the rest of the Disney 
characters." As she grew older, she 
honed her talents by copying black- 
and-white pictures out of the ency- 
clopedia. "I must have been bored," 
she acknowledged. "But to me it was 
fun. I loved the colors of black and 
white." GrandPre eventually began 
studying the work of famous artists. When she was 12, she developed a 
particular fascination with the work of the 20th-century Spanish painter 
Salvador Dali. Dali was known as a surrealist who created fantastic rep- 
resentations of everyday things. His best-known painting, The Persistence 
of Memory, shows clocks melting in a strange, deserted landscape. "I 
liked the way he stretched things — made them real, but weird," Grand- 
Pre stated. 

EDUCATION 

GrandPre attended schools in Bloomington. Her teachers there often sin- 
gled her out for her artistic talents. "Mary was always kind of a dreamer," 
said her sister Linda. "Even in grade school, she was so much better [at art] 
than anyone else her age." Despite the encouragement she received, how- 



ii 

GrandPre first gained 
attention for her artistic skills 
at the age of five, when she 
drew a picture of Mickey 
Mouse. "I remember my 
parents praising me for it," 
she noted, "then I continued 
with the rest of the 
Disney characters." 

» 



MARY GRANDPRE 



ever, GrandPre did not pursue formal art training when she graduated 
from high school. She worked as a waitress for several years until one of 
her fellow waitresses finally convinced her to continue her education. 

GrandPre then began attending the Minneapolis College of Art and 
Design. It was during her time in art school that she first considered a ca- 
reer in illustration. "I'd always thought of illustration as a kind of boring, 
commercial thing," she admitted. "I was a fine arts major, so I approached 
illustration with that attitude. And it came to a point where it really worked 
for me because I started solving illustration ideas with the natural way that 
I draw." GrandPre graduated from the Minneapolis College of Art and 
Design in the early 1980s with a degree in fine arts. 

CAREER HIGHLIGHTS 

In 20 years as a free-lance artist, Mary GrandPre has built a successful ca- 
reer in several fields of illustration. She has worked for advertising agen- 
cies, design firms, and corporations, as well as for publishers of books and 
magazines. In 1993, GrandPre illustrated her first children's book, Chin Yu 
Min and the Ginger Cat by Jennifer Armstrong. But her work only gained 
widespread attention five years later, when she illustrated the American 
edition of Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone by J.K. Rowling. By creating 
the cover and interior illustrations for this book, GrandPre gave the popu- 
lar boy wizard a face in the minds of millions of U.S. readers. As the "Harry 
Potter" series continued through several volumes and became a phenome- 
nal worldwide success, GrandPre's career took off as well. 

Developing Her Artistic Style 

After earning her fine arts degree from the Minneapolis College of Art and 
Design, GrandPre began looking for jobs in her field. She carried a port- 
folio of her artwork to a number of local advertising agencies. Her first job 
as an artist involved designing the box for a brand of sausage. 

Throughout the early years of her career, GrandPre felt as though she 
needed to develop a personal artistic style. "I really struggled after college," 
she recalled. "I was pulling my hair out and losing sleep because I didn't 
feel like I had a style." GrandPre's work gradually evolved toward a style 
she called "soft geometry." Her paintings used pastel colors and a light- 
hearted, whimsical approach, but also showed a concern for structure and 
design. 

Over the years, GrandPre won a number of commercial illustration jobs 
and built up a nice collection of printed pieces. Her work appeared in ad- 





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vertisements, on billboards, and in such famous national magazines as the 
New Yorker and Business Week. GrandPre also had the opportunity to design 
background scenery for the DreamWorks animated film Antz. She enjoyed 
looking at the world from an ant's point of view and then seeing her land- 
scapes stretched across the big screen when the movie was completed. 

Illustrating Children's Books 

In the early 1990s GrandPre career expanded into the field of children's 
book illustration. She soon found that she enjoyed interpreting children's 
stories through her art. "I really enjoy the children's book industry because 
it allows you to focus on a big project for a long time," she explained. 
"There's nothing to disrupt your train of thought." 

The first children's book GrandPre illustrated was Chin Yu Min and the 
Ginger Cat , written by Jennifer Armstrong and published in 1993. This folk- 
tale, set in ancient China, tells the story of a proud and arrogant widow 
named Chin Yu Min who spends her money foolishly and rejects offers of 



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MARY GRANDPRE 



friendship from her neighbors. She eventually finds herself poor and lone- 
ly. But then she meets a wise cat that is able to catch fish with its tail. She 
develops a deep affection for the ginger cat and is overcome with grief 
when he disappears. Chin Yu Min's desperate need to find the animal 
forces her to change her ways and approach her neighbors for help. 



Upon reading the manuscript for Chin Yu Min and the Ginger Cat, Grand- 
Pre immediately identified with the main character and her relationship 
with the cat. "The old woman touched my heart immediately," she re- 
called. "I love my own cats so much that I related in some respects to the 
woman's anguish at the loss of hers." She came up with ideas for the illus- 
trations by thinking of the story in movie form. "I started to imagine how 
the story would look if it were a film, a series of moving pictures," she 
noted. "Once I had that vision, the 
whole book came to me in less than 
an hour's time." GrandPre also drew 
details for the illustrations from her 
memories of a recent trip she had 
made to China, Korea, and Thailand. 



The end result garnered praise from 
book reviewers. "The illustrations, 
with their strong, almost exaggerated, 
characterizations, show the gradual 
transformation of Chin Mr Min from 
arrogant tyrant to humble friend with 
humor and fine style," Nancy Vasi- 
lakis wrote in Horn Book. GrandPre's 

"sumptuous palette of golds, gingers, browns, and maroons suffuses the il- 
lustrations with warmth, and the smoky, textured pastels create an aura of 
mystery befitting the exotic locale," Mary- Alice Moore added in Publishers 

Weekly. 



"I really enjoy the children's 
book industry because it 
allows you to focus on a big 
project for a long time. 
There's nothing to disrupt 
your train of thought." 

» 



The success of Chin Yu Min and the Ginger Cat led to a series of new illus- 
trating projects for GrandPre. Her next work was The Vegetables Go to Bed, 
a picture book written by Christopher King and published in 1994. The 
following year she illustrated The Thread of Life, a collection of Italian 
folktales retold by Domenico Vittorini. As with her first book, reviewers 
praised GrandPre's lyrical pastel illustrations and said that they added to 
the stories. 



In 1997 GrandPre illustrated Batwings and the Curtain of Night, written by 
Marguerite W. Davol. This original creation story follows the creatures of 
the night — such as bats, owls, coyotes, and panthers — as they attempt to 




59 



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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL. 14 




bring more light into their world. "GrandPre uses pastels to create a vel- 
vety, subtly illuminated nighttime look," Susan Dove Lempke wrote in 
Booklist. "The pictures swirl with movement, so the story and illustrations 
almost dance off the page." 

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MARY GRANDPRE 



Creating Artwork for the American Editions of "Harry Potter" 

By the late 1990s GrandPre had gained a reputation as a talented illustra- 
tor of children's books. In 1997 a representative of the Scholastic publish- 
ing company called to invite her to work on a new project. The job in- 
volved producing artwork for the cover and chapter headings of the 
American edition of a book previously published in Great Britain. "I got 
the commission much like any other illustration project/' she recalled. 
"The art director at Scholastic, David Saylor, called me to illustrate the cov- 
ers. He had seen my children's books and liked the way I dealt with at- 
mosphere, light, and perspective." 

The book was Harry Potter and the 
Sorcerer's Stone, written by British first- 
time author J.K. Rowling. The story 
begins when an unhappy orphan 
named Harry Potter turns 11 years old 
and discovers that he is a wizard with 
magical powers. Harry leaves the 
home of his neglectful, non-magical 
aunt and uncle to attend Hogwarts 
School of Wizardry and Witchcraft. At 
Hogwarts, Harry learns that his par- 
ents were legendary wizards who 
were killed by the evil sorcerer Lord 
Voldemort. Voldemort tried to kill the 
infant Harry as well, but only man- 
aged to leave a scar in the shape of a 
lightning bolt on Harry's forehead. 

The encounter with Harry stripped 
Voldemort of his dark powers, and he 
vowed to take revenge against the 
boy. 

GrandPre was impressed with the book from the first time she saw it. 
"WTien I received [the manuscript], I was shocked by the complexity of the 
text, expecting it to be simply a children's book," she remembered. "I was 
enthralled from the start, though I had to reread it a couple of times be- 
cause the manuscript was so packed with rich, vivid visual information." 

After reading the book several times, GrandPre prepared several rough 
sketches for the cover and sent them to Scholastic. "It was quite easy to 
develop the initial character studies because J.K. Rowling was thorough 
but imaginative with her descriptions of the characters," she noted. "I tried 

erJc 



61 



u 

"When I received [the 
manuscript for Harry 
Potter and the Sorcerer's 
Stone], I was shocked by 
the complexity of the text, 
expecting it to be simply a 
children's book. I was 
enthralled from the start, 
though I had to reread it a 
couple of times because 
the manuscript was so 
packed with rich, vivid 
visual information." 

» 



59 



BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 



ii 

"It was quite easy to develop 
the initial character studies 
because J.K. Rowling was 
thorough but imaginative 
with her descriptions of the 
characters. I tried to stay as 
close as possible to her 
descriptions , and since her 
writing was so vivid, it was 
not only easy but exciting." 

» 




to stay as close as possible to her descriptions, and since her writing was so 
vivid, it was not only easy but exciting." The publishers chose one sketch to 
appear on the cover, and GrandPre painted a final version. Once she com- 
pleted her work on the American edition of Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's 
Stone, she was ready to put the project behind her. "At the time, it just 
seemed like another job," she recalled. 

Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone was published in the United States in 
September 1998. It became an immediate sensation and eventually a run- 
away best-seller. "No one saw this coming — not [the publishers], not I," 
GrandPre noted. "It's been a really big surprise." The illustrator unexpect- 
edly found herself in the middle of a storm of attention surrounding the 
book. She gave many interviews, visited numerous bookstores and 
schools, and signed countless autographs for enthusiastic fans of the boy 
wizard. She was even asked to draw a picture of Harry Potter to appear on 
the cover of Time magazine. 

Given the phenomenal popularity of the book, Scholastic decided to pub- 
lish American editions of all future books in the "Harry Potter" series and 
asked GrandPre to design their covers. The next four volumes in the series 
were Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (published in the United States 
in 1999), Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (also published in 1999), 
Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (published in 2000), and Harry Potter and 

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MARY GRANDPRE 



the Order of the Phoenix (published in 2003). As of 2003, the "Harry Potter" 
series had sold over 200 million copies in more than 100 countries around 
the world. The series is eventually planned to include seven books — one 
for each of Harry's years as a student at Hogwarts. 

Becoming Closely Associated with "Harry Potter" 

GrandPre is not the only illustrator of the "Harry Potter" books. For in- 
stance, the original British editions had a different illustrator. But American 
readers are most familiar with her artwork. Indeed, GrandPre can be said 
to have given Harry Potter a face in the minds of American readers. "I feel 
like J.K. Rowling is Harry's mom and I am his stepmom; after all, I gave 
him his face. At least his American face," she stated. "I am proud to be a 
part of the books, as they will sit on the shelves as a classic for years to 
come." 

GrandPre's covers feature brilliant pastel colors and usually show Harry in 
the middle of an exciting adventure. The pictures often incorporate sym- 
bols and characters from the story. "I kind of think of the book cover as a 
mysterious map," she explained. "It's full of bits and pieces you'll find in 
the book." GrandPre also provides black-and-white charcoal drawings 
that appear at the beginning of each chapter. These pictures hint at events 
that occur in the chapters without giving away any secrets. 



ii 

GrandPre's covers feature 
brilliant pastel colors 
and usually incorporate 
symbols and characters 
from the story. "I kind 
of think of the book cover 
as a mysterious map," 
she explained. "It's full 
of bits and pieces you'll 
find in the book." 

» 

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O 

ERIC 



62 



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MARY GRANDPRE 



For each volume in the series, GrandPre studies Rowling's text in order to 
create illustrations that are true to the author's vision of the characters. "I 
read the book carefully/' she stated, "and as I'm reading the story I'm lis- 
tening to what the author has to say about his physical looks and I try to 
picture this boy by the way she describes his movements or the way he 
talks." GrandPre did not meet the author until 1999, when they had dinner 
together. "It's common for publishers to keep authors and illustrators apart 
so they don't step on each other's vision," she noted. During their meeting, 
however, GrandPre was pleased to hear Rowling say that she liked her il- 
lustrations best of all the ones that have appeared in various editions. 

The process of illustrating a volume 
in the "Harry Potter" series takes 
GrandPre about two months. Since 
she sees Rowling's books before they 
are available to the public, the pub- 
lisher swears her to secrecy. "I receive 
the manuscript months before the 
book is out and it's a very high-pres- 
sure time for me, with right deadlines 
and lots of secrecy," she noted. "I just 
try to deal with it like I would any 
other illustration project and live my 
life as normally as possible." 

After illustrating five volumes in the 
"Harry Potter" series, GrandPre con- 
tinues to enjoy reading the books. 

She also feels that they have a great deal to offer young readers. "I believe 
the greatest value of the Harry Potter books is their power to bring kids to- 
gether to read and to imagine the endless possibilities about a child who 
comes from a place of doom and gloom and finds the power within him- 
self to rise above it magically," she said. "I think they give kids a sense of 
hope and a belief that anything is possible. Besides, it's a really cool story 
with lots of scary stuff to boot! In a time when computer screens are often 
a kid's best friend, a good book like Harry Potter can be an amazing thing." 

Like many other fans of the "Harry Potter" series, GrandPre was dismayed 
at the criticism the books received from parents who did not want their 
children to read about witchcraft. "The book isn't about evil, sorcery, or 
witchery. It's about overcoming evil things with the power inside yourself," 
she stated. "I think it's great that parents are concerned about what their 
kids read, but they should also be concerned about what's on television 
and in the movies. Harry Potter seems pretty tame compared to that." 



a 

"l feel like J.K. Rowling is 
Harry's mom and I am his 
stepmom; after all , I gave 
him his face. At least his 
American face. I am proud to 
he a part of the books , as they 
will sit on the shelves as a 
classic for years to come." 

yy 



BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS , VOL 14 



Despite her long and varied career as an artist, GrandPre has become best 
known as the illustrator of the "Harry Potter" books. "Harry has definitely 
taken over a portion of my life," she acknowledged. "And having my art be 
so widely seen is a little spooky, since I'm better known for more abstract, 
stylized art. But if Harry Potter is more popular than my other work, so be 
it. I'm thankful that it's been successful; it's good for Harry and everyone 
involved." While GrandPre is thrilled to be associated with the series, she 
also looks forward to being able to focus on other projects. "I feel like 
Harry is definitely a part of my family," she stated, "but I can't wait until he 
turns 18 and moves out of the house!" 

Other Projects 

Throughout the years she has worked 
on the "Harry Potter" series, Grand- 
Pre has continued illustrating other 
children's books as well. In 1998 she 
reunited with author Jennifer Arm- 
strong to produce the book Pockets. It 
tells the story of a mysterious seam- 
stress who comes to a simple town 
and begins mending people's clothes. 
She gradually begins adding orna- 
ments and scenes from faraway lands 
to the pockets of drab apparel, which 
fuels the townspeople's imaginations. 
" GrandPre 's artwork . . . delicately 
balances the sullen tones of the town 
with the brilliant colors of the vil- 
lagers' visions," wrote a reviewer for 
Publishers Weekly. "She festoons the images of exotic times and places with 
the detailed stitchery of the pocket embroidery that inspired them." 

In 2000 GrandPre illustrated The House of Wisdom, witten by Florence Parry 
Heide and Judith Heide Gilliland. This book, which won a Middle East 
Book Award, tells the story of a young boy growing up in ninth-century 
Baghdad who goes on a search for knowledge and wisdom. "GrandPre's 
lushly colored pastels detail the ornate patterns of the Baghdad rooftops as 
easily as they convey the sweltering heat of a caravan of camels," stated a 
Publishers Weekly reviewer. 

In 2002 GrandPre provided artwork for The Sea Chest by Toni Buzzeo. In 
this book, an elderly woman tells her great- grand-niece about her lonely 
youth as the only child of a lighthouse keeper in Maine. One day, after a 



ii 

GrandPre is thrilled to 
be associated with the series , 
but she also looks forward to 
being able to focus on other 
projects. "I feel like Harry 
is definitely a part of my 
family, but I can't wait until 
he turns 18 and moves 
out of the house!" 

yy 





64 



MARY GRANDPRE 




terrible storm hits the coast, she finds a leather sea chest with a baby in- 
side. The baby's parents died in a shipwreck, so her family raises the child. 
As the story progresses, the reader learns that the aunt is te llin g the story 
while the niece is waiting for the arrival of her own adopted sister from 
overseas. GrandPre worked closely with the author — who did research at 
Maine's maritime museums and sent shells plucked from the seashore — 
in order to create realistic illustrations for the book. 

Recently, GrandPre has completed the illustrations for two poetry collec- 
tions. First up was Plum (2003), a collection of 20 silly poems for children 
by British author Tony Mitton. "GrandPre and Tony Milton must be soul- 
mates," wrote Mary Ann Grossman in the St. Paul Pioneer Press. "His verses 
inspired her to create vividly colored, bursting-with-life pictures in rich, 
subtle colors." GrandPre also joined several other prominent illustrators in 
contributing pictures for Swing around the Sun (2003), a new edition of a 
1965 poetry collection by the late Barbara Juster Esbensen. The collection is 
divided into seasons, featuring poems with artworks by various illustrators 

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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL. 14 



that evoke the symbols and the moods of the seasons. GrandPre provided 
illustrations for the fall section. 

As GrandPre's career as an illustrator progressed, several publishers asked 
her to think about writing her own children's books. "I've toyed with the 
idea," she once said. "I think that many of the children's books published 

these days are way over the kids' 
heads. I'm not sure who they're for, 
the kids or the adults. I think some- 
times we give children too much at 
an early age." GrandPre finally col- 
laborated with her husband, fellow 
artist Tom Casmer, to write and illus- 
trate Henry and Pawl. This book, 
which is scheduled for publication in 
2004, tells the story of a very creative 
boy and his adorable dog. It is based 
in part on the stories GrandPre's fa- 
ther told during her childhood. 

GrandPre works in a studio that she 
added on to the back of her home in 
St. Paul, Minnesota. She makes a 
point of maintaining an original style 
rather than imitating the work of 
other artists. "I almost try to wear 
blinders — I don't really want to 
know too much about what's going 
on out there," she explained. "I try to 
approach each job with a quiet kind 
of focus, not so much on how my 
style fits the job, but how that prob- 
lem should be solved. No technique 
should be bigger or more important 
than the problem the illustration 
needs to solve. The combination of a good basic understanding of what 
makes a picture work — good composition, good color, good drawing — 
combined with a strong concept can enable you to work on anything." 

GrandPre realizes that her career took an unusual turn with the success of 
the "Harry Potter" series. She hopes to take advantage of the opportunities 
it created for her as an artist. "Like a tree, you grow with every experience. 
Life branches off, and you get new fruit on each limb!" she declared. "I just 
want to keep making art — wherever it takes me." 



ii 

"I try to approach each job 
with a quiet kind of focus, 
not so much on how my style 
fits the job, but how that 
problem should be solved. 
No technique should be 
bigger or more important 
than the problem the 
illustration needs to solve. 
The combination of a good 
basic understanding of 
what makes a picture 
work — good composition, 
good color, good drawing — 
combined with a strong 
concept can enable you to 
work on anything." 

» 




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68 



MARY GRANDPRE 




GrandPre among her paintings in her studio in St. Paul, Minnesota. 



MARRIAGE AND FAMILY 

GrandPre has been married twice. She divorced her first husband, design- 
er Kevin Whaley, in 1994. The following year she met fellow artist Tom 
Casmer when she was invited to speak to his students at the College of 
Visual Arts in St. Paul, Minnesota. They began dating soon afterward and 
were married in 2000. They live in St. Paul in a house they share with a 
number of pets. They receive frequent visits from Casmer's children from 
his first marriage. 

SELECTED WRITINGS 
As Illustrator 

Chin Yu Min and the Ginger Cat, 1993 (written by Jennifer Armstrong) 

The Vegetables Go to Bed, 1994 (written by Christopher King) 

The Thread of Life, 1995 (folktales retold by Domenico Vittorini) 

Baiwings and the Curtain of Night, 1997 (written by Marguerite W. Davol) 
Pockets, 1998 (written by Jennifer Armstrong) 




BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 






H ol( owe ’cn 

Leaf piles smoke thO whispering dark 
Gohlift% prowl the streetst 
Silent witches haunt the park, 

Ghosts unfurl their shoots. 



Noiseless footfall on the stan. 
Thumping in the hall: 

Someone knows just who to sen 
And / scare bot.i of „li* 




Swing around the Sun is a 1965 
poetry collection by the late 
Barbara Juster Esbensen. The 
collection is divided into seasons, 
featuring poems with artworks by 
various illustrators: Cheng-Khee 
Chee (spring), Janice Lee Porter 
(summer), Mary GrandPre (fall), 
and Stephen Gammell (winter). 
Illustration above by Mary 
GrandPre; illustration at left by 
Cheng-Khee Chee. 



The House of Wisdom, 1999 (written by Florence Parry Heide and Judith 
Heide Gilliland) 

The Purple Snerd, 2000 (written by Rozanne Lanczak Williams) 

Aunt Claire's Yellow Beehive Hair, 2001 (written by Deborah Blumenthal) 
The Sea Chest, 2002 (written by Toni Buzzeo) 

Plum, 2003 (written by Tony Mitton) 

Swing around the Sun, 2003 (written by Barbara Juster Esbensen) 

As Illustrator of the "Harry Potter" Series 

Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, 1998 
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, 1999 
Harry Potter and the Prisoner ofAzkaban, 1999 



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MARY GRANDPRE 



Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, 2000 
Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, 2003 

HONORS AND AWARDS 

Middle East Book Award (Middle East Outreach Council): 2000, for The 
House of Wisdom 

FURTHER READING 
Periodicals 

Aberdeen (S.D.) American News, July 9, 2000 
American Girl, July/ Aug. 2000, p.43 
Dayton (Ohio) Daily News, Sep. 9, 1999, p.C3 
Publishers Weekly, July 12, 1993, p.24 

Minneapolis and St. Paul Magazine, Dec. 1999, p.29; May 2001, p.27 

People Weekly, Dec. 18, 2000, p.lll 

Print, Nov./Dec. 2000, p.A40 

St. Paul Pioneer Press, Sep. 6, 1999, p.El 

USA Today, June 27, 2000, p.D8 

Washington Post, Feb. 24, 2003, p.C14 

Online Articles 

http://www.marygrandpre.com 

(Communication Arts, "Mary GrandPre," 1999, in the Biography section 
of the web site) 

ADDRESS 

Mary GrandPre 
Scholastic 
557 Broadway 
New York, NY 10012 

WORLD WIDE WEB SITES 

http://www.marygrandpre.com 

http://www.scholastic.com/harrypotter/books/illustrator 





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Dan Greenburg 1936- 

American Writer 

Author of the "Zack Files 77 and the "Maximum Boy 77 
Series 




BIRTH 

Dan Greenburg was bom on June 20, 1936, into a Jewish fami- 
ly in Chicago, Illinois. His parents were Samuel Greenburg, an 
artist, and Leah Rozalsky Greenburg. He had one older sister. 



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YOUTH AND EDUCATION 

Greenburg grew up in a comfortable Chicago neighborhood. He was an 
imaginative youngster who enjoyed reading, but he struggled at sports and 
other rough-and-tumble activities. "I was a lousy athlete and got picked 
on by bullies," he remembered. "I was skinny and wore braces and 
dreamed of being a superhero. I loved Superman." 

Greenburg credits his early interest in writing to members of his family. "I 
wrote a lot of stories about heroes chasing criminals when I was young, 
and my grandpa would give me a $1 for each one," he recalled. "My par- 
ents also gave me a lot of praise." 

After completing his elementary and 
high school education in the Chicago 
area, Greenburg was accepted at the 
University of Illinois. He studied art, 
graduating with a bachelor's degree 
in fine arts in 1958. He then enrolled 
at the University of California, Los 
Angeles (UCLA), where he earned a 
master's degree in 1960. 

CAREER HIGHLIGHTS 

During the course of Greenburg's 40- 
year career as a writer, he has penned 
more than 60 books and dozens of ar- 
ticles for national magazines. Until the mid-1990s, most of these works were 
aimed at adult audiences. In 1996, however, he wrote the first book in his 
highly popular "Zack Files" series, and in 2000 he launched a second suc- 
cessful book series for children, the "Maximum Boy" stories. These books, 
noted the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Online, "have proven to be wildly popular 
with young readers, who love the way Greenburg combines humor, action, 
and the supernatural into fast-paced books that are fun to read." 

Becoming a Writer 

After leaving UCLA in 1960, Greenburg took a job as a writer at a Los 
Angeles advertising agency. Two years later, he moved to New York City, 
where he continued to work in the advertising industry. In 1964, though, 
he published a humorous book for adults called How to be a Jewish Mother, 
in which he poked fun at excessively picky parents. To Greenburg's sur- 
prise, the book turned out to be a bestseller. He was so delighted with the 



a 

“l was a lousy athlete and 
got picked on by bullies /' 
Greenburg remembered. 

"I was skinny and 
wore braces and dreamed 
of being a superhero. 

I loved Superman." 

» 




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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 




BEA 

JEWISH 

MOTHER 



By Dan Greenburg 



The front and 
back cover of 
How to Be a 
Jewish 
Mother. 

On the back 
cover (below), 
Greenburg is 
pictured with 
his mother in 
1938 and 
1964 . 




1938 1M4 

DAN GKSSNflURO {seen above with mother) grew up in Chicago, studied 
art st the University of Illinois, received a Master of Arts in IndoitrUI 
Design at U.C.L.A., and then threw a wonderful education right out the 
window and became a writer. Since then his writing has appeared In 
playboy, Esqui&E. monocls, KH08 (for whom he served as Managing 
Editor! and twentieth centuiy parody. American and bjutish. He Is 
currently associated with the New York advertising firm of Pa pert, Koenig, 
Lois and, though 28 years of age, he is null unmarried and does not know 
bow to stand up straight or eat properly. 




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DAN GREENBURG 



book's success that he decided to leave the world of advertising and build a 
career as a freelance writer. 



Lighthearted Books for Adults and Children 



Over the next few years, Greenburg wrote several novels and humorous 
books for adult audiences. He also completed his first book for children 
during this time. Jumbo the Boy and Arnold the Elephant, which was pub- 
lished in 1969, told the story of a baby elephant and a baby boy who are 
accidentally switched at birth at a hospital. The tale follows both the ele- 
phant family and the human family 

as they try to adjust to new lives with f f 

their very odd and unusual babies. 

The story was warmly received by 
both young readers and reviewers. 

Library Journal, for instance, described 
the book as being full of "far-fetched 
but amusing whimsy [playfulness]." 



As it turned out, however, Greenburg 
did not write another book for chil- 
dren for two decades. Instead, he 
concentrated on writing suspense 
novels and humorous books about 
sex and other adult topics for grown- 
ups. In addition, he contributed arti- 
cles to numerous national magazines 
during the 1970s and 1980s, includ- 
ing the New Yorker, Esquire, New York 
Times Book Review, New York, Ms., and 
Cosmopolitan. He even served as co-scriptwriter of a 1983 comedy film 
called Private School, but the film was a commercial and critical flop. People 
Weekly, in fact, described it as "a shoddy, vile, boring movie" with a "daz- 
zlingly moronic" script. 



Greenburg credits his 
early interest in writing 
to members of his family . 

" I wrote a lot of stories about 
heroes chasing criminals 
when I was young ; and my 
grandpa would give me a 
$1 for each one. My 
parents also gave me a 
lot of praise." 

» 



Although Greenburg 7 s venture into screenwriting for the movies proved 
disappointing, he continued to make a comfortable living as a novelist and 
humor writer. In 1986, for example, he published a memoir about the ex- 
perience of becoming a father for the first time at the relatively late age of 
48. In Confessions of a Pregnant Father, Greenburg blends humor with seri- 
ous reflections as he recalls his feelings during his wife's pregnancy and 
the birth of his son, Zack. "It is inspiring to read how lovingly Greenburg 
and his wife . . . cooperate during the pregnancy and the early weeks of 
[baby] Zack's life," remarked the Washington Post. 



O 

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In 1991 Greenburg published his second book for children, called The Bed 
Who Ran Away from Home. In this lighthearted tale, a bunk bed shared by 
twins decides to run away from home because it feels unappreciated. The 
book was warmly received by both readers and critics. School Library Journal, 
for example, called it "a delightful romp before bedtime." 

Later that same year, Greenburg published Young Santa, in which he imag- 
ines Santa's early years. "It occurred to me that all we know about [Santa] 
is that he's an old man with a long white beard," explained the author. "He 
must have had a childhood and a teen age. I began to wonder about the 

early influences that shaped his char- 
acter and caused him to do such pe- 
culiar things. Why did he go around 
the world on one night, for example, 
delivering presents? Where did he get 
the presents? Why does he live at the 
North Pole? Why does he wear red? 
How come he says, 'Ho, ho, ho?"' 
According to Publishers Weekly, "Though 
some of the humor and wordplay will 
be over the heads of youngsters, this 
droll, snappy tale will provide ami- 
able entertainment." 

Creating a New Series 

Greenburg thoroughly enjoyed writ- 
ing both The Bed Who Ran Away from 
Home and Young Santa. In fact, these 
experiences convinced him to explore 
new story ideas for young people. A 
short time later, the sight of his young son Zack pitching baseballs to his 
grandmother inspired the writer to pen a lighthearted children's tale about 
a home-run-hitting grandma who leads the Chicago White Sox to the 
playoffs. 

Greenburg finished the story and sent it to several publishers of fiction for 
children and young adults. He admits that he thought it was "the funniest 
children's book imaginable," but most of the publishing companies reject- 
ed it. "They'd say, 'This is the funniest story I've ever seen — now let me tell 
you why we're not going to publish it.' No two reasons were ever the 
same," recalled Greenburg. But the editors at one publishing company 
liked the story so much that they asked him if he could develop an entire 
series about the boy, whom the author had named Zack after his son. 

74 

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a 

Greenburg finished the 
first " Zack Files" story and 
sent it to several publishers, 
but most of them rejected it. 
"They'd say, 'This is the 
funniest story I've ever 
seen — now let me tell you 
why we're not going to 
publish it.'No two reasons 
were ever the same." 

» 



DAN GREENBURG 



Greenburg quickly agreed to the 
idea of a series, and he spent the 
next several weeks thinking up 
stories that blended humor with 
the supernatural. "The series be- 
came Zack at [age] 10, who lives 
part-time with his divorced fa- 
ther, Dan, a writer," he stated. 

"He'd be a normal boy living in 
New York who has supernatural 
adventures." 

The "Zack Files" Series 

In August 1996 Greenburg pub- 
lished the first four books in the 
"Zack Files" series — My Great 
Grandpa's in the Litter Box, Zap! 

I'm a Mind Reader, A Ghost Named 
Wanda, and Through the Medicine 
Cabinet. In each story, Zack finds himself involved in some sort of weird and 
wacky supernatural experience. In one story, for example, he meets a talk- 
ing cat that claims to be the reincarnation of his dead grandfather. In anoth- 
er story Zack discovers that he has the ability to read other people's minds. 

Greenburg 7 s funny and suspenseful stories about Zack immediately caught 
the attention of young readers. Many fans wrote in to tell Greenburg how 
much they liked the books. For example, a reader named Dana wrote that 
"I really LOVE I mean LOVE your books. I read them a million times. I 
wish I could buy more. They are good and so funny." And a reader named 
Madeleine wrote "I love your books. ... I hope you keep making more 
'Zack Files.'" Reviewers were equally enthusiastic. School Library Journal 
claimed that "kids will find some of the episodes [in these stories] tremen- 
dously funny." A reviewer in Horn Book added that the stories had "origi- 
nality and pizzazz," and praised the series as a quality reading alternative 
for youngsters who were not quite ready for "Goosebumps" and other su- 
pernatural book series. 

At first, Greenburg 7 s son Zack was caught off guard by the fuss surround- 
ing the books. He found it very strange that some of his classmates were 
reading books that featured a character based on himself. "I think he was 
both pleased and maybe a little embarrassed," said Greenburg. As Zack 
and his friends grew older, however, the attention died down. After a few 
years Zack came to view the series as a pretty cool part of his childhood. 




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By 2003, Greenburg had published 30 books in the "Zack Files" series. The 
books remain popular with young readers, and they even became the basis 
for a "Zack Files" television show that appeared on the cable ABC Family 



DAN GREENBURG 



ii 



Channel through 2002. Greenburg claims that he has had little difficulty 
coming up with plot ideas for the series. "Many of the 'Zack Files' stories 
were inspired by adventures I've had with my wife Judith and my actual 
son Zack/' he explained. "For exam- 
ple, a trip to Hawaii to explore a live 
volcano inspired the book The Volcano 
Goddess Will See You Now, a trip to 
Florida to swim with dolphins in- 
spired the book How to Speak Dolphin 
in Three Easy Lessons, and a recent trip 
to a Texas tiger farm to learn how to 
take care of lions and tigers without 
getting seriously chewed inspired a 
book that is currently being written." 



Greenburg also assures readers that 
he has dozens of ideas for Zack adven- 
tures waiting in the wings. "There's 
something about a series that's just a 
whole other way of working," he said. 
"I live with the characters and know 
them well. All I have to do is figure out 
a phenomenon for Zack to encounter, 
whether it's becoming invisible or 
turning into a cat or his orthodontist 
turning into a monster." Greenburg 
also points out that he really enjoys 
writing for young readers on a full- 
time basis. "It's just the most enthusi- 
astic audience I've ever found in my 
writing," he said. 



"I have a letter framed above 
my desk from a mom in New 
York whose son has attention 
deficit disorder (ADD). She 
wrote that she used to take 
her son into bookstores and 
tell him he could buy any 
book he wanted, but he was 
never interested. Then she 
bought him a 'Zack Files' 
book. He read it and told her, 
'I want to read all the 'Zack 
Files' books.' So he read them 
all, then told her, 'I want 
more books.' This mother told 
me, 'You've turned him on to 
reading.'. . . There's nothing 
more fulfilling than hearing 
that you've turned a kid on to 
books. That's enough for a 
career right there." 



Finally, Greenburg is enormously 
proud of the fact that his books seem 
to be very popular with boys and girls 
who don't ordinarily enjoy reading. "I 

have a letter framed above my desk yy 

from a mom in New York whose son 

has attention deficit disorder (ADD)," he stated. "She wrote that she used 
to take her son into bookstores and tell him he could buy any book he 
wanted, but he was never interested. Then she bought him a 'Zack Files' 
book. He read it and told her, 'I want to read all the 'Zack Files'books.' So he 
read them all, then told her, 'I want more books.' This mother told me, 



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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL. 14 



a 

Between the"Zack Files" 
and" Maximum Boy "series, 
Greenburg claims that 
he is having "the most 
fun I ever had in my 
life — I love to tell 
stories, about places I go, 
things that make people 
laugh. And I love to 
get praise." 

» 



'You've turned him on to reading.' . . . There's nothing more fulfilling than 
hearing that you've turned a kid on to books. That's enough for a career 
right there." 

In the meantime, the "Zack Files" books remain popular with reviewers 
and teachers as well as students. "Mr. Greenburg may never win a New- 
bery Award, [but] his books are considered a cut above the usual meat 
grinder efforts that are increasingly taking over children's literature," com- 
mented the New York Times. The Horn Book sees the success of the series in 
positive terms as well, noting that "Throughout [his adventures], Zack re- 
mains a believably ordinary New York City fifth grader caught in bizarre 
circumstances. As he puts it, 'if a weird thing has a choice of happening to 
me or to somebody else, it always picks me.'" 

The "Maximum Boy" Series 

In 2000 Greenburg launched a second series for young readers. The 
"Maximum Boy" tales center around a likable 11-year-old boy named Max 
who gains super powers after he touches space rocks at a museum. In cre- 
ating Max, the author used all sort of elements from his own childhood. For 
example, Max has to deal with school bullies and an older sister who bosses 
him around, just like Greenburg did as a youngster. Greenburg even intro- 
duced his childhood dislike for mathematics into the series by making Max 
lose his special powers whenever he's exposed to a math problem. 




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By the end of 2002, Greenburg had 
published six books about Maxi- 
mum Boy, and he has plans to 
write many more. In fact, between 
the "Zack Files" and "Maximum 
Boy" series, Greenburg claims that 
he is having "the most fun I ever 
had in my life. ... I love to tell sto- 
ries, about places I go, things that 
make people laugh. And I love to 
get praise." 

MARRIAGE AND FAMILY 

Greenburg married novelist Nora 
Ephron on April 9, 1967, but their 
marriage ended in divorce in the 
1970s. In June 1980 he married 
writer and editor Suzanne O'Mal- 
ley. They had one son, Zack, be- 
fore they divorced in the mid-1990s. As a youngster, Zack played the title 
role in Lorenzo's Oil , a 1992 motion picture starring Nick Nolte and Susan 
Sarandon. 

On October 17, 1998, Greenburg entered into his third marriage, marrying 
writer Judith C. Wilson. They live in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York, 
where Judith "J.C." Greenburg has established her own book series aimed 
at young readers. Her "Andrew" stories concern Andrew Dubble, a 10- 
year-old inventor who accidentally gets shrunk down to microscopic size. 
In each book, the tiny adventurer roams a part of his house as he tries to 
return to the invention that will restore him to normal size. 

FAVORITE AUTHORS 

Greenburg enjoys reading all sorts of literature. His favorite authors of 
books for adults include J.D. Salinger, Bruce Jay Friedman, Philip Roth, and 
Elmore Leonard. He is also a big fan of several children's book authors, in- 
cluding A. A. Milne, Roald Dahl, Jeff Brown, and Dav Pilkey. 

HOBBIES AND OTHER INTERESTS 

Greenburg loves to travel, and in recent years he has become very interest- 
ed in conservation programs that help tigers, lions, leopards, and other 
large cats of the animal kingdom. In April 2001, for example, Greenburg 





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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 



devoted an entire vacation to working at the Bridgeport Nature Center in 
Bridgeport, Texas. The center is a wildlife refuge that cares for big cats that 
have been abused and rescued. "It was the best experience of my life/' re- 
calls Greenburg. 

SELECTED WRITINGS 
For Adults 

How to Be a Jewish Mother, 1964 
How to Avoid Love and Marriage, 1983 
Confessions of a Pregnant Father, 1986 

For Children 

Jumbo the Boy and Arnold the Elephant, 1969 
The Bed Who Ran Away from Home, 1991 
Young Santa, 1991 

The "Zack Files" Series 

Great-Grandpa's in the Litter Box, 1996 

Through the Medicine Cabinet, 1996 

Zap! I'm a Mind Reader, 1996 

A Ghost Named Wanda, 1996 

Dr. Jekyll, Orthodontist, 1997 

I'm Out of My Body . . . Please Leave a Message, 1997 

Never Trust a Cat Who Wears Earrings, 1997 

My Son, the Time Traveler, 1997 

The Volcano Goddess Will See You Now, 1997 

Bozo the Clone, 1997 

How to Speak to Dolphins in Three Easy Lessons, 1997 

Now You See Me . . . Now You Don't, 1998 

The Misfortune Cookie, 1998 

Elvis the Turnip . . . and Me, 1998 

Hang a Left at Venus, 1999 

Evil Queen Tut and the Great Ant Pyramids, 1999 

Yikesl Grandma's a Teenager, 1999 

How I Fixed the Year 1000 Problem, 1999 

The Boy Who Cried Bigfoot, 2000 

How I Went from Bad to Verse, 2000 

Don't Count on Dracula, 2000 

This Body's Not Big Enough for Both of Us, 2000 



O 

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DAN GREENBURG 



Greenish Eggs and Dinosaurs, 2001 
My Grandma, Major-League 
Slugger, 2001 
Trapped in the Museum of 
Unnatural History, 2002 
Me and My Mummy, 2002 
My Teacher Ate My Homework, 

2002 

Tell a Lie andYour Butt Will Grow, 

2002 

Just Add Water . . . and Scream! 

2003 

It's Itchcraft! 2003 

The "Maximum Boy" Series 

How I Became a Superhero, 2000 
The Day Everything Tasted Like 
Broccoli, 2001 

Super Hero . . .Or Super Thief? 

2001 

Invasion from the Planet of the Cows, 2001 
Maximum Girl Unmasked, 2002 
Attack of the Soggy Underwater People, 2002 
Meet Super Sid, Crime-Fighting Kid, 2002 
The Worst Bully in the Entire Universe, 2003 

FURTHER READING 
Books 

Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series, Vol. 9, 1983; Vol. 25, 1989 
Greenburg, Dan. Confessions of a Pregnant Father, 1986 
Something About the Author, Vol. 102, 1999 
Who's Who in America, 2003 

Periodicals 

Booklist, Jan. 1, 1997, p.859 

Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books, Nov. 1991, p.63 
Chicago Tribune, Dec. 12, 1991, p.12 (Tempo section) 

Detroit Free Press, Mar. 28, 2002, Yak section, p.5 
Horn Book, July/ Aug. 1997, p.432 




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Library Journal, Apr. 15, 1969, p.1768 

New York Times, Mar. 23, 1986, p.44, section 7; May 7, 1998, p.B2 
People Weekly, Aug. 22, 1983, p.10 
Premiere, Dec. 1992, p.86 

School Library Journal, July 1991, p.56; Feb. 1997, p.81; Mar. 1997, p.159; 

Apr. 2003, p.121 

Vancouver (B.C.) Sun, May 27, 2002, p.B12 
Washington Post, May 3, 1986, p.H2 
Westchester (N.Y.) Journal News, Feb. 13, 1999, p.El 

Online Articles 

http : II www. cbomc . com 

(< Children's Book of the Month Club, "Interview with Dan Greenburg," un- 
dated) 

http://www.kidsreads.com 
(j KidsReads.com, "Dan Greenburg," 2000) 
http://www.penguinputnam.com 
Penguin Putnam Online, "Interview with Zack!" undated) 
http://www.post-gazette.com 

( Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Online, "'Zack' Author Having the Time of His 
Life," Dec. 24, 2001) 

Online Databases 

Biography Resource Center Online, 2003, article from Contemporary Authors 
Online, 2001 

ADDRESS 

Dan Greenburg 

Penguin Putnam Books for Young Readers 
345 Hudson Street 
New York, NY 10014 

WORLD WIDE WEB SITES 

http : //www. penguinputnam.com 
http: //www. scholastic, com 



0 

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Nikki Grimes 1950- 

American Poet and Novelist 

Winner of the 2003 Coretta Scott King Award for 

Bronx Masquerade 



BIRTH 

Nikki Grimes was bom on October 20, 1950, in Harlem, a sec- 
tion of New York City. Her father, James Grimes, was a musi- 
cian, and her mother, Bernice (McMillan) Grimes, was a key- 
punch operator. She had an older sister. 




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YOUTH 



When Grimes was young, her family had a lot of problems. Her parents 
struggled to take care of her, and she often went to live with relatives or 
even in foster homes. As a result, she ended up living in every borough of 
New York City except for Staten Island during her youth. "I was moved 
around a lot as a child, always having to adjust to new neighborhoods, new 
schools, new faces," she recalled. "The most difficult aspect of my constant 

uprooting was struggling to make new 

ii friends, leaving them behind, moving 

to a new neighborhood, and starting 
the whole process over again." 

"I was moved around a 



Grimes loved books as a child, partly 
because reading provided an escape 
from her problems. At the same time, 
however, she recognized that few of 
the books she read featured African- 
American characters whose experi- 
ences were similar to her own. "The 
word, both written and spoken, has 
always held a special fascination for 
me," she noted. "It seemed uncanny 
that words, spread across a page just 
so, had the power to transport me to 
another time or place. But they could. 
I spent many hours ensconced in the 
local library, reading — nay, devouring 
— book after book after book. Books 
were my soul's delight. Even so, in 
one sense, the stories I read betrayed 
me. Too few gave me back my mirror image. Fewer still spoke to, or ac- 
knowledged, the existence of the problems I faced as a black foster child 
from a dysfunctional and badly broken home. I couldn't articulate it then, 
but I sensed a need for validation which the books I read did not supply." 



lot as a child, always 
having to adjust to new 
neighborhoods, new schools, 
new faces. The most difficult 
aspect of my constant 
uprooting was struggling 
to make new friends, leaving 
them behind, moving to 
a new neighborhood, and 
starting the whole process 
over again." 

yy 



Grimes's fascination with books and language led her toward writing. "I 
began writing when I was six years old, and I was immediately drawn to 
poetry," she remembered. "The challenge of painting a picture or telling a 
story in only a few words intrigued me, and so I filled one spiral notebook 
after another with verse." Grimes wanted to become a writer in order to 
tell stories about kids who looked and felt like she did growing up. 
Although her mother felt she should find a more practical career, both her 
father and sister were very encouraging. "I especially remember my father 




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NIKKI GRIMES 



taking me to the home of author John Oliver Killens, who presented me 
with my first autographed book," she noted. "He signed it 'to a fellow 
writer.' When I read those words, I nearly burst!" 

During the civil rights movement of the 1960s — when African-Americans 
struggled to gain equal rights in American society — Grimes wrote poems 
about racism and read them in coffee houses around New York City. The 
teenager gathered some of her poems into a collection and made copies to 
sell at poetry readings and in local bookstores. 

In addition to poetry, Grimes developed a number of other artistic interests 
during her youth. "I've always wanted to be a writer, but I was also inter- 
ested in pursuing other fields," she explained. "I was drawn to dance, the- 
ater, and music. For a while, I worried that maybe I had too many interests, 
but my dad told me to explore all of them. He said once I decided which 
medium I wanted to focus on, I'd be able to use everything I had learned 
along the way — and he was right!" 

FAVORITE BOOKS AND AUTHORS 

"I don't remember a favorite book in my early years, but I do remember 
one of the books that made an impact on me when I was about 12," 
Grimes stated. "It was Death Be Not Proud by John Gunther, and it stuck 
with me because the protagonist [main character] had great integrity. 
That's something that I try to inject into my characters." 

Grimes was also influenced by the work of a number of African-American 
writers, including James Baldwin and Toni Morrison. She had the opportu- 
nity to meet Baldwin when she was 17, and the famous author became a 
mentor to her. "Baldwin taught me the importance of integrity in your 
work and, along with others, demonstrated the power of mastering your 
tools," she recalled. 

EDUCATION 

Grimes attended William Howard Taft High School in the Bronx borough 
of New York City. English was her best subject, and she enjoyed working 
on the literary journal in high school. She also continued writing poetry. In 
fact, her teachers sometimes caught her staring out the window and com- 
posing a poem in her head when she was supposed to be studying math 
or science. 

Upon graduating from high school in the late 1960s, Grimes attended 
Rutgers University in New Jersey. During her college years, she published 



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a 



"So many people laughed 
at me when I said I wanted to 
he a writer! Even my mother 
thought it was a had idea. 
But I learned to surround 
myself with people who 
shared my dream, or believed 
in me. That became very 
important. When I felt 
discouraged, I would 
remember that God had 
given me my talent, and 
I knew He wouldn't let 
that talent go to waste! 
That kept me going." 

» 



Coretta Scott King Award, which 
children's literature by an African 
prestigious award in 2003 for her 



poetry in literary journals. She earned 
a bachelor's degree in African lan- 
guages in 1974. 

CAREER HIGHLIGHTS 

Today, Nikki Grimes is an award-win- 
ning author of more than 20 books. 
Her work includes picture books for 
children, novels for middle -grade 
readers and young adults, biographies 
of famous African-Americans, and po- 
etry for people of all ages. Many of her 
books feature young African-Ameri- 
cans growing up in urban settings. 
Although Grimes focuses on creating 
strong characters that black readers 
can identify with, she also conveys 
universal themes about growing up, 
making friends, dealing with prob- 
lems, and being part of a family. 
Despite the struggles she endured in 
her own childhood, her work is often 
called joyous and upbeat. Over the 
years, three of Grimes's books have 
been honored as runners-up for the 
is presented annually to the best work of 
-American writer. She finally claimed the 
novel Bronx Masquerade. 



A Winding Path to a Writing Career 

Although Grimes always wanted to become a professional writer, she trav- 
eled and worked in a variety of jobs before she finally made writing her ca- 
reer. Upon graduating from college, she accepted a grant from the Ford 
Foundation to go to Tanzania in East Africa for a year. She traveled around 
the country conducting research on the culture and language and collect- 
ing Tanzanian literature to translate. When Grimes returned to the United 
States in 1975, she began working as a free-lance journalist. She wrote re- 
views of art exhibits and plays — as well as profiles of actors, artists, and 
musicians — for a variety of magazines, including Ms. and Essence. "This 
was great work for me because I loved theater and, as a critic, I got in for 
free!" she remembered. "Sometimes I'd see four plays in one week." 




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Grimes worked in several other jobs over the next few years. For example, 
she worked as a documentary photographer, library assistant, and radio 
scriptwriter and producer. Although some of her jobs provided valuable 
experience, she mostly viewed them as a way to earn money to support 
her writing. "There were practical problems, like how to earn money when 
I first got started," she recalled. "But one of the greatest obstacles was a 
lack of encouragement from others. So many people laughed at me when I 
said I wanted to be a writer! Even my mother thought it was a bad idea. 
But I learned to surround myself with people who shared my dream, or be- 
lieved in me. That became very important. When I felt discouraged, I would 
remember that God had given me my talent, and I knew He wouldn't let 
that talent go to waste! That kept me going." 

As Grimes continued writing during her spare time, she often found her- 
self returning to a story that was inspired by her own childhood. She even- 
tually realized that the story would make a good children's book. Since she 
knew very little about the field of children's literature, however, Grimes 
began reading children's books and writing reviews for magazines. This 
experience helped her learn about the industry and choose an appropriate 
publisher for her story. 

Grimes's first children's book, Growin', was published in 1977. It tells the 
story of Yolanda, an African-American girl who is known by the nick- 
name Pump (short for Pumpkin). Pump writes poetry to express her 
feelings about her father's death 
and her mother's decision to move 
the family to a new neighborhood. 

She ends up making friends with 
the bully of her fifth- grade class, 
who shares her interest in poetry. 

The unlikely friends have a series 
of adventures and get into trouble. 

Growin' received a great deal of 
positive attention upon its release. 

It was named Children's Book of 
the Year by Bank Street College and 
listed among the best books of the 
year by the Child Study Associa- 
tion. Though some reviewers com- 
plained that Grimes could have de- 
veloped her characters more fully, 
others enjoyed the focus on friend- 
ship. 




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In 1978 Grimes published her first book of poetry for children, Something 
on My Mind. It received critical praise for reflecting the experience of 
African-Americans in an urban environment as well as exploring the typi- 
cal emotions of childhood. The illustrations by Tom Feelings were selected 
as runner-up for the Coretta Scott King Award for Illustration. Despite the 
success of her early books, Grimes then took a break from writing. She 

moved to Sweden for six years, where 
she worked as a translator and also 
once sang on the stage of the Stock- 
holm Philharmonic Orchestra. 

Becoming a Full-Time Writer 

Upon returning to the United States in 
1984, Grimes worked as a free-lance 
writer and editor. Over the next few 
years, she wrote several volumes in a 
series of books featuring well-known 
Disney characters. Finally, in 1991, 
Grimes dedicated herself to writing 
children's books and poetry full-time. 
"I tried working full-time and writing, 
working part-time and writing, temp- 
ing [working in various jobs as a tem- 
porary employee] and writing. I never 
could build up enough momentum," 
she explained. "Once I realized the 
only way I could write as much as I 
wanted was to make a living at it, 
that's when I made up my mind to do 
just that. I knew it wouldn't be easy, 
but I believed that with God, all things 
are possible." 

In 1992 Grimes published Malcolm X: A Force for Change, a biography of 
the African-American civil rights activist written for middle-grade readers. 
The book follows Malcolm from his youth as a petty criminal to his emer- 
gence as a symbol of hope for black people during the civil rights move- 
ment. "Kids need to be exposed to the kind of person Malcolm was," 
Grimes stated. "He never let his mistakes or past history keep him from 
moving forward. He didn't make excuses or blame society for his prob- 
lems." Some reviewers praised Grimes for conveying the excitement sur- 
rounding her subject, while others criticized her for presenting difficult 



ii 

"I tried working full-time 
and writing, working part- 
time and writing, temping 
[working in various jobs as a 
temporary employee] and 
writing. I never could build 
up enough momentum. Once 
I realized the only way I 
could write as much as I 
wanted was to make a living 
at it, that's when I made up 
my mind to do just that. I 
knew it wouldn't be easy, but 
I believed that with God, all 

things are possible." 

» 



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issues without enough historical context. Despite the mixed reviews, Mal- 
colm X: A Force for Change was a finalist in 1993 for an Image Award from 
the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). 




Meet Danitra Brown 

Grimes published one of her most popular collections of poetry for young 
people in 1994. Meet Danitra Brown features 13 poems in which the narra- 

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tor, an African-American girl named Zuri Jackson, sings the praises of her 
best friend, Danitra Brown. Zuri appreciates her friend's confidence and 
independent spirit. She tells how Danitra always wears purple because her 
mother once told her that purple was the color of the robes worn by 
African princesses. She also respects the way Danitra ignores neighbors 
who tease her about her thick glasses and insists that she will win a prize 
for her writing someday. School Library Journal contributor Barbara Os- 
borne Williams called Meet Danitra Brown "A look at touching moments of 
friendship with universal appeal." Writing in Booklist, Hazel Rochman 
added that "We feel the girls' energy and their bond, in joyful games and in 
quiet times together." Meet Danitra Brown was selected as a Coretta Scott 
King Honor Book, a runner-up for the prestigious award. 



In 2002 Grimes returned to these beloved characters in Danitra Brown 
Leaves Town. This collection of 13 poems follows Zuri and Danitra as they 



U 

"Moving from poetry 
to prose was a giant step 
outside of my comfort zone. 
To overcome that obstacle, 

I treated the first third of the 
book [Jazmin's Notebook] 
as if it were a collection of 
poetry, writing each chapter 
like a long poem, casting 
the sentences accordingly. 

Only after each chapter 
was complete did I reformat 
the work as prose. By the 
second third of the book, 

I was once again comfortable 
enough with prose to 
write it directly." 

» 



spend a summer apart. At first Zuri is 
hurt when her best friend goes to 
visit relatives in the country while she 
must remain in the city. But the two 
girls remain close by exchanging let- 
ters about their very different sum- 
mer experiences. The letters are made 
up of poems written in simple free 
verse. A writer for Kirkus Reviews said 
that Danitra Brown Leaves Town "will 
resonate with many young readers 
who have savored the pleasures of 
Fourth of July fireworks, picnics and 
games, block parties, starry summer 
nights, and family reunions." 

Jazmin's Notebook 

Grimes earned a second Coretta Scott 
King Honor Book Award in 1998 for 
her young adult novel Jazmin's Note- 
book. Based on her own experience, 
this book tells the story of an African- 
American teenager named Jazmin who 
endures a difficult childhood in the 
1960s. Her father dies, and her mother 
is sent to a mental hospital. Jazmin 
lives in a series of foster homes until 



NIKKI GRIMES 



she finally moves into a small 
apartment in Harlem with her pro- 
tective older sister, CeCe. Jazmin 
copes with her problems by writing 
poetry and sharing her thoughts 
with her journal. "An articulate, ad- 
mirable heroine, Jazmin leaps over 
life's hurdles with agility and in- 
tegrity," wrote a reviewer for Pub- 
lishers Weekly. 

Grimes faced two major challenges 
in writing Jazmin's Notebook : com- 
posing poems in Jazmin's voice, 
and writing a novel after focusing 
on poetry for many years. "Moving 
from poetry to prose was a giant 
step outside of my comfort zone," 
she recalled. "To overcome that 
obstacle, I treated the first third of 
the book as if it were a collection 
of poetry, writing each chapter 
like a long poem, casting the sentences accordingly. Only after each 
chapter was complete did I reformat the work as prose. By the second 
third of the book, I was once again comfortable enough with prose to 
write it directly." 

Grimes challenged herself in a new way while writing her 1999 book 
Aneesa Lee and the Weaver's Gift. This collection of 13 related poems uses 
the craft of weaving to explore the life of Aneesa Lee, a talented young 
girl of mixed African-American and Japanese heritage. "I wanted to cre- 
ate a book with an element of story in which the basics of the weaver's 
craft were made both intelligible and interesting for young readers," the 
author stated. "The story of Aneesa Lee follows her through the process 
of weaving cloth, from spinning yarn and dying it, to beating the threads 
into place, to removing the cloth from the loom. Along the way, we learn 
about Aneesa as a character, about her nearest relatives, and how their 
love for each other weaves them together as a family." Aneesa Lee and the 
Weaver's Gift received positive reviews and won a Parents' Choice Gold 
Award. "For adult weavers, the book will be a treasure, and for children, 
it serves as a glimpse into the intricacies not only of weaving, but the 
patterns of daily life," wrote a reviewer for Publishers Weekly. 




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Bronx Masquerade 

Grimes's next book, the young adult novel Bronx Masquerade (2002), has 
proven to be her most successful book yet. Bronx Masquerade follows 18 
ethnically diverse high school students in the Bronx. Their teacher, Mr. 
Ward, teaches them about the Harlem Renaissance — a period of artistic 
growth in African-American literature that took place during the 1920s in 
Harlem, a section of New York City. When Mr. Ward assigns the class to 
write a final essay on the topic, one student suggests that they be allowed 
to compose poetry instead. The poetry assignment is so popular that the 
class starts holding weekly poetry slams. All the students reveal their private 
dreams and struggles in their poetry, which helps them overcome their dif- 
ferences and come together as a group. 



a 

In Bronx Masquerade, 
Grimes explained, "I wanted 
to explore the interior 
landscapes of a diverse group 
of characters, and I believed 
poetry to be the most effective 
way to get to the heart of 
those characters." 

» 



Grimes got the idea for Bronx Mas- 
querade by visiting a California high 
school class taught by her friend and 
fellow writer, Drew Ward. Ward and 
Grimes were both founding members 
of Montage, a group of artists and 
writers that got together to critique 
each other's work. Grimes noted that 
the toughest part of writing the book 
was writing poetry in the distinct voic- 
es of 18 different students. "I wanted 
to explore the interior landscapes of a 
diverse group of characters," she ex- 
plained, "and I believed poetry to be 
the most effective way to get to the 
heart of those characters." 



Bronx Masquerade proved popular among readers and critics alike. A writer 
for School Library Journal called the novel "a flowing, rhythmic portrait of 
the diversity and individuality of teen characters in a classroom," adding 
that "Grimes gives young people exactly what they're looking for — real 
characters who show them they are not alone." After two near misses, 
Grimes won her first Coretta Scott King Award from the American Library 
Association for her novel Bronx Masquerade. The American Library Asso- 
ciation noted that "Grimes boldly offers a glimpse into the heart and suf- 
fering of each student, who like many contemporary youth, struggle to dis- 
cover their identity." 

Grimes said that she hoped young adults would take away the following 
messages from the book: "Be true to yourself; never judge a book by its 



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cover; realize we are all complex individuals, more alike than we are differ- 
ent; and poetry is a powerful tool for self-expression, and self-exploration." 

Other Books 

Adding to the thrill of winning her first Coretta Scott King Award, Grimes 
accomplished a rare feat by also claiming the Coretta Scott King Honor 
Book Award the same year for her 2002 book Talkin' about Bessie: The Story 



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NIKKI GRIMES 



of Aviator Elizabeth Coleman. "I was blown away/' she recalled. "It's very- 
rare that anyone wins an award and an honor." This fictionalized biogra- 
phy tells the inspiring story of the first black woman to fly an airplane. 
Born in Texas in 1892, Coleman worked in the cotton fields but still man- 
aged to complete her education. She became determined to learn to fly, 
but found out that American flight schools only accepted white male stu- 
dents. She taught herself French and sailed to France, where she became 
an accomplished pilot and flight instructor. She died in a plane crash in 
1926, at the age of 34. Grimes presents the details of Coleman's life 
through a series of 20 poetic speeches by mourners at her funeral. Writing 
in Black Issues Book Review, Lynda Jones called the book "a rich and loving 
account of one young woman's desire 
to follow her dream, and the joy of 
having done that." 

Grimes's body of work also includes a 
number of picture books for children. 

Tier 1999 book My Man Blue, for ex- 
ample, is a story told in verse about a 
fatherless African-American boy and 
his developing relationship with a 
rough-looking man named Blue. Tier 
2001 book A Pocketful of Poems is a 
celebration of words and wordplay. In 
a review for Booklist, GraceAnne De- 
Candido stated that "There's so much 
vibrant energy and freshness [that] 
the book will dance into the hearts of 
children right away." 

Religion has been a frequent topic of Grimes's work over the years. In her 
1996 poetry collection Come Sunday, for example, a bright young girl 
named LaTasha describes the exciting sights and sounds of Paradise 
Baptist Church. In her 2002 poetry collection When Daddy Prays, a small 
boy watches how his father's religious faith affects his life. "Brimming with 
love and faith, Grimes's poems celebrate a father's devotion as seen 
through the eyes of his child," Patricia Pearl Dole wrote in School Library 
Journal. "Conversational, simple, and deeply moving, they stress the man's 
reliance on God in all aspects of his life." 

Enjoying the Challenge of Writing 

Grimes typically writes between three and six books each year. She writes 
in the morning six days per week and spends the afternoons talking with 



U 

“Even when the narratives 
I write are not historically 
true, they're always emotion- 
ally true. In other words, 

I write about feelings I've 
felt, fears I've wrestled with, 
dreams that have filled my 
imagination." 

» 




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editors or attending poetry readings or book signings. Grimes does not 
have a formal office, but instead writes "all over the house. Have pen, will 
travel! I also take a pad with me on morning walks and jot down notes 
along the way. I've been known to compose whole poems that way." 

Grimes feels a strong need to write. "Stories rise up in me demanding to 
be told, and I obey," she said. "I feel fortunate that the people I share my 
stories with seem to enjoy and learn from them." Most of her work is 

drawn from her own experiences, es- 
pecially those of her childhood. "In 
general, my fiction is autobiographi- 
cal. My life and travels have been dif- 
ficult, but, in surmounting those diffi- 
culties, I have learned much that I 
wish to share. There's no better way 
to do that than through my work," 
she explained. "Even when the narra- 
tives I write are not historically true, 
they're always emotionally true. In 
other words, I write about feelings I've 
felt, fears I've wrestled with, dreams 
that have filled my imagination." 

Grimes feels a strong sense of re- 
sponsibility in writing for a young au- 
dience. She views her books as "a last 
chance to impact the next generation 
to be sent out into the world. It's a 
challenge, a joy, and a great responsi- 
bility." As an African-American writer, 
Grimes feels a special need to con- 
nect with readers who share her eth- 
nic background. "The responsibility 
for creating quality literature and 
learning materials for black children rests with the black writer," she stat- 
ed. "I, for one, have accepted that responsibility and, while I do not write 
for children alone, I write for children first." 

In each of her books, Grimes tries to incorporate something new in order 
to challenge herself and her readers. "Easy doesn't interest me," she de- 
clared. "It never did. In art, and in life, I'm a sucker for a challenge. I like 
to take on work that frightens me, that I'm not sure I can pull off, that 
makes me dig deep. It isn't enough to write with a mandate, although I 
do. Like many African-American authors, I strive to create positive im- 



« 

"Like many African- 
American authors, I strive 
to create positive images, 
to counteract negative 
stereotypes of the African- 
American community, and to 
explore a greater depth of 
character than the media 
generally assigns people of 
African descent. But every 
time I put pen to paper, I'm 
also writing to stretch myself 
Otherwise, I feel I'm not 
doing my job." 

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ages, to counteract negative stereotypes of the African-American com- 
munity, and to explore a greater depth of character than the media gen- 
erally assigns people of African descent. But every time I put pen to 
paper, I'm also writing to stretch myself. Otherwise, I feel I'm not doing 
my job." 

HOME AND FAMILY 

Grimes lived in Seattle, Washington, for several years after she became a 
full-time writer. In 1999 she moved to Corona, California, to be near her 
colleagues in the Montage artists' group. She is unmarried and had one 
daughter, Tawfiqa, who is now deceased. 

HOBBIES AND OTHER INTERESTS 

Grimes enjoys a number of hobbies in her free time, including reading, 
cooking, walking, and playing word games. She also travels widely. "I in- 
herited my father's passion for travel, and have been to such places as 
China, Russia, Austria, Trinidad, and Tanzania," she noted. The six years 
she spent living in Sweden introduced her to her favorite hobby, knitting. 
She recently began incorporating knitting into works of fiber art, including 
beaded sweaters and jewelry and handmade cards. 

SELECTED WRITINGS 
Poetry 

Something on My Mind, 1978 

From a Child's Heart, 1993 

Meet Danitra Brown, 1994 

C Is for City, 1995 

Come Sunday, 1996 

It's Raining Laughter, 1997 

A Dime a Dozen, 1998 

Aneesa Lee and the Weaver's Gift, 1999 

Hopscotch Love: A Family Treasury of Love Poems, 1999 

My Man Blue, 1999 

A Pocketful of Poems, 2000 

Is It Far to Zanzibar? Poems of Tanzania, 2000 

Shoe Magic, 2000 

Stepping Out with Grandma Mac, 2000 
When Daddy Prays, 2000 




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Danitra Brown Leaves Town, 2002 
Under the Tree: Poems of 
Christmas, 2002 

Fiction 

Growin', 1977 
Wild, Wild Hair, 1996 
Jazmin's Notebook, 1998 
At Break of Day, 1999 
Bronx Masquerade, 2002 

Nonfiction 

Malcolm X: A Force for Change, 

1992 

Talkin' about Bessie: The Story of 
Aviator Elizabeth Coleman, 2002 

HONORS AND AWARDS 

Children's Book of the Year (Bank Street College): 1977, for Growin'; 1998, 
for Jazmin's Notebook 

Best Books of the Year (Child Study Association): 1977, for Growin' 
Notable Book (American Library Association): 1978, for Something on My 
Mind; 1994, for Meet Danitra Brown; 1997, for Come Sunday 
Benjamin Franklin Picture Book Award: 1994, for From a Child's Heart 
Parents' Choice Gold Award: 1999, for Aneesa Lee and the Weaver's Gift 
Coretta Scott King Award (American Library Association): 2003, for Bronx 
Masquerade 

Kerlan Award (Kerlan Collection of Children's Literature, University of 
Minnesota): 2003 

FURTHER READING 
Books 

Contemporary Authors, Vols. 77-80, 1979 
Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series, Vol. 60, 1998 
Eighth Book of Junior Authors and Illustrators, 2000 
St. James Guide to Children's Writers, 1999 . 

Something about the Author, Vol. 93, 1997 
Who's Who among African Americans, 2002 



ITRA BROWN 

LEAVES TOWN 



Nikki Grimes 

: illustrated by 

Cooper 




- V“ 



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Periodicals 

Book Links, Sep. 1999, p.46 
Houston Chronicle, Feb. 9, 2003, p.19 

Riverside (Calif.) Press Enterprise, Nov. 6, 1999, p.Bl; Feb. 17, 2000, p.Dl; 

Feb. 24, 2003, p.Bl 

School Librarian's Workshop, Apr. 2001, p.5 
Time for Kids, Feb. 2003, p.8 

Online Articles 

http://www.penguinputnam.com 
( PenguinPuntam.com , "Interview with Nikki Grimes on Bronx 
Masquerade," Spring 2002) 

Online Databases 

Biography Resource Center Online, 2003, articles from Contemporary Authors 
Online, 2003; St. James Guide to Children's Writers, 1999; and Who's Who 
among African Americans, 2002 

ADDRESS 

Nikki Grimes 

Penguin Putnam Young Readers Group 
345 Hudson Street 
New York, NY 10014 

WORLD WIDE WEB SITES 

http://wvvov.nikkigrimes.com 
http : // www. visitingauthors . com 
http : //www.penguinputnam.com 



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Laura Hillenbrand 1967“ 

American Writer 

Author of the Award-Winning Nonfiction Book 
Seabiscuit: An American Legend 



BIRTH 

Laura Hillenbrand was born on May 15, 1967, in Fairfax, Vir- 
ginia. Her father, Bernard Hillenbrand, was a lobbyist (a person 
who tries to influence legislators on behalf of a client or em- 
ployer) who later became a Methodist minister. Her mother, 
Elizabeth Hillenbrand, was a journalist for the Washington Post 
| and then a psychiatrist. Laura was the youngest of four chil- 

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LAURA HILLENBRAND 



dren in her family. She has two sisters and a brother. Her parents divorced 
when she was nine years old. 

YOUTH 

Hillenbrand grew up in Bethesda, Maryland, a comfortable suburb of 
Washington, D.C. An active and healthy child, she engaged in a wide as- 
sortment of sports, including competitive tennis and swimming. But her 
favorite outdoor pursuit was horseback riding, a skill she picked up at an 
early age. 

Hillenbrand traces her early love for horses and horseback riding to the 
weekends and summers she spent on her father's family farm in 
Sharpsburg, Maryland. The farm was located right next to Antietam 
National Battlefield, a historic park that was the site of one of the greatest 
battles of the American Civil War. Hillenbrand and her older siblings spent 
many afternoons exploring the peaceful grounds of the park, and they oc- 
casionally found bullets, belt buckles, and other artifacts left behind from 
the 1862 battle. But she spent most of her free time tending horses in the 
bam or riding them across the farm's wide green pastures. 

According to Hillenbrand, most of the horses her family acquired came 
from owners who had abused or neglected them. A horse lover himself, 
Bernard Hillenbrand became known for his willingness to take in horses 
that no one else wanted. This kindness gave Hillenbrand an opportunity to 
develop her deep love and understanding of horses. "We had a kind of 
mini herd of horses," she recalled. "My sister [Susan] and I would ride 
them, bareback. One horse, a stallion, who really had been abused and did 
not want to be ridden . . . well, I rode him and I got thrown. I must have 
skidded on my face because I lost an eyebrow and who knows how much 
other skin! We just rode them, no helmets, no tack. Later I did some show- 
ing [at horse riding competitions], got a few ribbons. I just loved horses for 
the joy of riding. When you learn to ride bareback, with twine for a bridle, 
you become pretty unthrowable." 

As Hillenbrand grew older, she often used money she earned from 
babysitting to buy bus tickets to area racetracks. She spent hours at the 
tracks, marveling at the speed and grace of the horses as they pounded 
past her seat in the grandstand. On one occasion, she and her sister Susan 
even combined all of their savings to rescue a horse by themselves. They 
learned that the owner of a neglected three-year-old fill y with an infection 
was about to sell her to a slaughterhouse rather than pay a veterinarian to 
treat her problems. Horrified at the thought of the horse being sent to its 
death, "Susan and I dreamed up a little scheme," Hillenbrand said. "We 



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covered the horse in mud to make her look really bad. Then we had all the 
grooms and everyone just attach themselves to the extremities of the owner 
and beg him to sell the horse to us instead of the slaughter dealer. . . . We 
sold everything we had and drained our babysitting accounts to buy this 
horse, and it was very much worth it." 

The Hillenbrand girls took the filly home to the family farm, where they 
gave it the name Allspice and set about nourishing it back to health. "She 
was a skeleton, but she pulled out and was so sweet," she remembered. 
"She blossomed into an extraordinarily beautiful creature who bonded 
with us the way dogs sometimes bond to their owners." Allspice often fol- 



U 

"We had a kind of mini 
herd of horses. My sister 
[Susan] and I would ride 
them, bareback. One horse, a 
stallion, who really had been 
abused and did not want to 
be ridden . . . well, I rode him 
and I got thrown. I must have 
skidded on my face because 
I lost an eyebrow and who 
knows how much other skin! 

We just rode them, no 
helmets, no tack. Later I did 
some showing [at horse 
riding competitions], got a 
few ribbons. I just loved 
horses for the joy of riding. 
When you learn to ride 
bareback, with twine 
for a bridle, you become 
pretty unthrowable." 

» 



lowed the family car down the drive- 
way, and she became excited whenev- 
er a member of the Hillenbrand fami- 
ly approached the pasture. As she 
grew older she even learned to turn 
the outside doorknobs of the farm- 
house with her lips, enabling her to 
poke her head in and whinny greet- 
ings to the family as they gathered 
around the dinner table. "We lost her 
a couple years later to a terrible illness 
called Potomac Fever, but she was the 
most wonderful animal I've ever had 
in my life," Hillenbrand recalled. "Even 
today, I still get emotional about her 
death." 

EDUCATION 

Hillenbrand attended school in Be- 
thesda, where she often felt lost in a 
sea of other students. These feelings 
were particularly intense in her large 
high school. During those years, she 
recalled that she and her classmates 
seemed like "herds of bison moving 
through the hallways to get from one 
class to another. People didn't take 
notice of individual students, so what- 
ever talents people had — and what- 
ever problems people were having — 
were overlooked." 



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LAURA HILLENBRAND 




Seabiscuit and Red Pollard. 



After earning her high school diploma in the spring of 1985, Hillenbrand 
enrolled at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio. Looking back, she describes 
her decision to attend Kenyon as "the best [one] I ever made in my life. . . . 
Kenyon turned me around and started my life in the direction it's gone 
ever since," she explained. "I became a straight-A student as soon as I got 
there, and Fd never been that before and never thought I would be that. I 
had a feeling of being supported the entire time I was there." Hillenbrand 
found a particularly strong mentor in Megan Macomber, who was one of 
her English instructors. "She was the first person in my life who told me, 
'You should be writing, this should be what you do with your life/" she 
said. "It really inspired me. I still have the note she wrote telling me that." 



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By her sophomore year, Hillenbrand had decided to major in English and 
history in hopes of building a career as a history teacher. In addition, she 
enjoyed a vibrant social life outside of the classroom, and she continued to 
swim, play tennis, and go horseback riding on a regular basis. 

On her way back to college at the end of spring break in March 1987, how- 
ever, Hillenbrand became violently ill. She assumed that she was suffering 
from a severe case of food poisoning, but by the time she reached the 

Kenyon campus she was in such terri- 
ble condition that friends frantically 
called paramedics for emergency as- 
sistance. Over the next several days, 
her health steadily worsened. "Every- 
thing I ate made my abdomen bal- 
loon," she recalled in the New Yorker. "I 
radiated heat, and my joints and mus- 
cles felt bruised. Every day on the way 
to classes, I struggled a little harder to 
make it up the hill behind my apart- 
ment. Eventually, I began stopping 
halfway to rest against the trunk of a 
tree." 

After three weeks, Hillenbrand be- 
came so weak that she was not even 
able to sit up in bed by herself. At that 
point, doctors were unable to diag- 
nose or treat her illness. She soon be- 
came so sick that it was impossible 
for her to attend class or pursue her 
studies. She finally came to the bitter conclusion that she would have to 
return home until she felt better. Unfortunately, Hillenbrand still struggles 
with her health, and she was never able to resume her college education. 

CAREER HIGHLIGHTS 

Hillenbrand has written numerous articles about horse racing over the years, 
but she is best-known for her 2001 book Seabiscuit: An American Legend. 
This work tells the remarkable story of Seabiscuit, a racehorse that rose out 
of obscurity to become one of the most famous figures in American sports 
history. A critically acclaimed bestseller, Seabiscuit was also adapted into a 
major motion picture in 2003. But in many respects, Hillenbrand's battle to 
produce the book is just as inspiring as the story of Seabiscuit and the men 
who nurtured him to greatness. 



« 

"Everything ! ate made my 
abdomen balloon. I radiated 
heat, and my joints and 
muscles felt bruised. Every 
day on the way to classes, 

I struggled a little harder 
to make it up the hill behind 
my apartment. Eventually, 

I began stopping halfway 
to rest against the trunk 
of a tree." 

» 



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Seabiscuit, wearing the victory flower garland, is shown with Red Pollard after 
winning at Suffolk Downs in Boston on August 7, 1937. 



Struggling with CFS 

After Hillenbrand was struck down by illness in March 1987, she won- 
dered if she would ever be able to build an independent life for herself. "A 
walk to the mailbox on the corner left me so tired that I had to lie down," 
she wrote in a New Yorker article about her illness. "Sometimes Fd look at 
words or pictures but see only meaningless shapes. Fd stare at clocks and 
not understand what the positions of the hands meant. ... In conversa- 
tion, Fd think of one word but say something completely unrelated: 'hotel' 
became 'plankton'; 'cup' came out 'elastic.' I couldn't hang on to a thought 
long enough to carry it through a sentence. When I tried to cross the street, 
the motion of the cars became so disorienting that I couldn't move." 

In addition, Hillenbrand struggled to deal with the attitudes of people who 
doubted the severity of her illness. "I had difficulties with just about every- 
one taking it seriously at first," she remembered. "I definitely had a lot of 
problems with people thinking that this is some sort of hypochondria or 
some sort of willful attempt to get attention." As the months passed by, 
many of her most valued friendships faded away. "After one or two get- 
well cards I stopped hearing from [my friends]," she said. "Now and then, I 





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Red Pollard on Seabiscuit, at the Yonkers Handicap at Empire City Race Track 
on July 24, 1937. Seabiscuit' s winning time of 1:44 broke a track record 

that had stood for 20 years. 



called people I had known in high school. The conversations were awk- 
ward and halting, and I felt foolish. No one knew what to say. Everyone 
had heard rumors that I was sick. Someone had heard I had AIDS. 
Another heard I was pregnant. ... I was ashamed and angry and inde- 
scribably lonely." 

After nearly a year of tests and visits with various doctors, Hillenbrand was 
finally diagnosed with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). "Strangely enough, 
it was a wonderful day," she said. "I finally knew what I had and that I 
probably wasn't going to die." Still, the diagnosis left her full of doubts 
about her future. The cause of CFS is unknown, although many re- 
searchers believe that it involves a breakdown in the immune system. A 
cure for the mysterious illness has yet to be found. An estimated 800,000 
people suffer from the disease, most of them women. Hillenbrand knew 
that some people suffering from CFS grow stronger over the course of 
years and are able to lead fairly normal lives. But she was also aware that 
some people with CFS spend the rest of their lives unable to perform such 
basic tasks such as walking up stairs or making dinner for themselves. 



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Unfortunately, Hillenbrand was gripped by a particularly crippling case of 
CFS. Living at home with her mother, she was confined to home for 
months and even years at a time, and she found that the disease "expressed 
itself not only as debilitating exhaustion, at times bordering on near paraly- 
sis, but also as crippling vertigo." Hillenbrand explained how the vertigo 
[dizziness] made her feel: "The room appears to be moving and flexing all 
the time. . . .The floor feels like it's pitching up and down. Sometimes [I feel 
like] I'm spinning. Sometimes my eyes actually roll involuntarily to the left. 
So reading and writing is actually very 
difficult, which is an especially cruel 
punishment for an author." 

The early 1990s marked a particularly 
depressing period in her life. From 
1991 to 1993, Hillenbrand spent vir- 
tually all of her time in bed, but verti- 
go made it impossible for her to read 
or write. "For as long as two months 
at a time, I couldn't get down the 
stairs," she said in the New Yorker. 

"The smallest exertion plunged me 
into a 'crash.' First, my legs would 
weaken and I'd lose the strength to 
stand. Then I wouldn't be able to sit 
up. My arms would go next, and I'd 
be unable to lift them. I couldn't roll 
over. Soon, I would lose the strength 
to speak. Only my eyes were capable 
of movement. At the bottom of each 
breath, I would wonder if I'd be able 
to draw the next one." 

» 

Building a Career as a Writer 

Despite the devastating effects of CFS, Hillenbrand was determined to 
build a career for herself. She knew that she could not handle a regular of- 
fice job, so she decided to make a living as a freelance writer. Beginning in 
1988, she wrote articles on such subjects as veterinary medicine, horse rac- 
ing, and other topics related to horses. She even wrote pieces on the U.S. 
government's policies on wild horse populations and scandals in the horse 
show industry. But Hillenbrand concealed her illness from the magazines 
for which she wrote. She worried that her writing assignments would dry 
up if the editors knew about her frail physical condition. 



U 

Hillenbrand explained 
how the vertigo [dizziness] 
made her feel: "The room 
appears to be moving and 

flexing all the time The 

floor feels like it's pitching 
up and down. Sometimes 
[I feel like] I'm spinning. 
Sometimes my eyes actually 
roll involuntarily to the left. 
So reading and writing is 
actually very difficult, 
which is an especially cruel 
punishment for an author." 



1 r\ < 



BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 



By 1995 Hillenbrand had become a recognized authority on horses and 
horse racing. She even became a contributing editor and writer for Equus, a 
prestigious magazine targeted at riders, trainers, breeders, and veterinari- 
ans of horses. As a member of the Equus staff, Hillenbrand tackled a wide 
range of issues in her writing. But she was always drawn back to her life- 
long love of horse racing. "The racetrack is a universe unto itself," she said. 
"There is no place like it in the world, in the sports world or in any other 
part of the world, because it's a world predicated on risk. Everybody there is 

investing in a gamble, whether they're 
putting $2 on a racehorse or getting 
on the back of a racehorse and riding 
him." 

In 1996 Hillenbrand left her mother's 
house to move into a small apartment 
in Washington, D.C. She still could not 
do many of the everyday activities that 
healthy people take for granted, but by 
this time she felt as healthy as she had 
in years. She took brief walks around 
her neighborhood, and even managed 
to go grocery shopping by herself. "I 
had lived for so long in silence and 
isolation that the world was a sensory 
explosion," she recalled. "After years of 
seeing people almost exclusively on 
television, I found their three-dimen- 
sionality startling: the light playing off 
their faces, the complexity of their 
hands, the strange electric feel of their 
nearness." 



Learning about Seabiscuit 

In 1997 Hillenbrand decided to write an article about Seabiscuit, a famous 
racehorse that competed on tracks across the United States during the late 
1930s. As a young horse, Seabiscuit had shown no talent on the track. In 
fact, he lost his first 17 races. "Seabiscuit was an unlikely champion," Hill- 
enbrand wrote. "He was a rough-hewn, undersized horse with a sad little 
tail and knees that wouldn't straighten all the way. At a gallop, he jabbed 
one foreleg sideways, as if he were swatting flies. For two years, he fought 
his trainers and floundered at the lowest level of racing, misunderstood 
and mishandled." 



ii 

"Seabiscuit was an unlikely 
champion. He was a 
rough-hewn, undersized 
horse with a sad little tail 
and knees that wouldn't 
straighten all the way. 

At a gallop, he jabbed one 
foreleg sideways, as if he 
were swatting flies. For two 
years, he fought his trainers 
and floundered at the 
lowest level of racing, 
misunderstood and 
mishandled." 



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Owner Charles Howard (left) and trainer Tom Smith (right) are pictured with 
Seabiscuit and jockey George Woolf after Seabiscuit beat War Admiral. 



But the horse's fortunes changed forever after a wealthy automobile dealer 
named Charles Howard purchased him on a hunch. Over the next several 
months, Howard hired a mysterious horse trainer named Tom Smith and a 
half-blind, failed prizefighter and struggling jockey named Red Pollard (as 
well as other jockeys) to explore Seabiscuit's potential. During the late 
1930s Smith and Pollard tapped into the horse's incredible talent and com- 
petitive fire, and by 1938 Seabiscuit was the most famous racehorse in 
America. In fact, newspapers devoted more space to the thoroughbred 
than they did to such major world figures as U.S. President Franklin D. 
Roosevelt or German leader Adolf Hitler. In late 1938, Seabiscuit capped 
his amazing rise to greatness by facing off against War Admiral in a two- 
horse race. The towering War Admiral had just claimed horse racing's 
Triple Crown by winning the three most prestigious horse races in the 
United States: the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, and the Belmont 
Stakes. Many people thought that Seabiscuit's spunky spirit would be no 
match for War Admiral's power and speed. But Seabiscuit defeated War 
Admiral in a pulse-pounding race that captured the imagination of the en- 
tire country. Ironically, in this famous race, Seabiscuit was ridden not by 



LAURA HILLENBRAND 



Pollard, who was recovering from injuries at the time, but instead by jockey 
George Woolf. 

Hillenbrand's article on Seabiscuit, called "Four Good Legs Between Us," 
appeared in the July/ August 1998 issue of American Heritage magazine. Her 
account of Seabiscuit's rise to fame received the prestigious Eclipse Award, 
the highest prize in the world of equestrian journalism. It also prompted 
numerous book publishers and film- 
makers to rush to her door. The pub- 
lishing houses believed that a book- 
length treatment of the Seabiscuit 
story would be popular with readers, 
while the film studios thought that 
the dramatic tale might be irresistible 
to moviegoers. 

Hillenbrand was delighted by the at- 
tention. Within a matter of weeks she 
signed contracts with both a book 
publisher (Random House) and a 
film studio (Universal). In fact, she 
signed both deals before she even 
started writing the Seabiscuit book. "It 
was initially frightening," she admit- 
ted. "People think I must have been 
turning cartwheels on the night I 
sealed the movie deal — which was 
only two days after sealing the book 
deal — but I was really quite terrified. 

... I think if I had been writing fic- 
tion, where the work is entirely de- 
pendent on the writer's creativity and 
the potential directions the narrative might take are infinite, I might have 
frozen. But with nonfiction, the task is very straightforward: Do the re- 
search, tell the story. Having a lot of people suddenly depending on me to 
get the job done was a marvelous motivator. The book and movie deals 
seemed to flip a switch in my head, and off I went." 

Writing Seabiscuit 

As the months passed by, Hillenbrand conducted dozens of telephone in- 
terviews. She also used the U.S. Library of Congress's lending program to 
borrow old newspapers and magazines from the Seabiscuit era. In addi- 
tion, she read countless biographies of horses, jockeys, and trainers of the 



a 

As Hillenbrand explored 
every aspect of the lives of 
Seabiscuit and the men who 
helped make him a champion 
horse, she realized that "this 
is the kind of story you wait 
your whole career to tell I 
couldn't believe the kind of 
story that was tumbling out 

of my research Every 

morning I woke up happy 
because I knew I was going to 
spend the day with these men 
and with this horse." 

» 



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1930s and 1940s. As Hillenbrand explored every aspect of the lives of 
Seabiscuit and the men who helped make him a champion horse, she re- 
alized that "this is the kind of story you wait your whole career to tell. I 

couldn't believe the kind of story that was tumbling out of my research 

Every morning I woke up happy because I knew I was going to spend the 
day with these men and with this horse." 



Indeed, Hillenbrand did not want to 
just tell the story of Seabiscuit. She 
also wanted to explore the lives of 
trainer Tom Smith and jockey Red 
Pollard. "Smith had a rare gift for un- 
derstanding horses and knowing how 
to work with them," she explained. 
"Seabiscuit was completely trans- 
formed by this man." Pollard, mean- 
while, helped unlock Seabiscuit's talent 
despite suffering from a series of terri- 
ble injuries. "Red and I have some- 
thing in common — the frailty of our 
bodies," Hillenbrand commented. "I 
understood his frustration and pain 
and his willingness to sacrifice his 
well-being to achieve something." 

In addition, Hillenbrand wanted to 
explore other themes and subjects in 
her book. For example, she hoped to 
give readers a glimpse of the intelli- 
gence and spirit that horses possess. 
"I've spent a huge amount of time 
with horses, and in the company of 
animals, my whole life," she ex- 
plained. "And the more time you 
spend with them, the more you start 
seeing the analogies between your- 
self and them. Horses are just as complicated emotionally as people are; 
they come in just as many varieties of personality. And they react to the 
world in a way that's similar to us. ... I have absolute conviction that race- 
horses love to compete. They do it on their own; if you leave them alone, 
they'll all race each other all day. And you can see it in their body language 
when they're out there on the track. They cannot wait to get going. They 
love this stuff." 



ii 



"Horses are just as 
complicated emotionally 
as people are; they come in 
just as many varieties of 
personality. And they react to 
the world in a way that's 

similar to us I have 

absolute conviction that 
racehorses love to compete. 
They do it on their own; if 
you leave them alone, they'll 
all race each other all day. 
And you can see it in their 
body language when they're 
out there on the track. They 
cannot wait to get going. 

They love this stuff." 

» 



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Seabiscuit nibbles on the hand of owner Charles Howard. 



HiUenbrand also wanted to show readers that Seabiscuit came along dur- 
ing a period of American history in which people were desperate for heroic 
figures. Seabiscuit rose to fame during the final years of the Great 
Depression, a time of great economic pain and hardship. Many American 
families struggled to earn money for basic necessities like food, clothing, 
and shelter. "I wanted to give people a feel for what it was like," she said. 
"In terms of Seabiscuit, there are periods in history where people are look- 
ing for certain attributes. There are conditions in society where they want 
certain things. He came along in the depths of the Depression and people 
were looking for Cinderella stories that they could identify with. The aver- 
age per capita income in the U.S. when he started running was $432 a 
year. So people were really in desperate shape. They were looking for 
somebody who was down and out like they were that they could identify 
with who could rise to the top. And this is true of the owner, trainer, and 
jockey as well. And when he came along something clicked, and he ceased 
to be just a racehorse running on the track. For the time he was running, 
he was a proxy [symbol] for a nation." 

Finally, HiUenbrand wanted to give readers a sense of horse racing's im- 
portance in American society during the 1930s. "It was rapidly becoming 




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the most popular spectator sport by attendance in the country/ 7 she noted. 
By the time Seabiscuit met War Admiral in their famous race, Hillenbrand 
claims that "the whole nation [was] wrapped up in this rivalry. It was the 
perfect sell, this match, and the country was simply enthralled by the rivalry." 

A Runaway Bestseller 

In 2001 Random House published Seabiscuit: An American Legend. The book 
was immediately snapped up by readers across the country, and within 



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LAURA HILLENBRAND 



three weeks of its release it was the top-selling nonfiction book in the na- 
tion. "I hoped it would be a best seller," Hillenbrand admitted. "I knew the 
story was a really good story, and the fact that American Heritage, a straight 
history magazine which was not horsy at all, had thought it was a good 
story helped. And the thirst for the underdog story is a market that never 
dies. This is the greatest underdog story in history, I think that is a big part 
of its appeal." 

U 



Seabiscuit also garnered rave reviews 
from newspapers, magazines, and 
other media outlets across the United 
States. School Library Journal called it 
a "well-written and compelling . . . 
story of a huge talent that almost 
went unrecognized until the right 
people came along. . . . Hillenbrand 
does a wonderful job in bringing an 
unlikely winner to life." Booklist 
added that "Hillenbrand's detailed 
and dramatic re-creation of Sea- 
biscuit's life and times is a remarkable 
testament to what four years of me- 
ticulous research and a writer's gift 
for storytelling can accomplish. And 
it's mighty good reading, even if you're 
not a racing fan." And a reviewer in 
USA Today declared that "[Hillen- 
brand] makes the reader understand 
why Americans, crushed by the De- 
pression, found so much hope, inspi- 
ration, and pleasure in the story of a 
small horse who rose from obscurity 
to become a champion." 



"Random House editor 
Jon Karp once said that 
Seabiscuit is a metaphor 
for my life, and he's right. 
The subjects that I've written 
about — the men and the 
horse — were radically 
different individuals, 
but the one thread that pulls 
through all of their lives 
and through the events that 
they live through together 
is the struggle between 
overwhelming hardship and 
the will to overcome it." 






As the weeks passed by, even magazines that normally did not devote 
much attention to books chimed in with praise for Hillenbrand's account. 
Sports Illustrated observed that "it's a terrific story, but it's more than just a 
horse's tale, because the humans who owned, trained, and rode Seabiscuit 
are equally fascinating. . . . Hillenbrand's account of Seabiscuit's famous 
match race with War Admiral is alone worth the book's price." Business 
Week, meanwhile, described Hillenbrand as a "a deft storyteller whose de- 
scriptions of [big] races are especially good, filled with images of pounding 
hooves and splattering mud. But Seabiscuit is more than a horse story. It is 
an account of the flowering of mass-spectator sport in an age when the 



BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 



public was starved for distraction. It also is an absorbing tale of the three 
quirky humans who brought out the best in Seabiscuit." 

By year's end, Seabiscuit received numerous awards, including the William 
Hill Sports Book of the Year. It also was a finalist for the National Book 
Critics Circle Award. In addition, Hillenbrand and her book were featured 

on ESPN, National Public Radio, NBC 
News, PBS, and in dozens of major 
magazines, newspapers, and Internet 
sites. 

Throughout this time, Hillenbrand 
seized on the media publicity to edu- 
cate the public about the nature of 
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. "As I lay in 
bed over the years, I wished that 
somebody prominent would go out 
and make an articulate case for CFS 
patients," she said. "So when Seabis- 
cuit's success gave me the opportunity 
to take on that role, I thought, OK, 
that's what I'm going to try to do." 

In virtually every interview she gave, 
Hillenbrand explained the nature of 
CFS and urged people to recognize it 
as a serious health issue. Her efforts 
were greatly appreciated by such peo- 
ple as Kim Kenney, head of the Chron- 
ic Fatigue and Immune Dysfunction 
Syndrome Association of America. Ac- 
cording to Kenney, Hillenbrand "told 
her story so graciously and compellingly. Her triumph has not only inspired 
patients but has really made a difference in helping the public understand 
what people with this illness have to go through." 

For her part, Hillenbrand believes that she was "exactly the right person" 
to tell the story of Seabiscuit and the men who guided her to success. 
"What my life has been like has helped me to understand these people 
and this story perhaps better than someone else might have," she said. "As 
soon as I began researching these people, I was positive that I wanted to 
get up every morning and have breakfast with them and live my life with 
them for a few years to come to understand them. I feel like they're people 
I could meet today and know intimately very quickly just because we have 
so much in common. . . . Random House editor Jon Karp once said that 



ii 

"Everything I do exhausts 
me, and I wake up every 
morning knowing that 
I'm going to take a lot of 
punishment that day, that 
I'm going to suffer a lot that 
day, and that's just what life 
is with this [disease]. 

The vertigo's very bad, I can 
barely read and write now, 
and that's part of having 
exhausted myself to finish 
this book. But it was 
worth it, I think." 

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Tobey Maguire in a scene from the movie Seabiscuit. 



Seabiscuit is a metaphor for my life, and he's right. The subjects that I've 
written about — the men and the horse — were radically different individ- 
uals, but the one thread that pulls through all of their lives and through the 
events that they live through together is the struggle between overwhelm- 
ing hardship and the will to overcome it." 

The Seabiscuit Phenomenon 

In 2002 Hillenbrand's life continued to revolve around the Seabiscuit story. 
"Because of the attention the book is getting, I'm still living and breathing 
Seabiscuit," she noted. "In some ways, I guess I am the keeper of the 
Seabiscuit flame, but I've never felt that this story belonged to me. I was 
just the messenger." 

In 2002 the PBS program "American Experience" broadcast a one -hour 
documentary on Seabiscuit that featured newsreel footage of his great 
races as well as extensive interviews with Hillenbrand. The show was 
warmly received by both audiences and critics. As the Boston Globe stated, 
"Seabiscuit is simply one hell of a story at any length It's almost impos- 
sible to screw up, and 'American Experience' doesn't The program is su- 

perior television." Hillenbrand also worked as a consultant on the feature 
film Seabiscuit, which was released in July 2003. The movie stars Tobey 
Maguire as Pollard, Chris Cooper as Tom Smith, and Jeff Bridges as Charles 




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a 

"Illnesses like this consume 
more than just your body; 
they become your identity. I 
had not been sick long before 
I felt I had lost myself in it, so 
that all I was to myself and 
to everyone else, was a sick 
person. Writing gives me a 
means by which to redefine 
myself It enables me to 
accomplish something that 
has nothing whatsoever to do 
with sickness, so it gives me a 
sense of dignity. I can be 
Laura the writer instead of 
Laura the invalid. Every 
word I write is a little 
victory against CFS." 

yy 



Howard. Other Seabiscuit projects in 
which HiUenbrand has been involved 
include a heavily illustrated version of 
her book, which was released in the 
spring of 2003, and a version for chil- 
dren that will feature drawings by a 
top illustrator. 

HiUenbrand admits that the publicity 
surrounding Seabiscuit took a toll on 
her health. "Everything I do exhausts 
me, and I wake up every morning 
knowing that I'm going to take a lot 
of punishment that day, that I'm go- 
ing to suffer a lot that day, and that's 
just what life is with this [disease]. 
The vertigo's very bad, I can barely 
read and write now, and that's part of 
having exhausted myself to finish this 
book. But it was worth it, I think." In 
fact, she recognizes that she is not yet 
ready to take on another book pro- 
ject. "The process of writing Seabiscuit 
was an immensely demanding one; I 
gave everything I had to it, and col- 
lapsed afterward. I have to be physi- 
cally ready to do that again before I 
write another book." 



Still, HiUenbrand assures her many fans that she has no intention of re- 
tiring. "Illnesses like this consume more than just your body; they be- 
come your identity," she stated. "I had not been sick long before I felt I 
had lost myself in it, so that all I was to myself, and to everyone else, was 
a sick person. Writing gives me a means by which to redefine myself. It 
enables me to accomplish something that has nothing whatsoever to do 
with sickness, so it gives me a sense of dignity. I can be Laura the writer 
instead of Laura the invalid. Every word I write is a little victory against 
CFS." 



HOME AND FAMILY 

HiUenbrand Uves in Washington, D.C., with her longtime boyfriend Borden 
Ranagan, who is a professor of poUtical philosophy at American University. 



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LAURA HILLENBRAND 



HOBBIES AND OTHER INTERESTS 

Hillenbrand is a Civil War buff, and she enjoys reading all sorts of litera- 
ture. She is particularly fond of older books. "I have a sense of guilt when I 
read something new that I'm missing something old that I really ought to 
pay attention to, because I think the best writing, with some very notable 
exceptions, was in the past, that the best writers have come and gone al- 
ready, but their works remain and we should read them," she explained. 

WRITING CREDITS 

Seabiscuit: An American Legend, 2001 

Hillenbrand has also written numerous articles on horse racing for Equus 
and other magazines. 

HONORS AND AWARDS 

Eclipse Award for Magazine Writing: 1998, for "Four Good Legs Between 
Us" 

Booksense Nonfiction Book of the Year: 2001, for Seabiscuit 
William Hill Sports Book of the Year: 2001, for Seabiscuit 
Big Sport of Turfdom Award (Turf Publicists of America): 2002, for 
Seabiscuit 

FURTHER READING 
Books 

Seabiscuit: An American Legend, 2001 

Periodicals 

Booklist, Jan. 15, 2001, p.900; Sep. 1, 2001, p.35; 

Boston Globe, Oct. 24, 2002, p.Dl; Apr. 19, 2003, p.Dl 

Business Week, Mar. 26, 2001, p.27 

Entertainment Weekly, Dec. 21, 2001, p.58 

Kansas City (MO.) Star, Apr. 20, 2002, p.Fl 

Kenyon College Alumni Bulletin, Spring 2001 

Ladies' Home Journal, Nov. 2001, p.100 

Library Journal, Apr. 1, 2001, p.106 

New York Times, July 16, 2002, p.G7; Apr. 18, 2003, p.S6 

New Yorker, July 7, 2003, p.56 

People, Aug. 11, 2003, p. 71 





119 



BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 



Publishers Weekly, Jan. 1, 2001, p.75 
School Library Journal, Nov. 1, 2001 
Smithsonian, Dec. 2002, p.58 

Sports Illustrated, Mar. 5, 2001, p.445; May 14, 2001, p.30 
US Weekly, Apr. 2, 2001, p.74; May 7, 2001, p.48 
USA Today, July 23, 2001, p.D4; May 23, 2002, p.Dl 
Washington Post, Feb. 28, 2001, p.D6; Mar. 1, 2001, p.D7; Mar. 9, 2001, p.Cl; 
Apr. 20, 2003, p.Y7; Apr. 21, 2003, p.Cl; June 22, 2003, p.E3 

Information for this biographical profile was also gathered from National 
Public Radio's April 7, 2001, and June 1, 2003, broadcasts of "Weekend 
Edition," and from the "Seabiscuit" episode of the "American Experience" 
PBS series. 

Online Articles 

http://www.cnn.com (CNN.com, "Author Escapes Illness with Stirring 
'Seabiscuit,'" May 4, 2001) 

http://www.equiery.com (Equiery, "The Equiery Interview: Author Laura 
Hillenbrand and Seabiscuit," Sep. 2001) 
http://www.pbs.org/newshour 
(l Online NewsHour, "Conversation: Seabiscuit," May 4, 2001) 
http://www.webdelsol 

( SolPix ; "An Interview with Laura Hillenbrand," 2002) 

Online Databases 

Biography Resource Center Online, 2003, article from Contemporary Authors 
Online, 2003 

ADDRESS 

Laura Hillenbrand 
Random House 
1745 Broadway 
New York, NY 10019 

WORLD WIDE WEB SITES 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/seabiscuit 

http://www.seabiscuitonline.com 








4 



120 




Stephen Hillenburg 1961“ 

American Animator, Writer, and Marine Biologist 
Creator, Executive Producer, and Head Writer of the 
Nickelodeon Animated Television Series "SpongeBob 
SquarePants" 



BIRTH 

Stephen Hillenburg was bom on. August 21, 1961, in Fort Sill, 
Oklahoma. His father worked as a draftsman and designer for 
aerospace companies, and his mother taught visually handi- 
capped students. He has one younger brother. 




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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 



YOUTH 

The Hillenburg family moved to Orange County California, in the mid- 
1960s. Little information is available about Stephen's childhood. When an 
interviewer asked him to describe himself as a child, for example, he 
replied that he was "probably well-meaning and naive like all kids." He 
has also said that he loved drawing and going to the beach as a boy. When 
Hillenburg was 15 years old, he learned to snorkel at Woods Cove in 
Laguna Beach. This experience gave him a profound and lasting interest in 
the ocean and the creatures of the sea. 

EDUCATION 

Hillenburg graduated from Savanna High School in Anaheim, California, 
and then went on to attend Humboldt State University in Areata, 
California. He earned a bachelor's degree in natural resources, with an em- 
phasis on marine resources, in 1984. After working in the field of marine 
biology for three years, Hillenburg decided to continue his education at the 
California Institute of the Arts in Valencia. He earned a master's degree in 
experimental animation in 1992. 

CHOOSING A CAREER 

From the time his family moved to California, Hillenburg was fascinated 
by the ocean. His interest in marine life led him to study marine resources 
in college. Upon graduating from Humboldt State University in 1984, 
Hillenburg got a job at the Orange County Marine Institute. His work in- 
volved preparing exhibits and teaching children about life undersea and in 
tide pools. Tide pools are small, enclosed ponds that are created when sea- 
water collects on a reef, rocky shore, or beach as the tide recedes. A wide 
variety of creatures live in tide pools, including sponges, octopi, crabs, and 
starfish. "We taught tide-pool ecology, nautical history, diversity, and adap- 
tation," he recalled. "Working as a marine science educator, I had the 
chance to see how enamored [fascinated] kids are with undersea life, es- 
pecially tide pool creatures." 

Although Hillenburg enjoyed marine biology, he longed to find a way to 
express his creative side in his work. "I've always been interested in art and 
making things, but I chose not to go to art school because I thought I 
needed to do something else. Art was a tough way to make a living," he 
explained. "I've always done both. I just kind of figured that the marine bi- 
ology would be a career and the art would be something I did for my own 
self-expression." Finally, after three years of teaching at the Orange 




1 9$ 

c t 



122 



STEPHEN HILLENBURG 



County Marine Institute, Hillenburg returned to school to pursue a gradu- 
ate degree in animation. "Changing careers like that is scary" he admitted. 
"But the irony is that animation is a pretty healthy career right now and 
science education is more of a struggle." 

During his years as a student at the California Institute of Arts, Hillenburg 
produced several short animated films. Two of these films, The Green Beret 
and Wormholes, have been exhibited in numerous international film festi- 
vals. In 1991 Hillenburg was one of 
six recipients of the annual Princess 
Grace Foundation-USA film grant 
award. This award was established to 
recognize and assist the career devel- 
opment of promising young artists in 
American theater, dance, and film. 

Flillenburg's success as a student film- 
maker reassured him that pursuing a 
career in the arts was worthwhile. 

CAREER HIGHLIGHTS 

Stephen Hillenburg is best known as 
the creator of "SpongeBob Square- 
Pants," a highly popular animated 
children's series on the Nickelodeon 
cable television network. Hillenburg 
drew upon both his experience as a 
marine biologist and his training as a 
filmmaker to create the show. The 
title character is a nerdy but likeable 
yellow sea sponge who lives and 
works in an underwater city in the Pacific Ocean. "SpongeBob Square- 
Pants" was an immediate hit when it made its debut in 1999. It went on to 
become the top-rated animated show for children, and it also attracted 
millions of adult fans. 

"Rocko's Modem Life" 

After Hillenburg graduated from the California Institute of Arts, he got a 
job with Nickelodeon. Nick is America's top children's cable television 
channel, with a viewership of more than 78 million households in the 
United States. He started as a writer on "Rocko's Modem Life," an animat- 
ed children's show that first aired on Nick in September 1993. 



a 

"I've always been interested 
in art and making things , but 
I chose not to go to art school 
because I thought I needed to 
do something else. Art was a 
tough way to make a living. 
I've always done both [art 
and science ]. I just kind of 
figured that the marine biolo- 
gy would be a career and the 
art would be something I did 
for my own self-expression." 

» 



BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 




The program centered around an Australian wallaby named Rocko, who 
was living on his own for the first time. He lived with his not-so-brilliant 
dog, Spunky, in O-Town, USA. His best friend was a bumbling steer 
named Heffer. Rocko also had a number of eccentric neighbors, including 
an uptight toad couple, a timid turtle, and a sneaky slug. Although 
"Rocko's Modern Life" was promoted as a children's cartoon, it featured 
some adult themes. 




1 

u. 




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STEPHEN HILLENBURG 



O 

ERLC 



During his first three years at Nick, HiUenburg worked closely with Joe 
Murray, the creator and producer of "Rocko's Modern Life." During the 
show's final year, Hillenburg was promoted to creative director of the 
show In this position, he participated in and helped oversee most aspects 
of the production cycle. Still, his experience with "Rocko's Modem Life" 
made him reluctant to try to produce his own series. "After watching Joe 
tear his hair out a lot, dealing with all the problems that came up," 
Hillenburg said, "I thought I would never want to produce a show of my 
own." 

ii 

Creating a New Series 

But in 1996, as "Rocko's Modem Life" 
was coming to an end, Hillenburg ig- 
nored his reservations and began to 
think about creating his own animat- 
ed show for children. He claims that 
the idea for "SpongeBob Square Pants" 
came to him one day as he was dri- 
ving to the beach on the Santa Monica 
Freeway. 

As Hillenburg developed the show's 
concept, he knew that he wanted to 
create "something that was fantastic 
but believable." He thought about his 
teaching experience at the Orange 
County Marine Institute and remem- 
bered how so many children had been 
fascinated by marine life. He decided 
to create a series that takes place un- 
derwater, with a focus on creatures that can be found in tide pools. "I want- 
ed to create a small town underwater where the characters were more like 
us than like fish," he explained. "They have fire. They take walks. They 
drive. They have pets and holidays." 

Hillenburg knew that he wanted his main character to be a sponge. Yet 
when he began to draw cartoon characters that resembled real sea sponges, 
they never had the right appeal. Real sea sponges are living creatures that 
don't look like the geometrically shaped cellulose sponges many people 
use in their kitchens. "At first I drew a few natural sponges — amorphous 
shapes, blobs — which was the correct thing to do biologically as a marine 
science teacher," he recalled. "Then I drew a square sponge, and it looked 
so funny. I think as far as cartoon language goes he was easier to recog- 




For "SpongeBob, "Hillenburg 
decided to create a series 
that takes place underwater, 
with a focus on creatures 
that can be found in tide 
pools. "I wanted to create a 
small town underwater 
where the characters were 
more like us than like fish. 
They have fire. They take 
walks. They drive. They have 
pets and holidays." 

» 



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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL. 14 



nize. He seemed to fit the character type I was looking for — a somewhat 
nerdy, squeaky clean oddball/' As a result, the character of SpongeBob 
looks more like a kitchen sponge than like an underwater sea sponge. 

SpongeBob SquarePants 

The first name Hillenburg came up with for his main character was Sponge - 
Boy, but he soon found out that the name was already trademarked. After 

some thought, Hillenburg renamed 
him SpongeBob and also gave him a 
last name — SquarePants. This unusu- 
al name became the title of the show. 

As a marine biologist, Hillenburg 
knew that he could not base a cartoon 
around a character that really acted 
like a sponge. "Sponges are a colonial 
animal," Hillenburg explained, "which 
basically means they're a bunch of 
cells that work together in order to 
survive. They have no nervous system. 
The behavior is, they sit and siphon 
water." SpongeBob, on the other hand, 
does far more than just sit around. He 
is a square, yellow sea sponge who 
wears a necktie, shorts, and shoes. He 
lives in a two-story pineapple and 
works in the underwater city of Bikini 
Bottom, off the Pacific Coast. 

Hillenburg created a number of hu- 
morous characters for the show, in 
addition to SpongeBob — whose voice 
was supplied by Tom Kenny, the voice 
of Rocko on "Rocko's Modern Life." Most of these supporting characters 
were also based on creatures found in the ocean. For example, SpongeBob 
has a pet snail, Gary, who meows like a cat. His best friend is Patrick Star- 
fish, a surfer- dude type whose hobbies include sleeping and lying dormant. 
SpongeBob's next-door neighbor is Squidward Tentacles, a grumpy octopus 
who plays the clarinet. Another of SpongeBob's good friends is Sandy 
Cheeks, a squirrel from Texas who lives in an oxygen-filled air dome. 

SpongeBob and Squidward work as fry cooks at the Krusty Krab, a fast- 
food restaurant in Bikini Bottom. SpongeBob considers this his dream job 



CC 

"At first I drew a few 
natural sponges — 
amorphous shapes , blobs 
— which was the correct 
thing to do biologically as a 
marine science teacher. 
Then I drew a square sponge, 
and it looked so funny. 

I think as far as cartoon 
language goes he was 
easier to recognize. He 
seemed to fit the character 
type I was looking for — a 
somewhat nerdy, squeaky 
clean oddball." 

» 



o 

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126 



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STEPHEN HILLENBURG 




and claims that he and Squidward are the dream team when it comes to 
flipping burgers. But the owner of the restaurant, Mr. Krabs, is only inter- 
ested in making money. He is worried that his archrival, Plankton, is trying 
to steal his secret Krab Patty recipe. Mr. Krabs has a teenage daughter 
named Pearl, who is a whale. 

SpongeBob is very optimistic, always looking on the bright side of life. He 
always manages to get into trouble, but he never lets it get him down. His 




BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 



happy-go-lucky attitude often annoys Squidward and Mr. Krabs, but they 
both tolerate him because he is so likeable. "The main thing about 
SpongeBob is that he celebrates innocence," Hillenburg said of his main 
character. "His outlook on life is very optimistic and earnest, and I think 
kids relate to that. He has a creative spark, in the same way children are 
very creative from an open and naive perspective." Hillenburg noted that 

the premise of the show "is that inno- 
cence prevails — which I don't think it 
always does in real life." 

"SpongeBob SquarePants" 
Becomes a Huge Hit 

Hillenburg kept thinking about Sponge- 
Bob and his friends until he had creat- 
ed what he called "a whole world in 
my head." He turned this world into 
what is known in the field of anima- 
tion as a "Bible" — a book full of char- 
acters, descriptions, settings, and situ- 
ations — that forms the basis of a car- 
toon series. Then came the time for 
Hillenburg to present his idea to deci- 
sion-makers at Nickelodeon. He made 
a colorful presentation that featured 
an aquarium full of unusual sea crea- 
tures, three-dimensional versions of 
the main characters sculpted in clay, 
and a ukelele that he used to play his 
original theme song. Nickelodeon liked 
the idea and asked Hillenburg to come 
up with a story for a pilot episode. 
Hillenburg wrote a story and illustrat- 
ed it with a series of rough drawings to create a storyboard. Nickelodeon ap- 
proved the storyboard and gave him money to produce the show. 

The "SpongeBob SquarePants" cartoon premiered on Nickelodeon in July 
1999, with Hillenburg becoming the show's head writer and executive pro- 
ducer. It was an immediate hit, quickly emerging as the number one ani- 
mated show among children between the ages of two and 11. To the sur- 
prise of many experts, however, the show also gained a large following 
among older audiences. "SpongeBob" was especially popular with college 
students. In addition, many parents began watching the show on their 
own after being exposed to it through their children. "It seems like we're 



U 

"The main thing about 
SpongeBob is that he 
celebrates innocence. His 
outlook on life is very 
optimistic and earnest, and 
I think kids relate to that 
He has a creative spark, in 
the same way children are 
very creative from an open 
and naive perspective." 
Hillenburg noted that the 
premise of the show "is that 
innocence prevails — which 
I don't think it always 
does in real life." 

» 



STEPHEN HILLENBURG 




Stephen Hillenburg (left) poses with Tom Kenny (right), the voice of SpongeBob. 



aiming at a child audience, but everyone can laugh at the basic human 
traits that are funny. It's playful, the humor is playful, the world is playful," 
Hillenburg explained. "Our characters act silly, even totally ridiculous at 
times. And most of our jokes don't come out of pop cultural references." 

Some observers attribute the show's broad appeal to its positive message 
and values. In fact, the Parents Television Council ranked it third-best 
among prime-time shows for portraying strong family values. Fans note 
that "SpongeBob SquarePants" is simple and funny, without the vulgarity 
and violence seen in many contemporary cartoons. The main message of 
the show is the importance of treating other people with respect. "We 
don't concentrate on morality during the show, but [viewers] know when 
something is wrong," Hillenburg stated. "When [SpongeBob] lies, he gets 
it. He is a creative, open-minded being, and kids should feel free to be cre- 
ative and know it is OK to be a nerd." At the same time, though, Hill- 
enburg insists that the intent of "SpongeBob" is to make people laugh at 
human nature rather than to educate them. 

"SpongeBob SquarePants" has received positive reviews from television 
critics. For example, Veme Gay of Newsday called it "quite possibly the most 
brilliantly imaginative animated show on TV this season." Writing in the 



BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 




SpongeBob SquarePants "soaks up" chocolate milk in a new ad for got milk? 



New York Post, Michael Glitz praised "SpongeBob" as a "sweet, good-na- 
tured show with a hero who is decidedly square (in every sense of the 
word). ... In an age where even kiddie shows are expected to be edgy. 



O 

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130 



132 



STEPHEN HILLENBURG 



'SpongeBob' is clever but noticeably free of double entendre, adult asides, 
and irony." 

In March 2001, Nick aired a special prime-time episode of "SpongeBob 
SquarePants" that gave kids the opportunity to choose the ending. It was a 
suspenseful half-hour special entitled "You Wish." Kids were able to vote 
online or call in to choose which of three characters (SpongeBob, Patrick, 
or Squidward) would have their wish granted. The vote determined the of- 
ficial ending of the episode. Patchy, a pirate who is president of the 
SpongeBob fan club, appeared at the 
beginning and end of the special to 
help guide kids through the online 
and call-in voting process. 

By May 2001, the popularity of 
"SpongeBob SquarePants" had begun 
to spread around the world. It became 
a top -ten show for Nick in Australia, 

Mexico, Argentina, and the United 
Kingdom. In June 2001, polls showed 
that over one-third of the audience for 
"SpongeBob" was over 18. The follow- 
ing month, Nick responded to the 
large number of adult viewers by add- 
ing "SpongeBob SquarePants" to its 
prime-time schedule. The show was 
broadcast four nights per week (Mon- 
day through Thursday) at 8:00 p.m. 

This programming change dramatical- 
ly increased the number of older view- 
ers. By May 2002, the show / s total viewership reached more than 61 mil- 
lion. Children and teens continued to account for the majority of viewers, 
but the show also reached an estimated 20 million people between the 
ages of 18 and 49. 

"SpongeBob" counts a number of celebrities among its fans. In addition, 
the show is popular among gay men. Although Hillenburg said that he did 
not intend to portray any of the characters on "SpongeBob" as homosexu- 
als, he understands why gay people can relate to the show. "I do think that 
the attitude of the show is about tolerance," he acknowledged. "Everybody 
is different, and the show embraces that. The character SpongeBob is an 
oddball. He's kind of weird, but he's kind of special. Although SpongeBob 
and his pals are all very different from one another, they get along. No one 
is shut out. I always think of them as being somewhat asexual." 



U 

"We don't concentrate on 
morality during the show, 
but [viewers] know when 
something is wrong. 
When [SpongeBob] lies, 
he gets it. He is a creative, 
open-minded being, and 
kids should feel free to be 
creative and know it is 
OK to be a nerd." 

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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 



SpongeBob Expands into Movies and Merchandise 

During an average day in the production of the TV show, Hillenburg 
worked from about 9:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. and then returned to his home in 
Hollywood. He typically supervised preliminary drawings, scripts, sound- 
tracks, editing, color, and other details. According to Hillenburg, "Sponge- 
Bob" was put together differently than most other animated children's 
shows. First, a creative team came up with the premise for each episode. 
Then a second team fleshed out the idea as a storyboard. This means that 

they drew the action frames and came 
up with the dialogue on a board that 
looks "kind of like a comic book." 
The finished storyboards were sent to 
Rough Draft Studios in Korea, where 
the animation was done. Then the film 
came back to Burbank, California, 
where the sound, music, and editing 
were completed. From start to finish, 
each episode took between nine and 
twelve months to make. 



ii 



"I never imagined that it 
would get to this point 
When you set out to do a 
show about a sponge, you 
can't anticipate this kind of 
craze. We just try to make 
ourselves laugh, then ask if 
it's appropriate for children. 
I can tell you that we hoped 
it would be liked by adults. 
But we really thought the 
best we could hope for was 
a college audience." 

» 



As the popularity of the "SpongeBob 
SquarePants" cartoon grew, so did the 
popularity of SpongeBob merchan- 
dise. In 2002, for example, enthusias- 
tic fans spent over $750 million on 
items bearing the SpongeBob name. 
SpongeBob merchandise ranges from 
children's toys, games, and clothing 
to adult items like air fresheners, fish- 
ing poles, mud flaps, and yoga mats. 
The SpongeBob craze even extended 
into such food items as macaroni and cheese, ice cream bars, and cereal. 
Fans of SpongeBob have also created hundreds of sites on the Internet 
dedicated to the show, including guides to episodes of "SpongeBob 
SquarePants" and online polls that track favorite characters. 



Hillenburg is surprised by the popularity of the show, and particularly by 
its strong appeal to adult audiences. "I never imagined that it would get to 
this point. When you set out to do a show about a sponge, you can't antici- 
pate this kind of craze. We just try to make ourselves laugh, then ask if it's 
appropriate for children," he noted. "I can tell you that we hoped it would 
be liked by adults. But we really thought the best we could hope for was a 
college audience." 



erIc 



132 



134 



STEPHEN HILLENBURG 



The DVD cover of Tales from the Deep. 





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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 



In April 2002, Hillenburg decided to end his work on the "SpongeBob 
SquarePants" television series. By this time he had produced 60 episodes. 
A few months later, Hillenburg began working on a feature-length 
"SpongeBob SquarePants" film that is scheduled to be released in late 
2004. "I don't want to try and do a movie and the series at the same time," 
he explained. "We have 60 episodes and that is probably as many as Nick 
really needs. It is a standard number for a show like this. I have done a lit- 
tle research and people say it is just crazy doing a series and movie at the 
same time. I would rather concentrate on doing a good job on the movie." 

MARRIAGE AND FAMILY 

Hillenburg and his wife, Karen, have a son named Clay. They live in 
Hollywood, California. Karen is a chef who teaches at the New School of 
Cooking in Culver City. Hillenburg considers his wife to be the funniest 
person he knows. 

HOBBIES AND OTHER INTERESTS 

In his spare time, Hillenburg enjoys surfing, snorkeling, scuba diving, and 
playing "noisy rock music" on his guitar. 

SELECTED CREDITS 

Independent Animated Short Films 

The Green Beret, 1992 
Wormholes, 1992 

Television Series 

"Rocko's Modern Life," 1994-1996 (creative director) 

"SpongeBob SquarePants," 1996-2002 (creator, executive producer, and 
writer) 

HONORS AND AWARDS 

Film Grant Award (Princess Grace Foundation-USA): 1991 
Los Angeles International Animation Competition Winner: 1992, for The 
Green Beret 

Golden Reel Award (Motion Picture Sound Editors): 2000, for "Sponge- 
Bob SquarePants," for best sound editing in television animation 
Television Critics Association Award: 2002, for "SpongeBob SquarePants," 
for top children's show 



ERIC 



134 



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STEPHEN HILLENBURG 



Walk the Talk Award (Heal the Bay environmental public interest group): 
2001, for elevating marine life awareness through the "SpongeBob 
SquarePants" cartoon 

Princess Grace Statue Award (Princess Grace Foundation — USA) : 2002 
50 Greatest Cartoon Characters of All Time (TV Guide): 2002, for 
"SpongeBob SquarePants" (number 9) 

Reuben Awards (National Cartoonists Society): 2003 

FURTHER READING 
Periodicals 

Boston Globe, July 7, 2002, p.Ll 

Columbus (Ohio) Dispatch, Mar. 16, 2003, p.Hl 

Current Biography Yearbook, 2003 

Current Science, Aug. 30, 2002, p.8 

Houston Chronicle, July 16, 1999, p.l 

Los Angeles Times, Apr. 7, 2002, part 5, p.l 

New York Times, July 11, 1999, p.37; July 29, 2001, p.13; July 21, 2002, p.5 
Orlando Sentinel, May 18, 2001, p.El 
Philadelphia Inquirer, Mar. 19, 2003, p.El 
Salt Lake Tribune, May 11, 2001, p.Bl 

San Francisco Chronicle, Mar. 9, 2003, p.37; May 27, 2003, p.Dl 
San Jose Mercury News, July 11, 1999, p.4 
Washington Post, Oct. 15, 2001, p.C14 

Online Articles 

http://www.ocmetro.com 

(OC Metro, "Young, Smart, and On Top," May 2, 2002) 

ADDRESS 

Stephen Hillenburg 
Nickelodeon 
231 West Olive Avenue 
Burbank, CA 91502 

WORLD WIDE WEB SITES 

http://www.nick.com/all_nick/tv_supersites/spongebob 

http://www.pgfusa.com/alumni/bios/hillenburg.html 




135 




Norton Juster 1929- 

American Writer, Architect, and Professor of Design 
Author of the Children's Classic The Phantom Tollbooth 

BIRTH 

Norton Juster was bom on June 2, 1929, in Brooklyn, a section 
of New York City. His father, Samuel H. Juster, was an archi- 
tect, and his mother, Minnie (Silberman) Juster, was a home- 
maker. 

O 136 

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1 9 a 



NORTON JUSTER 



YOUTH 

Juster enjoyed reading throughout his childhood. His favorite books in- 
cluded The Wizard of Oz and The Wind in the Willows, but he read every- 
thing from boys' boarding school stories to reference books. "I used to read 
the encyclopedia when I was a kid," he noted. "We had a big set of them at 
home and I just read it for fun. And I had this most fantastic assortment of 
totally unrelated and irrelevant facts at my fingertips which I used to ter- 
rorize teachers." 

Juster was fascinated by language and 
always liked authors who used words 
in interesting ways. He inherited his 
love of language from his father, who 
drove the family crazy with his puns, 
riddles, and wordplay. "My father was 
the kind of person who would greet 
you by saying, 'I see you're coming 
early lately. You used to be behind but 
now you're first at last,"' Juster re- 
called. 

As he grew older, Juster discovered 
that he enjoyed playing with words 
on his own. "I used to like to write 
and mess around when I was in ele- 
mentary school and high school, but 
I never took it too seriously," he remembered. "I used to invent little sto- 
ries, turn things upside-down, and play with ideas. How does a sound 
look? What color is the number three?" 

EDUCATION 

Juster attended Public School 99 and James Madison High School in 
Brooklyn. Upon graduation, he went to the University of Pennsylvania 
(Penn) to study architecture. Juster claimed that he always knew that he 
wanted to become an architect like his father. "When I went to school I 
couldn't conceive of anything else I wanted to do," he admitted. "From day 
one, my toys would be the samples my father brought home from the of- 
fice: wood samples, stone samples. That's what I messed around with. I 
loved the idea of making things." 

Juster earned a bachelor's degree in architecture from Penn in 1952. He 
spent the next year doing graduate work in city planning at the University 
of Liverpool in England on a Fulbright Fellowship. 



"I used to read the 
encyclopedia when 1 was a 
kid. We had a big set of them 
at home and I just read it for 
fun. And I had this most 
fantastic assortment of totally 
unrelated and irrelevant facts 
at my fingertips which I used 
to terrorize teachers." 

» 




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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 



MILITARY SERVICE 

Upon completing his education, Juster enlisted in the U.S. Navy Reserves. 
He served on active duty from 1954 to 1957 with the Civil Engineer Corps. 
Part of his military service involved helping to build air fields in Morocco in 
Africa and Newfoundland in Canada. He found his time in Newfoundland 
to be so boring that he wrote stories to amuse himself. "There was nothing 
to do," he remembered. "You could go crazy, so I started writing and illus- 
trating, doing watercolors and hanging them up." 

CAREER HIGHLIGHTS 

Norton Juster worked as an architect 
and taught college-level courses in 
architectural design for more than 30 
years. He also continued writing sto- 
ries as a form of relaxation, publish- 
ing several books for children and 
adults over the years. Juster is best 
known for his first book, The Phantom 
Tollbooth. Widely considered to be a 
modem classic of children's literature, 
it has remained in print for more than 
40 years. Children and adults alike 
appreciate the book's exciting plot, 
clever wordplay, and important mes- 
sage about the pursuit of knowledge. 

Becoming a Writer 

After completing his military service, 
Juster began practicing as an architect 
in New York City. In 1960 he became 
a partner in the architecture firm Juster and Gugliotta and also took a posi- 
tion as a professor of design at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn. "My sense of 
myself is as an architect, and I am always a little embarrassed to call myself 
a writer since I don't engage in it with the same consistency and commit- 
ment," he once explained. "The way I see things and think about things is 
as an architect, and my writing is totally influenced by this." 

Juster launched his writing career around the same time as his architecture 
career. "I received a grant from the Ford Foundation to write a book for 
kids about urban perception, or how people experience cities, but I kept 
putting off writing it," he recalled. "Instead I started to write what became 



ii 

Juster always knew that 
he wanted to become an 
architect like his father. 
"When I went to school I 
couldn't conceive of anything 
else I wanted to do. From day 
one, my toys would be the 
samples my father brought 
home from the office: wood 
samples, stone samples. 
That's what I messed around 
with. I loved the idea of 
making things." 

» 



ERIC 



138 



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NORTON JUSTER 



The Phantom Tollbooth. It was like goofing off, writing this. It was fun. I did a 
lot of research for the other book, but whenever I sat down to write I kept 
going back to the fictional story." The story gradually came together into a 
book, which was published by Random House in 1961. "I didn't know it 
was going to be a book," Juster noted. "I thought it was just a little episode 
or a story. When it got going it began to sort of piece itself together. The 
whole thing happened in a very strange way. I would not recommend it as 
a way to write a book for anybody." 

The Phantom Tollbooth 

The Phantom Tollbooth is a humorous fantasy-adventure story about a boy 
named Milo who is bored with his life, both at home and at school. Juster 
drew from recollections of his own childhood in creating the main charac- 
ter. "I am the original Milo," he admitted. "When I wrote [the book], it was 
very personal to me and it really dealt with a lot of the things that I re- 
call — not so much events as feelings — when I was a kid. Having to learn 
things that I didn't want to learn. Finding myself with a large piece of time 
that I didn't know what to do with — in other words, being bored." 

In The Phantom Tollbooth, Milo arrives home from school one day to find a 
mysterious package waiting for him. The outside of the box says, "Easily 
assembled at home, and for use by those who have never traveled in 
Lands Beyond." Milo opens the box to find the pieces of a magical purple 
tollbooth, along with instructions and a map. Since he has nothing better 
to do, Milo assembles the tollbooth. When he drives through it in his toy 
car, he is instantly transported to the Kingdom of Wisdom. 

The kingdom consists of two parts. One part is Dictionopolis, the land of 
words, which is ruled by King Azaz the Unabridged. The other part is 
Digitopolis, the land of numbers, which is ruled by the Mathemagician. 
The two rulers are brothers who constantly argue over the relative value of 
words and numbers. The last thing they agreed upon was the decision to 
send their twin sisters Rhyme and Reason away to the Mountains of 
Ignorance. Milo sets off on a difficult and dangerous mission to rescue the 
sisters and thus bring meaning back to words and numbers. 

Milo is accompanied on his journey by two companions, a ticking watch- 
dog named Tock and a giant insect named Humbug. "I realized that I 
needed two companions," Juster noted. "Tock the Watch Dog was the 
friend that you always wanted because he was dependable. You could al- 
ways count on him. He was the friend your mother wanted you to play 
with because he was straight and good. But that felt one-sided, and so I 




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NORTON JUSTER 



created Humbug, who was exactly the kind of untrustworthy character 
that gets a kid into trouble and who mothers can't stand." 

As his quest continues, Milo passes through several strange lands and en- 
counters many unusual characters. For example, he goes through the 
Doldrums and meets the Lethargians, a species that specializes in wasting 
time. Along the way, Milo collects tools of knowledge to use in his rescue 
mission. When he finally reaches the Mountains of Ignorance, Milo uses 
his wits to defeat a series of demons, 
including the Terrible Trivium, Gross 
Exaggeration, Threadbare Excuse, 

Everpresent Wordsnatcher, Overbear- 
ing Know-It-All, and Senses Taker. 

He rescues Rhyme and Reason and 
brings them back to the Kingdom of 
Wisdom, where he is welcomed as a 
hero. 

When Milo returns home, he is sur- 
prised to find that only an hour has 
passed. Yet he recognizes that he has 
been forever changed by his adven- 
ture. After experiencing the excite- 
ment of learning and using his wits, 
he understands that the pursuit of 
knowledge will allow him to over- 
come the boredom in his life. 

The Phantom Tollbooth was illustrated 
by Jules Feiffer, who went on to be- 
come a famous political cartoonist. 

Juster and Feiffer lived in the same 
apartment building in Brooklyn 
Heights in the mid-1950s. The two men became friends and later shared 
an apartment. Juster recalled that he never actually asked Feiffer to illus- 
trate his book. Instead, the collaboration seemed to happen naturally. "He 
just started making drawings," the author remembered. "He was reading 
the stuff I wrote, and without telling me, really, he started to make a few 
drawings. I told him they were terrific. That's how it happened." 

Over time, Juster and Feiffer entered into a good-natured contest that 
added to the humor of the book. "I started creating characters that Jules 
wouldn't know how to draw," Juster admitted. "That's how I came up with 
the Triple Demons of Compromise. In the book, I describe them: 'One tall 



U 

"I am the original Milo. 
When I wrote [the book], it 
was very personal to me and 
it really dealt with a lot of the 
things that I recall — not so 
much events as feelings — 
when I was a kid. Having to 
learn things that I didn't 
want to learn. Finding myself 
with a large piece of time 
that I didn't know what to 
do with — in other words, 
being bored." 

» 



BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL. 14 




A movie still from The Phantom Tollbooth, 1971. 




and thin, one short and fat, and the third exactly like the other two.' It 
struck me as funny to try to write things he would have difficulty drawing." 
Feiffer took his revenge by making one of the book's unsavory characters, 
the Whether Man, resemble Juster. 



First Novel Becomes a Classic 



When The Phantom Tollbooth was first published in 1961, Juster had no 
inkling of the book's future popularity and success. "I had the usual first 
book paranoia," he admitted. "I was convinced that the book was distrib- 
uted in the dead of night, in unmarked trucks, in unidentified boxes that 
were immediately put in the basements of bookstores where they would 
never be seen again." Instead, the book received a glowing review in the 
New Yorker and took off from there. 



In 1962 The Phantom Tollbooth was included on the New York Times list of 
best-selling children's books of the year. In 1966 it was included on the 
newspaper's list of the 50 best children's books published in the previous 
five years. The book went on to sell 1.4 million copies in the United States 
over the next 30 years. It was translated into more than a dozen languages 



142 



144 



NORTON JUSTER 



and adapted as a feature film and as an opera. In 1999 The Phantom 
Tollbooth was selected as one of the top 100 children's books by the 
National Education Association. It was even made into a feature-length 
animated film in 1971 by Chuck Jones, the legendary creator of Bugs 
Bunny and other cartoon characters. (For more information on Jones, see 
the entry in Biography Today Authors, Vo\. 12.) 

Readers and critics alike enjoyed the 
book's amusing wordplay, interesting 
characters, well -drawn fantasy world, 
and exciting adventure plot. "Part ex- 
tended joke, part moral fable, part 
fairy story, there is little with which 
one can compare it," noted a writer for 
the St. James Guide to Fantasy Writers. 

"Juster's flair for combining wit and 
knowledge makes this charming story 
far more than a moralistic tale, exhort- 
ing people to read and learn. At the 
end, Milo's newfound enthusiasm 
for reading, and his realization that 
knowledge can provide him with all 
the excitement and adventures he 
could want, proves very infectious." 

Although The Phantom Tollbooth re- 
ceived almost entirely favorable re- 
views, a few critics claimed that it was 
too sophisticated for children. "At that 
time, the received wisdom was that 
fantasy was bad because it disoriented 
children and that there should be no 
words in a book that a kid would not 
encounter elsewhere," Juster explained. 

"[But] I think really good books can be 
read by anybody. Sometimes I have a 
problem labeling a children's book as 
if it were some lesser form. There are good books and there are bad books, 
period, that's the distinction. A good book written for children can be read 
by adults." 

As it turned out, Juster's book was beloved by children and adults alike. 
More than 40 years after The Phantom Tollbooth was first published, Juster 
continued to receive hundreds of letters from fans each year. Many people 



a 

"At that time, the received 
wisdom was that fantasy was 
bad because it disoriented 
children and that there 
should be no words in a 
book that a kid would not 
encounter elsewhere 
Juster explained. "[But] I 
think really good books can 
be read by anybody. 
Sometimes I have a problem 
labeling a children's book as 
if it were some lesser form. 
There are good books and 
there are bad books , period, 
that's the distinction. A good 
book written for children can 
be read by adults." 

yy 



BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 



tell the author that his book changed their lives. "When you write a book 
like this, any book really, you have no idea whether it's going to resonate, 
whether it's going to mean anything at all to anyone else," Juster noted. "In 
fact, it seems to touch very much a set of universal ideas and circumstance 
for people, especially kids when they're about that age. It feels very good." 



a 



Writing Other Successful Books 



"When you write a book like 
[The Phantom Tollbooth], 
any book really, you have 
no idea whether it's going to 
resonate, whether it's going 
to mean anything at all to 
anyone else. In fact, it 
seems to touch very much 
a set of universal ideas 
and circumstance for people, 
especially kids when they're 
about that age. It feels 
very good." 



The success of The Phantom Tollbooth 
helped convince Juster to continue 
writing books for children. His sec- 
ond book, The Dot and the Line: A Ro- 
mance in Lower Mathematics, was pub- 
lished in 1963. This book tells the 
story of a sensible straight line who 
falls in love with a silly dot. Unfor- 
tunately, the dot is romantically in- 
volved with a lazy, good-for-nothing 
squiggle. The story follows the line's 
attempts to win the dot's affections. "It 
struck me as funny, this whole trian- 
gle," Juster related. "The squiggle is an 
absolutely disreputable character who 
treats women badly, yet they flock to 
him. I knew several people who were 
that way. I was more like the line." 



Like luster's first book, The Dot and the 

yy Line proved very popular with both 

readers and critics. It has remained in 
print since its initial publication and was reissued in a special edition in 
2001. In 1965 it was adapted as an animated film by Chuck Jones. The film 
version won an Academy Award for Best Short Film. 



Juster published his third book, Alberic the Wise and Other Journeys, in 1965. 
This book consists of three interconnected stories about a young man who 
discovers knowledge. As a boy, Alberic is fascinated by a stranger's descrip- 
tions of the exotic worlds beyond his village. As a young man, Alberic goes 
on a journey to discover his own talents. Although he fails to find an area 
in which he truly excels, he does accumulate knowledge about himself and 
the world. When Alberic finally returns to his village as an adult, he fasci- 
nates others with stories of his travels and earns the name Alberic the 
Wise. "The author's compelling prose, elevated without being lofty, will 
draw in advanced readers," wrote a reviewer for Publishers Weekly. 



144 



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NORTON JUSTER 




Moving to the Country 

In 1968 Juster and his wife of four years, Jeanne, bought a farm in rural 
Shelburne Falls, Massachusetts. They originally intended it to be a week- 
end cottage, but they decided to move there full-time in 1970. They spent 
the next 10 years restoring the farmhouse and property. In the meantime, 
Juster became a partner in a new architecture firm in Shelburne Falls, 
called Juster/Pope/Frazier Associates. He also took a position as a professor 
of design at Hampshire College in nearby Amherst, Massachusetts. Some 
of Juster's friends found it strange that the Brooklyn native moved to the 





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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL. 14 



country. "My love of the country 
is influenced and heightened by 
my city experience and, converse- 
ly, my appreciation of the city has 
grown through the time spent 
here," he explained. 

Juster's experience owning and re- 
storing a farm gave him the idea 
for his next book. He became cu- 
rious about how rural families — 
and especially farm women — 
handled the burden of farm work 
in earlier times. After conducting 
research and collecting materials 
for several years, Juster published 
an adult book in 1979 called So 
Sweet to Labor: Rural Women in 
America, 1865-1895. It is a collec- 
tion of essays, letters, poetry, and 
recipes, written by and about farm 
women from the Civil War to the turn of the century. Juster returned to this 
theme in his 1996 book A Woman's Place: Yesterday's Women in Rural 
America, which examines the conflict between women's traditional roles 
and the growing women's rights movement in the late 1800s. 

In 1980 Juster and his family sold their farm and moved into the town of 
Amherst. The author wanted to make it easier for his daughter, Emily, to 
visit friends and get involved in activities. Juster published two more chil- 
dren's books in the 1980s. Otter Nonsense, published in 1982, is a picture 
book illustrated by Eric Carle. As: A Surfeit of Similes, published in 1989, 
tells the story of two gentlemen who travel the world to collect similes (fig- 
ures of speech that involve comparisons between two different things). 
Writing in the New York Times Book Review, Diane Manuel called As "the 
kind of book that could help to sell youngsters on the devilish delights of 
well-turned phrases." 

In the mid-1990s Juster retired from his career as an architect and professor 
of design. His retirement gave him more time to spend with his young 
granddaughter, who inspired him to write another book for children called 
The Hello Goodbye Window. "It's about my experiences with my grand- 
daughter — the stories we make up together, what we see from our kitchen 
window that overlooks the garden," Juster explained. The Hello Goodbye 
Window is scheduled for publication in 2004. 




0 

ERIC 



146 



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NORTON JUSTER 



Sharing His Thoughts about His Work 

Juster is surprised but delighted by the enduring popularity of The Phantom 
Tollbooth. "A lot of things have happened because of the book/' he noted. "It 
really did change my life. I've met a lot of people, I've gone places, getting in- 
vited here and there, and it's provided me with a lot of flexibility in my life 
because it brings in money and gives me a certain amount of freedom, 
which is always nice." ^ 

Juster continues to make appearances 
at schools and bookstores. He enjoys 
meeting and talking with young read- 
ers, who are always interested in 
learning more about Milo and his cre- 
ator. Many fans of The Phantom Toll- 
booth want to know who sent Milo the 
tollbooth. "Frankly, I don't know 
where the tollbooth comes from," the 
author stated. "It was just there. We 
conjure things in our own minds to 
fulfill the requirements that we have. 

Obviously there was something inside 
Milo that was trying to get him out of 
that [boredom] so that he could un- 
derstand the real joys of life, which are 
learning and being involved in things." 

Readers often ask Juster how he got 
the idea for The Phantom Tollbooth. 

"People always ask about my influ- 
ences, and they cite a bunch of peo- 
ple I've never heard of. My influences 
were my father, who loved to play 
with words, and the [legendary slap- 
stick comedy team] the Marx Brothers," he stated. "What [the Marx 
Brothers] do — which is what this book tries to do — they turn the world 
absolutely upside-down, and look at things from a totally different way 
And I guess that if there's any message in the book [it is that] you have to 
constantly look at things as if you've never seen them before." 

Although Juster acknowledges that The Phantom Tollbooth contains a pow- 
erful message about the importance of learning, he did not set out to in- 
struct readers. Instead, he wanted readers to discover the book's deeper 
meaning for themselves. "Almost any time you start with a message and 

1 A Q 



Juster is surprised but 
delighted by the enduring 
popularity of The Phantom 
Tollbooth. "A lot of things 
have happened because of 
the book. It really did change 
my life. I've met a lot of 
people, I've gone places, 
getting invited here and 
there, and it's provided me 
with a lot of flexibility in my 
life because it brings in 
money and gives me a certain 
amount of freedom, which 
is always nice." 

JJ 



BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 




The Dewitt Wallace Building in Williamsburg, Virginia, completed in 1995, was 
designed by the firm of Juster/Pope/Frazier Associates. Juster was the lead architect. 



write your book from that you're in big trouble/' he declared. "We convey 
many messages in the things that we write, but in many cases, especially 
with children, you don't want to end with 'This is what you should think.' 
You want to end with something that says, 'Now, you think about it.' To a 
child, and to an adult, too, what you discover by yourself, or what you 
think you discover by yourself, is what stays. Especially with children — 
they're immediately suspicious of anything that they're told." 

Juster believes that the message in The Phantom Tollbooth is particularly ap- 
propriate for children, who often feel overwhelmed by the number of things 
they are expected to learn. "When you're very young and you learn some- 
thing — a fact, a piece of information, whatever — it doesn't connect to any- 
thing," the author noted. "You don't know where it belongs, how you're 
supposed to use it, or of what possible utility it can be in the future. As you 
get older you find that things start to connect to other things, and when you 
reach my age nothing you learn doesn't connect to 20 other things. I think 
kids slowly begin to realize that what they're learning relates to other things 
they know. Then learning starts to get more and more exciting." 

MARRIAGE AND FAMILY 

Juster married Jeanne Ray, a London-born graphic designer, on August 15, 
1964. They have one adult daughter, Emily. Juster and his wife live in 
Amherst, Massachusetts. 




50 



148 







NORTON JUSTER 



HOBBIES AND OTHER INTERESTS 

In his spare time, Juster enjoys gardening, bicycling, reading, and collecting 
old maps. Another of his hobbies is making pickles, chutneys, and jams. 
"Modesty prevents me from saying that my New York kosher pickles are 
the best in the world, but they're not far," he stated. 

WRITINGS 
For Children 

The Phantom Tollbooth, 1961 

The Dot and the Line: A Romance in Lower Mathematics, 1963 
Alberic the Wise and Other Journeys, 1965 
Otter Nonsense, 1982 
As: A Surfeit of Similes, 1989 

For Adults 

Stark Naked: A Paranomastic Odyssey, 1970 

So Sweet to Labor: Rural Women in America, 1865-1895, 1979 

A Woman's Place: Yesterday's Rural Women in America, 1996 

HONORS AND AWARDS 

50 Best Children's Books (New York Times): 1966, for The Phantom Tollbooth 
50 Books of the Year (American Institute of Graphic Arts): 1966, for Alberic 
the Wise and Other Journeys 

Outstanding Achievement Award (National Academy of Arts and 
Sciences): 1968 

Seventh Recognition of Merit (George G. Stone Center for Children's 
Books): 1971 

Read Across America Top 100 Children's Books (National Education 
Association): 1999, for The Phantom Tollbooth 

FURTHER READING 
Books 

Contemporary Authors, Vol. 13-16, 1975 

Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series, Vol. 13, 1984; Vol. 44, 1994; Vol. 
83, 2000 

Continuum Encyclopedia of Children's Literature, 2001 
Fourth Book of Junior Authors and Illustrators, 1978 





149 



BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 



Silvey, Anita, ed. Children's Books and Their Creators, 1995 
Something about the Author, Vol. 3, 1972; Vol. 132, 2002 
St. James Guide to Fantasy Writers, 1996 
St. James Guide to Young Adult Writers, 1999 
Twentieth-Century Children's Writers, 1989 

Periodicals 

Bergen County (N.J.) Record, Apr. 22, 1993, p.Cl 
Boston Globe, July 5, 2001, p.H2 
Building Design, June 7, 2002, p.15 
Christian Science Monitor, Oct. 16, 1980, p.B18 
Los Angeles Daily News, Feb. 9, 2001, p.L32 
Sunday Times (London), Nov. 15, 1998, p.9 

Online Articles 

http : / /www. po wells .com 

( Powells.com , "Author Interview: Norton Juster, Beyond Expectations," 
April 2002) 

Online Databases 

Biography Resource Center Online, 2003, articles from Contemporary Authors 
Online, 2000; St. James Guide to Fantasy Writers, 1996; and St. James Guide to 
Young Adult Writers, 1999 

ADDRESS 

Norton Juster 

Random House Children's Books 
1745 Broadway 
10th Floor 

New York, NY 10019 

WORLD WIDE WEB SITES 

http://www.randomhouse.com 

http://www.justerpopefrazier.com 



ERiC 



150 



152 




Lurlene McDaniel 1944- 

American Writer of Novels for Young Adults 
Author of More than 60 Books, Including Six Months 
to Live and Don't Die, My Love 



BIRTH 

Lurlene McDaniel was born Lurlene Nora Gallagher on April 
5, 1944, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Her father, James Gal- 
lagher, was an officer in the U.S. Navy, and her mother, Bebe 
(Donaldson) Gallagher, was a homemaker. 





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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL. 14 



YOUTH AND EDUCATION 



U 



Throughout McDaniel's childhood, her family moved around frequently as 
her father was stationed at different naval bases. They eventually ended up 
in Florida, where McDaniel completed much of her schooling. Even as a 

girl, she loved to read and write sto- 
ries. "I loved horse stories — read all 
of the Black Stallion series, My Friend 
Flicka, dog stories, and the venerable 
Nancy Drew books," she recalled. "I 
can't remember a time when I didn't 
love to write and tell stories. My ear- 
liest childhood memories were of 
crawling up on my favorite uncle's 
lap and demanding that he 'read the 
book.' I started writing poems and 
stories in the first grade and by third 
grade had written a play that was 
performed by my classmates. By high 
school I was editor of the school 
newspaper and yearbook." McDaniel 
completed her education at the Uni- 
versity of South Florida in 1965, earn- 
ing a bachelor's degree in English, 
with a minor in advertising and pub- 
lic relations. 



" Sometimes tragedy hits 
people, even kids. They want 
answers. They want to know 
why. By using novels, I show 
ordinary kids confronting 
and overcoming great 

odds My novels deal with 

characters facing through 
no fault of their own, a 
life-altering event — usually 
medical in nature — and 
overcoming the event. 
Sometimes my characters 
actually die in the book, 
but this leads readers to 
tell me, 'It was like real life / 
The ultimate message I want 
to send my audience is 
simply that no one can 
control what life dishes out. 
What you can control is 
how you respond to it." 

» 



CAREER HIGHLIGHTS 

Lurlene McDaniel has been called 
"the queen of inspirational novels for 
teens." She has published over 60 
books during her 20-year career. Most 
of her works center around a teen- 
aged character who is going through 
a major crisis, usually involving a seri- 
ous illness or death. For this reason, 
her books are often referred to as 
"ten-hankie novels" or "teenaged tear- 
jerkers." Despite their somber subject matter, however, McDaniel's books 
have sold millions of copies and attracted a devoted following of readers 
between the ages of 10 and 16. Reviewers sometimes criticize her works as 
predictable and melodramatic, and parents occasionally question why their 



LURLENE McDANIEL 



kids want to read books about such depressing subjects. But McDaniel's 
many fans claim that her novels are uplifting and life-affirming, as they 
feature young characters who show courage and strength in the face of 
overwhelming difficulties. 

"Sometimes tragedy hits people, even kids. They want answers. They want 
to know why. By using novels, I show ordinary kids confronting and over- 
coming great odds," McDaniel explained. "Unwittingly, I seem to have 
struck a chord in the hearts of girls 10 to 16 years old. My novels deal with 
characters facing, through no fault of their own, a life -altering event — 
usually medical in nature — and overcoming the event. Sometimes my 
characters actually die in the book, but this leads readers to tell me, 'It was 
like real life.' The ultimate message I want to send my audience is simply 
that no one can control what life dishes out. What you can control is how 
you respond to it." 

Son's Illness Leads to a Career as Novelist 

McDaniel got married shortly after she graduated from college. For the 
next few years she worked for television stations in Tampa, Florida, and 
Lansing, Michigan. "I got my degree in English, and knew I didn't want to 
teach, so I ended up at a television station writing promos and commer- 
cials," she stated. "But I'm glad I started that way because it taught me to 
write short and sweet." McDaniel left the work force a few years later 
when she became pregnant with her first child. She continued doing free- 
lance advertising work at home — writing commercials for local compa- 
nies and public service announcements — while raising her two sons, Sean 
and Erik. 

McDaniel's peaceful life changed dramatically when her older son, Sean, 
became critically ill at the age of three. He began losing weight and feeling 
tired all the time, but doctors were unable to find the problem. Sean finally 
became so sick that his mother took him to the emergency room, where he 
was finally diagnosed with juvenile diabetes. People who suffer from dia- 
betes cannot produce sufficient amounts of the hormone insulin, which 
aids in the digestion of sugars. Although there is no cure, the disease can 
often be managed through careful attention to diet, an exercise program, 
and insulin injections. Without proper management, diabetes can lead to 
such serious complications as the amputation of limbs, heart and kidney 
disease, and death. 

McDaniel went through an anxious night as doctors struggled to stabilize 
her son's condition. After the crisis was over, she learned everything she 
could about diabetes and how to manage it. Through her son's illness, she 



BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 



experienced firsthand how dealing with chronic illness can affect a family. 
"The diagnosis, juvenile diabetes, changed all our lives forever," she said. 
"He became wedded to twice-daily insulin shots, diet management, and 
regular exercise, while I became intent on learning how to best manage his 
illness. I dedicated many years to his well-being." 

When McDaniel's son was about 10 years old, they attended an event for 
diabetics. The event coordinator struck up a conversation with McDaniel. 
Upon learning that she was a writer, the woman mentioned that her father 
owned a publishing company that marketed children's books to school 
systems. McDaniel agreed to try her hand at writing children's books for 
this company, School Book Fairs, and its Willowisp imprint. "I think they 
were just looking for someone who could meet a deadline, and I was used 
to that," she noted. 

McDaniel's first attempts at writing children's fiction involved picture 
books. But her first success came with a young adult novel that was drawn 
from her own experience. "My first book was Kickeroo — The Soccer-Playing 
Kangaroo ," she recalled. "It didn't take me long to know writing picture 
books wasn't for me. But next I wrote a book called Will I Ever Dance 
Again? about a girl diagnosed with diabetes." Published in 1982, Will I Ever 
Dance Again? tells the story of a teenaged ballet student struggling to deal 

with her chronic illness. The book 
proved so popular that the pub- 
lisher asked McDaniel to write 
more stories about young charac- 
ters overcoming a medical prob- 
lem. Will I Ever Dance Again? thus 
became the first in McDaniel's 
long line of signature works about 
teenaged characters coping with 
health crises. 

Writing Six Months to Live 

McDaniel's breakthrough as an 
author came in 1985, when she 
published Six Months to Live. This 
book sold over one million copies 
and remains one of her most pop- 
ular works nearly 20 years later. Six 
Months to Live introduced the 
character of Dawn Rochelle, who 
went on to appear in four more of 





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McDaniel's novels. In this first 
book, 13-year-old Dawn is diag- 
nosed with leukemia, a form of 
cancer that affects the bone mar- 
row and other blood-forming sys- 
tems in the body While undergo- 
ing chemotherapy in the hospital, 

Dawn meets Sandy, a girl her age 
who is being treated for the same 
disease. The two teens become 
close friends and help each other 
deal with the difficult treatment 
process. Both girls' cancer goes 
into remission, and they attend a 
summer camp for cancer survivors 
together. But afterward Sandy's 
symptoms return. 

The book was a big hit. A few 
years after its publication, Six 
Months to Live was placed in a lit- 
erary time capsule at the Library 
of Congress. The book was se- 
lected by young readers in a con- 
test sponsored by the Reading Is Fundamental program. Children across 
the United States nominated their favorite books and wrote essays ex- 
plaining why they liked them so much. Six Months to Live was the most 
nominated book in the nation, so it was included in the time capsule along 
with the top nomination letters from young readers. 

Later books in the "Dawn Rochelle" series include I Want to Live (1987), So 
Much to Live For (1991), No Time to Cry (1993), and To Live Again (2001). As 
the series progresses, Dawn grows from 13 to 17 and moves through mid- 
dle school to high school. In I Want to Live, 14-year-old Dawn suffers a re- 
lapse of her leukemia and requires a bone-marrow transplant from her 
brother. In So Much to Live For, 15-year-old Dawn's cancer is back in remis- 
sion and she returns to the cancer camp as a counselor. But Dawn's med- 
ical problems return in To Live Again, when the 17-year-old suffers a re- 
lapse as she is preparing to go away to college. 

Creating the "One Last Wish" Series 

In 1987, as McDaniel was in the midst of writing her "Dawn Rochelle" se- 
ries, she and her husband of 21 years divorced. The author felt that she 





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LURLENE McDANIEL 



needed to earn more money from her novels, so she hired a literary agent 
to represent her. After publishing 23 books with tiny Willowisp, McDaniel 
signed a contract to write for the paperback-publishing giant Bantam 
Books. Her novels, which had already attracted a devoted following of 
young readers, suddenly became available to a much larger audience. In 
her work for Bantam, McDaniel developed a productive relationship with a 
professional editor for the first time. She felt that the quality of her work 
improved as a result. 



But McDaniel's sensitive treatment of 
characters dealing with serious health 
issues remained the key to her popu- 
larity. "Few people wrote about the 
chronically ill, so people who had ill- 
nesses never saw themselves in liter- 
ature. I started writing about kids with 
chronic illnesses, and [the books] were 
just enormously successful," she stat- 
ed. "The genre has been good to me. I 
like to write stories that leave a little 
catch in your throat and make you feel 
good. But it was never a goal." 

Shortly after switching to Bantam, 

McDaniel launched her popular "One 
Last Wish" series of books. This series 
eventually grew to include 12 novels 
— published between 1992 and 1999 
— that are linked together by a com- 
mon theme. In each book, a mysteri- 
ous donor gives a dying teen a gift of 
$100,000 to spend however he or she 
wants. Some of the characters from 
the earlier books reappear in later 
books, as well. For example, Someone Dies , Someone Lives (1992) introduces 
the character of Katie O'Roark. Katie is a high-school track star until she 
develops heart problems and needs a transplant. She receives a gift from 
an anonymous donor that enables her family to afford the procedure. 
While Katie is in the hospital recovering from her surgery, she meets Josh 
Martel. Josh's teenage brother has died, and his family donated his organs. 
Katie reappears in Please Don't Die (1993), in which she goes to Jenny 
House as a counselor to help other teens struggling with serious health 
problems. 



U 

"Pew people wrote 
about the chronically ill, 
so people who had 
illnesses never saw 
themselves in literature. 

I started writing about 
kids with chronic illnesses, 
and [the books] were just 
enormously successful. 
The genre has been good 
to me. I like to write stories 
that leave a little catch in 
your throat and make 
you feel good. But it was 
never a goal." 

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Personal Adversity Fuels Her Writing 

In 1993 McDaniel was diagnosed with breast cancer. Fortunately, her can- 
cer was caught early and she made a complete recovery following surgery 
and radiation treatment. McDaniel used her own fight against cancer in 
her future books to make her characters' struggles more realistic. One ex- 
ample is her 1995 novel Don't Die, My Love. "I wrote the book Don't Die, 
My Love as I was going through radiation, so it certainly has an air of au- 
thenticity about it because I was there," she explained. "I think all of my 

books took on a kind of a deeper 
ii tone." 



"I wrote the book 
Don't Die, My Love 
as I was going through 
radiation, so it certainly has 
an air of authenticity about it 
because I was there. I think 
all of my books took on a 
kind of a deeper tone." 



Don't Die, My Love tells the story of 
Julie and Luke, a popular and attrac- 
tive high-school couple who have 
been dating since sixth grade and 
plan to get married after graduation. 
They are stunned when Luke, a hand- 
some football star, is diagnosed with 
Hodgkin's disease — a type of cancer 
affecting the lymphatic system, which 
carries fluid to the body's tissues. The 
story follows the couple, their fami- 
lies, and the school community as 
they struggle to deal with Luke's ill- 
ness. "The novel contains excellent 
information on cancer treatment and 






the emotional world of cancer victims and those who love them," wrote 
Jana R. Fine in School Library Journal. "McDaniel shows her literary exper- 
tise by humanizing a terrible disease and guiding readers through the 
whole process." 



Don't Die, My Love was turned into a television movie called A Champion's 
Fight, which was broadcast on NBC in 1999. Some of McDaniel's fans were 
disappointed that the ending of the movie was different from the novel. 
But McDaniel enjoyed seeing her story on TV. "It was fun to see my char- 
acters 'come to life' and 'speak' many of the words I'd created for them," 
she noted. 



The "Angels" Trilogy 

McDaniel is a devout Christian who tries to imbue all of her works with "a 
sense of eternal purpose." "My characters face death with the strength and 
courage that comes from a belief in God and a hope for eternal life," she 



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noted. "I don't push a Christian 
agenda on my readers. I don't 
preach to them — if someone wants 
a sermon, they can go to church." 

Among McDaniel's novels, the ones 
that deal with religion most direct- 
ly are probably those in the "An- 
gels" trilogy. The first book in the 
series, Angels Watching Over Me, 
was published in 1996. The main 
character, Leah, is diagnosed with 
cancer. During her treatment in the 
hospital, she makes friends with an 
Amish girl named Rebekah. The 
two girls come to believe that they 
were visited by an angel. "When I 
wrote Angels Watching Over Me, 
there was a lot of stuff in the gen- 
eral marketplace about angels," 
McDaniel recalled. "I wanted to 
present a biblical angel. But it took 
me forever to think of a way to talk 
about them. I had to find the perfect vehicle for talking about the things of 
God and angels without sounding contrived." 




Angels Watching Over Me was so successful that it became the first book in 
a trilogy, which also includes Lifted Up by Angels (1997) and Until Angels 
Close My Eyes (1998). McDaniel enjoyed following Leah's story in succes- 
sive novels. "It was wonderful getting to know the characters so well — a 
nice perk I don't usually get to enjoy," she noted. "Most of my main char- 
acters don't survive." 



Meeting Readers' Expectations 

In order to please her huge following of young readers/McDaniel makes 
sure that all of her books share certain elements in common. "When I 
write, my goal is to write a good book and a fresh, interesting story. But I 
have reader expectations to fulfill," she acknowledged. "My readers expect 
an intriguing story, a challenge to overcome, a romantic element, and a 
certain morality." 

In addition to the spiritual element in her books, McDaniel is also known 
for providing realistic details about her characters' illnesses and medical 



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treatments. She obtains this information by reading medical journals, in- 
terviewing experts, and working with cancer societies, hospice organiza- 
tions, and organ donor services. "I was always fascinated by things med- 
ical. Maybe I'm really a frustrated doctor," she stated. "I have a responsibil- 
ity to my readers to be accurate. I call a spade a spade. If somebody vomits, 
they vomit." 



McDaniel tries never to shy away 
from difficult or controversial subject 
matter. For example, a trip to Africa 
inspired her to write about the prob- 
lems of poverty, hunger, and disease 
facing many poor nations around the 
world in her books Angel of Mercy 
(1999) and Angel of Hope (2000). These 
novels feature Heather Barlow, an ide- 
alistic young woman who wants to 
make a difference in the world. In the 
first book, Heather goes to Uganda as 
a volunteer for a relief organization 
and is unprepared for the terrible con- 
ditions she finds there. In the sequel, 
Heather returns home and convinces 
her mother, a plastic surgeon, to treat 
Ugandan children. But Heather be- 
comes ill and cannot make the trip 
back to Africa. Her spoiled younger 
sister, Amber, takes her place and ma- 
tures quickly through the experience. 



a 

"I get hundreds of 
letters a year — so much 

mail that I had to 
hire a part-time 
secretary to help handle 
it all. I can't tell you how 
much my readers mean 
to me and how much 
their letters mean to me. 
They help keep me on 
track. I wouldn't trade my 
lifestyle for anything. 
Mail from my readers 
brightens my days 
as each letter reminds 
me that a real live kid is 



reading and being 
affected by my work." 



"I wanted to write about the third 
world and had the opportunity to go 
live in the trenches, so to speak," 

McDaniel explained. "I wanted to 

show what it's really like for 98 per- )) 

cent of the world's population. Plus, I 

also see there are an awful lot of young people out there doing good 
things, and I wanted to give them a platform. I created a character whose 
motives were pure and good and she was going to go out and save the 
whole world. But the truth is, you can't save the whole world, but you can 
save one. And that was the whole thrust of the novel." 

In her most recent works, McDaniel has continued to explore the diffi cult 
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love. The Time Capsule (2003) features the twins Alexis and Adam. Adam is 
suffering from leukemia, which is now in remission. But the family fell 
apart after receiving the bad news, and the twins' parents can't seem to 
make time to spend with them. Alexis soon learns that she will have to 
step up to help out. Garden of Angels (2003) is set in 1974. The Vietnam War 
has just recently ended, but the county is still struggling to deal with its af- 
termath. The story focuses on Darcy, who has just started high school. Her 
life and her emotions seem upside down, as she tries to cope with her feel- 
ings about the war, the soldiers, and a new boy at school. But her mother 
has just been diagnosed with cancer, and Darcy's world will be changed 
forever. 

Connecting with Her Fans 

McDaniel's days are filled with writing, speaking engagements at writers' 
conferences, book signings, and school visits. She loves connecting with 
her young fans, especially through the many letters she receives in the 
mail. "I get hundreds of letters a year — so much mail that I had to hire a 
part-time secretary to help handle it all. I can't tell you how much my read- 
ers mean to me and how much their letters mean to me. They help keep 
me on track," she noted. "I wouldn't trade my lifestyle for anything. Mail 



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from my readers brightens my days as each letter reminds me that a real 
live kid is reading and being affected by my work." 

McDaniel hopes that her readers come away from her books with a re- 
newed appreciation for the preciousness of life and health. "I write the 
kind of books I write because I want to help kids to understand that no- 
body gets to pick what life dishes out to them. What you do get to choose 
is how you respond to what life gives 
you. No matter what happens, life is a 
gift. And always worth living," she 
stated. "I remind my readers that good 
things can come out of bad things. To 
wit — my entire novel -writing career 
came out of my son's diagnosis of dia- 
betes. The doors of life are always 
opening and presenting challenges." 

McDaniel's readers often ask her ad- 
vice on how to launch a successful 
writing career. "To those of you who 
want to be writers and want writing 
tips, I say 'read, read, read' and practice 
writing stories and keeping journals," 
she responds. "Get a good education 
and never give up your dream." 

MARRIAGE AND FAMILY 

Lurlene Gallagher married Joe Mc- 
Daniel on March 12, 1965. They had 
two sons, Sean Clifford and Erik 
James, before divorcing in 1987. Both 
of the author's sons are now grown 
and healthy, though Sean still must 
manage his diabetes through insulin 
shots, diet, and exercise. 

McDaniel lives in Chattanooga, Tennessee, which she has called "the most 
wonderful city in the world." Although she works out of her home, she 
must keep regular working hours in order to produce three new novels 
each year. "I have a lovely home office with a large bay window that looks 
out onto my backyard, full of colorful flowers and a creek," she said. 
"Sunny Southern skies and buckets of sunshine are also a plus. Beautiful 
scenes like this inspire me." 



U 

"I write the kind of books 
I write because I want to 
help kids to understand that 
nobody gets to pick what 
life dishes out to them. 
What you do get to choose 
is how you respond to what 
life gives you. No matter 
what happens, life is a gift. 
And always worth living. I 
remind my readers that good 
things can come out of bad 
things. To wit — my entire 
novel-writing career came 
out of my son's diagnosis 
of diabetes. The doors of life 
are always opening and 
presenting challenges." 



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SELECTED WRITINGS 

Young Adult Novels 

Will I Ever Dance Again? 1982 
If I Should Die Before I Wake ; 1983 
Why Did She Have to Die? 1986 
Mother, Please Don't Die, 1988 
Too Young to Die, 1989 
Now I Lay Me Down to Sleep, 1991 
Baby Alicia Is Dying, 1993 
Don't Die, My Love, 1995 
Till Death Do Us Part, 1997 
The Girl Death Left Behind, 1999 
Angel of Mercy, 1999 
Angel of Hope, 2000 
How Do I Love Thee? 2001 
Telling Christina Goodbye, 2002 
The Time Capsule, 2003 
Garden of Angels, 2003 

"Dawn Rochelle" Series 

Six Months to Live, 1985 
I Want to Live, 1987 
So Much to Live For, 1991 
No Time to Cry, 1993 
Dawn Rochelle: Four Novels, 2000 
To Live Again, 2001 

"One Last Wish" Series 

A Time to Die, 1992 
Mourning Song, 1992 
Mother, Help Me Live, 1992 
Someone Dies, Someone Lives, 1992 
Sixteen and Dying, 1992 
Let Him Live, 1992 

The Legacy: Making Wishes Come True, 1993 

Please Don't Die, 1993 

She Died Too Young, 1994 

A Season for Goodbye, 1995 

One Last Wish: Three Novels, 1998 

Reach for Tomorrow, 1999 



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"Angels" Trilogy 

Angels Watching Over Me, 1996 
Lifted Up by Angels, 1997 
Until Angels Close My Eyes, 1998 

HONORS AND AWARDS 

RITA Award (Romance Writers of America): 1991, for Now I Lay Me Down 
to Sleep 

Children's Choice Books (International Reading Association): for 
Somewhere between Life and Death, Too Young to Die, and Goodbye Doesn't 
Mean Forever 

Books for the Reluctant Reader (American Library Association): for A 
Season for Goodbye, Till Death Do Us Part, and The Girl Death Left Behind 

FURTHER READING 
Books 

Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Vol. 15, 1995; Vol. 38, 2001 
Contemporary Authors, Vol. 148, 1996 
The 100 Most Popular Young Adult Authors, 1996 
Something about the Author, Vol. 71, 1993 

Periodicals 

Chattanooga (Tenn.) Free Press, June 6, 1997, p.D8; Dec. 7, 1998, p.Cl 
Chattanooga (Tenn.) Times, Jan. 15, 1996, p.Bl 
Publishers Weekly, Apr. 6, 1992, p.23 

Online Articles 

http://www.eclectics.com 

( Kids Reads at The Book Report on AOL, "Lurlene McDaniel Interview," 
undated) 

http://www.bookpage.com 

( First Person Book Page, "Missions of Mercy Inspire Lurlene McDaniel's 
Angelic Series," July 2000) 

Online Databases 

Biography Resource Center Online, 2003, articles from Authors and Artists for 
Young Adults, 2001, and Contemporary Authors Online, 2001 




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ADDRESS 

Lurlene McDaniel 
Bantam Books 
1540 Broadway 
New York, NY 10036 

WORLD WIDE WEB SITES 

http : //www.randomhouse . com/features/lurlene 
http://www.eclectics.com/lurlenemcdaniel 




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Stephanie S. Tolan 1942- 

American Writer for Children and Young Adults 
Author of Surviving the Applewhites, the "Great 
Skinner" Series, and Guiding the Gifted Child 



BIRTH 

Stephanie S. Tolan was born Stephanie Stein on October 25, 
1942, in Canton, Ohio. Her parents were Joseph and Mary 
(Schroy) Stein. She had an older sister and an older brother. 



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YOUTH 



Tolan became fascinated with books at a very young age. Her mother had 
worked as a librarian before having children, and she began to read to 
Stephanie when she was a baby. As she grew older, Tolan often used a 
flashlight to read under her bed covers late into the night. "That joy in 
reading," she once said, "made me want to me a writer, and from the time 
I was nine years old, I never doubted that I would be one." Tolan remem- 
bers David Copperfield as an influential book from her childhood. She was 
too young to grasp all of the finer points of Charles Dickens's story, but she 



a 

Tolan wrote her first story 
when she was in the fourth 
grade. "It was a story about 
a baby volcano who 
accidentally started the first 
Fourth of July celebration. 

I still have the story, neatly 
copied in ink. It's pretty 
terrible, but at the time I 
loved it because writing 
that story gave me my 
first clue that I could make 
the magic I had long 
known in books." 

» 



has never forgotten the characters 
and how they magically came alive in 
her imagination. 

When Tolan was eight years old, her 
family moved to Kenosha, Wisconsin. 
She enjoyed an active childhood of 
riding horses and climbing trees. But 
writing remained her passion. Tolan 
wrote her first story when she was in 
the fourth grade. "It was a story about 
a baby volcano who accidentally start- 
ed the first Fourth of July celebration," 
she recalled. "I still have the story, 
neatly copied in ink. It's pretty terrible, 
but at the time I loved it because writ- 
ing that story gave me my first clue 
that I could make the magic I had long 
known in books. It still seems to me 
magical that the human brain can 
imagine whole worlds and people and 
stories, turn them into little marks on 
paper, and then other brains can 
translate those marks into images, into 
worlds and people and stories." 



By age 11 Tolan had submitted stories for publication in Jack and Jill and 
the Saturday Evening Post. Despite receiving a number of rejection slips for 
these early efforts, she continued to write through her high school years. In 
fact, she called herself "the girl with the spiral notebook" because she used 
her school notebook to write novels during class. "In high school writing 
was the thing that took me away from what I was supposed to be doing," 
she remembered. "'The girl with the spiral notebook' wrote stories in Latin 
class. The spiral notebook was supposed to have translations of Caesar's 



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STEPHANIE S.TOLAN 



Gallic wars. Each notebook would start with four pages of translations, and 
then it would sort of transmogrify [change] itself into a novel that would 
go on for the rest of that notebook." 

EDUCATION 

Tolan was a bright girl who always got straight A's without having to work 
very hard at her studies. After graduating from high school in Kenosha 
around 1960, she attended Purdue University in Indiana. She earned a 
bachelor's degree in creative writing in 1964, then went on to earn a mas- 
ter's degree in English in 1967. Tolan began publishing poetry while in col- 
lege, and she also started writing plays. One of the plays she wrote during 
this time — The Ledge, about the Vietnam War — is still occasionally per- 
formed on stage. 

CAREER HIGHLIGHTS 

Stephanie S. Tolan is the author of more than 20 books for children and 
young adults. Her work often focuses on real-life issues that concern 
young people. For example, some of her books explore such difficult or 
controversial subjects as Alzheimer's disease, homosexuality, religious 
cults, homelessness, poverty, and prejudice. Tolan's main characters are 
usually outsiders or unpopular kids who struggle with challenging situa- 
tions. By creating characters that her readers can identify with, Tolan helps 
children believe that they are of worthwhile people — no matter who they 
are, where they come from, or what kind of problems they must overcome. 

Tolan has great respect for children and their ability to cope with difficult 
issues. She includes such issues in her work in order to prepare her readers 
for the problems they may face as they go through life. "It seems we have 
less and less respect for kids' minds," she explained. "We assume they can't 
think so we offer them less and less to think about and we protect them 
more and more from ideas and more and more from complexities. It's a 
scary world and as adults get more scared, we do exactly the opposite of 
what we should be doing for kids." 

Tolan summarized her personal conviction in writing her books. "Since be- 
ginning my first novel for young readers in 1976, I have found myself 
growing more and more committed both to writing fiction for children and 
young adults and to supporting the rights of the young in a culture that 
seems less and less interested in providing for its children," she stated. 
"Whether shown in the increased number of child abuse cases, in the de- 
terioration of our educational system, in the refusal of property owners to 



BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL. 14 



rent to families, in the political trend to ignore the needs of the poor . . . 
there is a real — and disturbing — unwillingness to do what must be done 
to meet the needs of the younger generation. As a mother, stepmother, 

writer, and human being, I feel I must 

ii do whatever I can to help change this 

trend." 



"Since beginning my first 
novel for young readers in 
1976,1 have found myself 
growing more and more 
committed both to writing 
fiction for children and 
young adults and to support- 
ing the rights of the young in 
a culture that seems less and 
less interested in providing 
for its children. Whether 
shown in the increased 
number of child abuse cases, 
in the deterioration of our 
educational system, in the 
refusal of property owners 
to rent to families, in the 
political trend to ignore the 
needs of the poor . . . there is 
a real — and disturbing — 
unwillingness to do what 
must be done to meet the 

needs of the younger 
generation." 

» 



Teaching and Raising a Family 

Tolan sarted her family life fairly early. 
After earning her bachelor's degree, 
she married theater director Robert 
W. Tolan. She also became the step- 
mother to his three young sons. As 
she pursued a graduate degree, Tolan 
began teaching to supplement her 
family's income. She was an instruc- 
tor in continuing education at Purdue 
from 1966 to 1970. When her hus- 
band's job took the family to New 
York, she joined the faculty in speech 
and theater at the State University of 
New York at Buffalo. Following an- 
other move, Tolan became an adjunct 
faculty member in English at Franklin 
and Marshall College in Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania. 

Although she was busy raising a fam- 
ily and working, Tolan never lost her 
love for writing. She continued to 
publish poetry and plays over the 
years. Then, in the early 1970s, a com- 
bination of factors led her toward 
writing fiction for children and young 
adults. One factor was the connection 
she made with young readers while 
visiting schools through the National 
Endowment for the Arts Poets-in- 
the-Schools program. "I met the new 
generation of readers who still stay up late with flashlights to read," she re- 
lated. "Maybe television has cut back on the numbers of such readers, but 
they're everywhere still, and they still lose themselves in the worlds created 



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by those magical black marks on 
white pages. Working with those 
children and helping them express 
themselves through their own 
writing, I realized I had found my 
real audience. . . . They brought 
back to me that special reading joy 
that most adults — even readers 
among us — have lost. And I 
wanted to try my hand at writing 
for those kids, so like myself at 
their age and yet so different." 

Another factor that pushed Tolan 
toward writing children's books 
was the birth of a son in 1972. She 
wrote her first children's story 
while she was pregnant and sub- 
mitted it to a publishing house. 

The editor liked it, but turned it 
down because it was too "old- 
fashioned." Tolan had written the kind of story she enjoyed reading as a 
child. But she did not realize that children's literature had changed signifi- 
cantly over the years. As her son grew, Tolan read many books to him and 
discovered contemporary children's fiction. "I fell totally in love with what 
was out there," she recalled. "It was an open time, it was an exciting time, it 
was a time of really serious literature for kids. I thought it was wonderful 
because you could write about anything, all you had to do is put it in a 
child's world, to have a young protagonist [main character], but that's a fun 
thing." 

In 1975 Tolan quit teaching and dedicated herself to writing children's 
books. Her first effort, a realistic middle-grade novel called Grandpa — 
and Me, was published in 1978. It tells the story of Kerry, a young girl 
who struggles to come to terms with the declining mental capacity of her 
grandfather, who is diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. The book deals 
with the issue of aging from a child's perspective, as Kerry observes her 
grandfather's behavior and its effect on her family. Tolan drew upon her 
own family's experiences with Alzheimer's disease, and the eventual sui- 
cide of her grandfather, while writing the book. "Grandpa — and Me was 
something I deeply wanted to write — it's very personal," she acknowl- 
edged. "I thought it was very risky, and when I sent it off [to a publisher] 
I was biting my fingernails." But the book was accepted by the first pub- 

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lisher she sent it to, and it received 
critical praise for providing a realis- 
tic look at a difficult issue. 

Young Adult Novels 

Tolan has produced an average of 
one book per year since the 1970 
publication of Grandpa — and Me. 
She has written several books for 
younger readers, but the majority of 
her works are novels for young 
adults that focus on teenaged char- 
acters facing difficult, real-life issues. 
One example is A Good Courage, 
published in 1988. This novel tells 
the story of 14 -year- old Ty (short for 
Tie-Dye), whose free-spirited moth- 
er pursues an alternative lifestyle 
that includes communes and reli- 
gious cults. They wind up in the 
Kingdom of Yahweh, a religious cult 
led by the fanatical Brother Daniel. Ty's difficult experiences there force him 
to face some equally difficult choices. School Library Journal selected A Good 
Courage as one of the best young adult titles of the year in 1988. 

One of Tolan's most unsettling novels is Plague Year, which was published 
in 1990. This book tells the story of Bran Slocum, a high school student 
who goes to live with his aunt and uncle in a small town after his father is 
accused of being a serial killer. Since Bran looks and acts different from the 
other kids at his new school, he has trouble fitting in. Then some of his fel- 
low students find out about Bran's family background, and their initial 
hostility toward him expands into violence and tragedy. Plague Year has 
been used widely in schools to help students talk about violence, especially 
following such real-life incidents as the student shootings at Columbine 
High School in Colorado. A writer for Horn Book called Tolan's novel "a 
contemporary morality play that offers ample opportunity for discussion of 
ethical behavior." 

Two of Tolan's most popular young adult novels were inspired by her work 
with intellectually gifted children. Welcome to the Ark, published in 1996, 
introduces four troubled kids — between the ages of eight and 17 — who 
live in an experimental group home. Each of the teens possesses a special 
intellectual gift that has made it difficult for them to deal with their fami- 




-iC 



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STEPHANIE S.TOLAN 



lies and schools. As the psychologists who run the home help them to de- 
velop their abilities, the kids form an intimate psychic connection with one 
another. They reach out to other gifted kids to form the Ark — a group that 
works together to end violence and find better solutions to the world's 
problems. Tolan uses an unusual format in the novel, interspersing e-mail 
messages, journal entries, and poetry with the narrative to allow the reader 
to gain insight into the different characters' perspectives. "Though the story 
line may be difficult for some young readers to grasp at first, the uncon- 
ventional form and the compelling subject matter will pull them into the 
novel for a fast-paced reading experience," Ted Hippie wrote in Writers for 
Young Adults. "Tolan does a superb job depicting emotionally disturbed, 
gifted youth," added Jacqueline Rose in Voice ofYouth Advocates. 

In 2001 Tolan published a sequel to Welcome to the Ark entitled Flight of the 
Raven. This story begins with a terrorist attack on the United States that is 
carried out by a secret anti-government group called the Free Mountain 
Militia. Soon afterward, the militia captures Elijah, one of the gifted kids 
from the first novel, and holds him hostage. When Elijah befriends Amber, 
the daughter of the terrorist group's leader, he slowly becomes part of the 
group and begins using his special abilities to help them. But the two 
young people face difficult choices when they leam that the militia is plan- 
ning to launch a biological war using genetically engineered smallpox 
virus. Flight of the Raven attracted a great deal of attention when it came 
out two weeks after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Many re- 
viewers noted that the novel's topic was timely, though several complained 
about its excessive violence and 
slow pace. "Its pacing and doleful 
tone might be a turn off to some 
readers," Karen Jensen wrote in 
Voice ofYouth Advocates , "but Tolan 
creates characters that the reader 
cares about and a conflict that pulls 
one all the way through." 

Tolan has branched into the super- 
natural in several of her works for 
young adults. In The Witch of Maple 
Park (1992), for example, a psychic 
teen believes that the child for 
whom she is babysitting is going to 
be kidnaped by a witch. The teen 
soon finds out that the witch is not 
what she seems. Tolan drew upon 
her interest in theater to write The 




STEPHANIE S. TO l AN 




VOion you disappeared item the lodge I thought you'd gont home 

t.Vwhlet* 

h‘o lonely at midnight t.t the nuthouto. remember? 

I r<- 

So its H mo what litis gteop home is all about. 
idrUhr.wn fXvjtt tnat supposed to tea family 

At. at iK« -ossy 

I stilt have my anUo bracelet, 
it s vt »' i matt*. 




BEST C.OPY AVAILABLE 



BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL. 14 



Face in the Mirror (1998). In this book, the ghost of a 19th-century actor 
tries to get two half-brothers to kill one another as they act in a 
Shakespearean play. Commenting on The Face in the Mirror for Booklist, 
Chris Sherman noted that "Tolan artfully weaves Shakespeare's Richard III, 
sibling rivalry, revenge, and a haunted theater with a vindictive ghost into 
a suspenseful story." 

Surviving the Applewhites 

Tolan published her most critically ac- 
claimed young adult novel. Surviving 
the Applewhites, in 2002. This humor- 
ous book tells the story of Jake Sem- 
ple, a 13-year-old juvenile delinquent 
who has been kicked out of several 
schools. He is finally sent away to the 
Creative Academy, a "home-school" 
run by the eccentric Applewhite family 
on their rural North Carolina farm. 
Jake thus enters a chaotic household 
full of energetic artists. The only "nor- 
mal" member of the family is 12-year- 
old daughter E.D., who takes an im- 
mediate dislike to spiky- haired Jake. 
The story is told by Jake and ED. in al- 
ternating chapters. It culminates in a 
family production of The Sound of 
Music, in which everyone — including 
a reformed Jake — takes part. 

Surviving the Applewhites was hailed 
as a hilarious story about a boy's jour- 
ney of self-discovery. "Clever, clever. 
Tolan has pulled off something spe- 
cial here," Ilene Cooper wrote in 
Booklist. "She takes a rather predic- 
table plot (tough kid is tamed by exposure to a good family) and twists it 
into a screwball comedy that pushes the story to a whole new place." In 
2003, the American Library Association selected the novel as a Newbery 
Honor Book, one of five runners-up for the Newbery Medal — the highest 
honor in children's literature. " Surviving the Applewhites was my funny 
book, and I'm so pleased that was the one that won," Tolan said. "We're in 
dire need of humor — to be able to look at the world around us and find 



ii 

"Surviving the 
Applewhites was my 
funny book, and I'm so 
pleased that was the one that 
won [the Newbery Honor 
Award] /'Tolan said. "We're 
in dire need of humor — to 
be able to look at the world 
around us and find some- 
thing fundamentally positive. 
The characters in this book 
have passion about what 
they do. They're a family that 
truly loves each other, even if 
they squabble — who care 
and cooperate and work 
together. We need to see that, 
maybe more than ever." 

» 





174 



STEPHANIE S.TOLAN 




something fundamentally positive. The characters in this book have pas- 
sion about what they do. They're a family that truly loves each other, even 
if they squabble — who care and cooperate and work together. We need to 
see that, maybe more than ever." 




1 77 

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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 




Books for Younger Readers 



Tolan also exercised her sense of 
humor to create her best-known 
works for intermediate readers. The 
"Great Skinner" series includes four 
books published between 1983 and 
1988. Like many of Tolan's young 
adult novels, each book focuses on 
a social issue. But these books are 
lighter in tone in order to appeal to 
a younger audience. In The Great 
Skinner Strike, for example, a moth- 
er's refusal to do housework leads 
to a focus on women's rights. This 
story was adapted for television and 
aired as an ABC After School Special 
called "Mom's on Strike" in 1988. 
The Great Skinner Enterprise con- 
cerns the struggles of running a 



family business, while The Great Skinner Getaway tells about the not-so- 
glamorous side of traveling across small-town America in a motor home. 

In her 1993 middle-grade novel Save Halloween! Tolan introduces the Filkin 
family. Johnna Filkin, the young daughter of an evangelist minister, shares 
her father's strong religious beliefs but does not always share his contempt 
for secular (non-religious) celebrations. For example, her father forbids her 
from celebrating Halloween, which he refers to as "the devil's holiday." 
When Johnna is selected to write a Halloween play for her sixth-grade 
class, however, she decides that the time has come for her to think for her- 
self. "Thoughtful, pithy, and entertaining, this will intrigue readers from 
cover to cover," wrote Booklist reviewer Carolyn Phelan. Tolan continued 
the story of the Filkin family in Ordinary Miracles (1999). 

Tolan has also written a few books for children. In Marcy Hooper and the 
Greatest Treasure in the World, published in 1991, young Marcy escapes her 
troubles at school in the hills near her home. Her encounters with dragons 
and nymphs give her the courage to face her school problems. In Sophie and 
the Sidewalk Man, published in 1992, a little girl saves her money to buy a 
stuffed hedgehog, since her mother's allergies prohibit her from getting a 
real pet. But when she sees a homeless man sharing his food with a stray 
cat, she learns an important lesson about generosity. Tolan's most recently 
published book, Bartholomew's Blessing (2003), features a mouse that travels 
to Bethlehem with an angel and a fox to be blessed by the Christ Child. 



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STEPHANIE S.TOLAN 



Writing about Gifted Children 

In addition to writing fiction for children and young adults, Tolan is the co- 
author of an acclaimed book for adults called Guiding the Gifted Child: A 
Practical Source for Parents and Teachers. "1 got involved in the whole subject 
of very bright kids because I had a child who was very different from other 
kids — so different that nobody at his school knew what to do with him," 
she explained. "As I tried to figure out how to get his really intense learn- 
ing needs met, I discovered important truths about myself and my whole 
family. I began to realize how much hostility there is in the world toward 
unusually intelligent people, and how much harm is done to children who 
are forced to try to make themselves be like others when they really aren't, 
and it became a crusade." 

Tolan started to realize that her son R.J. was intellectually gifted when he 
was around five years old. R.J. showed an amazing capacity for language at 
that age, and he also had impressive mathematical abilities. "It wasn't until I 
was doing a poetry workshop for fourth and fifth graders when [R.J.] was in 
kindergarten, and I realized I had to keep stopping to explain the language I 
was using, and I never had to do that with my son," she recalled. "And I 
began to suspect that there was something strange going on. So when [my 
husband and I] had him tested, and the psychologist said 'This is the 
brightest kid I've ever tested in my life, 'we were completely terrified." 

Despite his high intelligence, R.J. 
had trouble in school. He was 
often bored and restless in class, 
and he struggled to think in a con- 
ventional, linear way. "I used to say 
my son functioned like a short cir- 
cuit because he was sparking all 
the time," Tolan stated. "It's web 
thinking, it's connected thinking. 

You take two steps down a path 
and you see a junction, and you 
may end up very far from where 
you intended. And it may be a 
wonderful place to be, but it isn't 
what you intended, and if you're in 
an environment like a school that 
says you must attend to these 
things, in this order, then a highly 

is 



creative, a highly gifted person 
going to have difficulty with that 



Guiding the 
Gifted Child 




lames T. Webb. Ph.D. 
Elizabeth A. Mecfestroth. M.S.W. 

and 

t Stephanie S. Tolan, MA. 



o 

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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL. 14 



Tolan spent many years investigating educational opportunities for her son 
and working with other gifted children. In the process, she learned that 
both she and her husband had exceptionally high intelligence. This knowl- 
edge helped explain some of the problems they each experienced during 
their school years. Tolan 's research also taught her about the most effective 
ways of handling gifted kids and helping them reach their potential. She in- 
corporated this information into her 
1982 book Guiding the Gifted Child, 
which she co-wrote with James T. 
Webb and Elizabeth Meckstroth. Since 
then, Tolan has written numerous arti- 
cles and made many public appear- 
ances as an advocate for gifted children. 

Today Tolan is a nationally recognized 
authority on gifted education. She 
understands that many gifted chil- 
dren feel different from their peers 
and place pressure upon themselves 
to succeed. She encourages these chil- 
dren — and all children — to accept 
themselves. "Most of the world is 
busy trying to tell children that they 
aren't good enough, aren't enough 
like other children, aren't really wor- 
thy of being loved," she stated. "What 
every kid needs to know is that she is 
just exactly the person she is meant 
to be, and that — no matter what — 
she is absolutely and unconditionally 
worthy of love. If I could help even 
one boy or girl to begin to really be- 
lieve that, I'd feel as if I'd done what I 
was meant to do." 

Tolan continues to work toward this goal in her writing. She enjoys writing 
for young people because it gives her an opportunity to influence the next 
generation. But she admits that children can be a very tough audience. 
"People are always asking [children's authors] when we're going to start 
writing for adults, as though we're sort of 'trying out' on kids," she ac- 
knowledged. "Well, kids are the toughest readers in the world. They don't 
have to go to cocktail parties and pretend they've read some hot new book. 
If they don't want to read it, they'll just put it down. You'd better make it in- 
teresting." 



Ci 

"Most of the world is busy 
trying to tell children that 
they aren't good enough , 
aren't enough like other 
children, aren't really 
worthy of being loved. 
What every kid needs to 
know is that she is just 
exactly the person she is 
meant to be, and that — 
no matter what — she is ab- 
solutely and unconditionally 
worthy of love. If I could 
help even one boy or girl to 
begin to really believe that, 
I'd feel as if I'd done what 
I was meant to do." 

yy 




1 




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STEPHANIE S.TOLAN 



Tolan believes that her audience can handle important real-life issues, so 
she tends to write about whatever topic interests her. "I can't spend a year 
of my life on a book unless it has a philosophical issue that I am deeply in- 
terested in," she explained. "Thus, I think all of my books have such back- 
bones. Each one has an intense psychological, emotional, or philosophical 
question. It must have that for me to deal with it for the length of time it 
takes to write a book." 

MARRIAGE AND FAMILY 

Stephanie Stein married Robert W. Tolan, the managing director of a pro- 
fessional theater, on December 19, 1964. She thus became a stepmother to 
her husband's sons, Patrick, Andrew, and Robert Jr. In 1972 the Tolans had 
a son together, whom they named R.J. 

Tolan and her family moved around a lot due to her husband's theatrical 
career. They moved to a house on a lake near Charlotte, North Carolina, in 
1999. Now that their sons are grown, Tolan and her husband share their 
home with several dogs, cats, and other pets. 

SELECTED WRITINGS 

Young Adult Novels 

The Last of Eden, 1980 
The Liberation of Tansy Warner, 1980 
No Safe Harbors, 1981 
Pride of the Peacock, 1986 
A Good Courage, 1988 
Plague Year, 1990 
The Witch of Maple Park, 1992 
Who's There? 1994 
Welcome to the Ark, 1996 
The Face in the Mirror, 1998 
Flight of the Raven, 2001 
Surviving the Applewhites, 2002 

Middle-Grade Novels 

Grandpa — and Me, 1978 
A Time to Fly Free, 1983 
Save Halloween! 1993 
Ordinary Miracles, 1999 

181 




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BIOGRAPHY TODAY AUTHORS, VOL 14 



The "Great Skinner" Series 

The Great Skinner Strike, 1983 
The Great Skinner Enterprise, 1987 
The Great Skinner Getaway, 1987 
The Great Skinner Homestead, 1988 

Children's Books 

Marcy Hooper and the Greatest Treasure in the World, 1991 
Sophie and the Sidewalk Man, 1992 
Bartholomew's Blessing, 2003 

Plays 

The Ledge, 1968 

Not I, Said the Little Red Hen, 1971 

Bridge to Terabithia, 1990 (with Katherine Paterson, music by Steven 
Liebman) 

The Tale of the Mandarin Ducks, 1998 (with Paterson, music by Leibman) 
The Tale of Jemima Puddle-Duck, 2002 (with Paterson) 

Nonfiction 

Guiding the Gifted Child: A Practical Source for Parents and Teachers, 1982 
(with James T. Webb and Elizabeth Meckstroth) 

HONORS AND AWARDS 

Notable Trade Book (National Council of Social Studies): 1978, for 
Grandpa — and Me; 1980, for The Liberation of Tansy Warner 
Bread Loaf Writer's Conference Fellowship: 1981 
American Psychological Association Media Award: 1983, for Guiding the 
Gifted Child 

Best Book Award ( School Library Journal ): 1988, for A Good Courage 

FURTHER READING 
Books 

Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Vol. 45, 2002 
Hippie, Ted. Writers for Young Adults, 2000 

Holtze, Sally Holmes, ed. Sixth Book of Junior Authors and Illustrators, 1989 
Something about the Author, Vol. 78, 1994 





180 



STEPHANIE S.TOLAN 



Periodicals 

Book Report , Jan. 1993, p.35 

Charlotte (N.C.) Observer, Feb. 9, 2003, p.Al 

Online Articles 

http://www.talentdevelop.com 
(' Talent Development, "Stephanie Tolan Interview/' undated) 

Online Databases 

Biography Resource Center Online, 2003, articles from Authors and Artists for 
Young Adults, 2002, and Contemporary Authors Online, 2003 

ADDRESS 

Stephanie S. Tolan 
Random House Children's Books 
1745 Broadway 
10th Floor 

New York, NY 10019 

WORLD WIDE WEB SITE 

http://www.stephanietolan.com 



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Photo and Illustration Credits 



Orson Scott Card/Photo: Tor. Covers: EARTHBORN copyright © 1995 by Orson Scott 
Card; ENCHANTMENT (Del Rey/Ballantine Publishing Group) copyright © 1999 by 
Orson Scott Card; ENDER'S GAME copyright © 1977, 1985, 1991 by Orson Scott 
Card; FIRST MEETINGS: IN THE ENDERVERSE copyright © 2003 by Orson Scott 
Card; SEVENTH SON copyright © 1987 by Orson Scott Card; SHADOW OF THE 
HEGEMON copyright © 2000 by Orson Scott Card; SONGMASTER copyright © 
1978, 1979, 1980, 1987 by Orson Scott Card, all Tor Books. 

Russell Freedman/Photo: Property of Russell Freedman/Clarion Books. Covers: CON- 
FUCIUS (Arthur A. Levine Books/Scholastic Press) copyright © 2003 by Russell 
Freedman. Jacket art copyright © 1997 by Editions La Joie de Lire SA; FRANKLIN 
DELANO ROOSEVELT text copyright © 1990 by Russell Freedman; GIVE ME LIB- 
ERTY! copyright © 2000 by Russell Freedman; HANGING ON copyright © 1977 by 
Russell Freedman; THE LIFE AND DEATH OF CRAZY HORSE copyright © 1996 by 
Russell Freedman; LINCOLN: A PHOTOBIOGRAPHY copyright © 1987 by Russell 
Freedman. Jacket copyright © 1987 by Houghton Mifflin Company; MARTFIA GRA- 
HAM copyright © 1998 by Russell Freedman, all Clarion Books/Houghton Mifflin 
Company; TEENAGERS WHO MADE HISTORY copyright © 1961, by Holiday 
House; THE WRIGHT BROTHERS copyright 1991 by Russell Freedman, all Holiday 
House. 

Mary GrandPre/Photos: Scholastic Inc.; Keri Picket/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images. 
Covers: HARRY POTTER AND THE CHAMBER OF SECRETS jacket art copyright © 
1999 by Mary GrandPre. Jacket design by Mary GrandPre and David Saylor; HARRY 
POTTER AND THE GOBLET OF FIRE jacket art copyright © 2000 by Mary 
GrandPre. Jacket design by Mary GrandPre and David Saylor; HARRY POTTER 
AND THE ORDER OF THE PHOENIX jacket art by Mary GrandPre © 2003 Warner 
Bros. Jacket design by Mary GrandPre and David Saylor; HARRY POTTER AND THE 
SORCERER'S STONE jacket art copyright © 1998 by Mary GrandPre. Jacket design 
by Mary GrandPre and David Saylor, all Scholastic; CHIN YU MIN AND THE GIN- 
GER CAT (Dragonfly Books/Crown Publishers) text copyright © 1993 by Jennifer 
Armstrong. Illustrations copyright © 1993 by Mary GrandPre; THE SEA CITEST (Dial 
Books for Young Readers/Penguin Putnam, Inc.) text copyright © 2002 by Toni 
Buzzero. Illustrations copyright © 2002 by Mary GrandPre; SWING AROUND THE 
SUN by Barbara Juster Esbensen. Illustrated by Cheng-Khee Chee, Janice Lee Porter, 
Mary GrandPre and Stephen Gammell. Illustration appearing in this publication 
copyright © 2003 by Mary GrandPre. Used by permission of the publisher, 
Carolrhoda Books, Inc., a division of Lemer Publishing Group. All rights reserved. 

Dan Greenburg/Covers: HOW TO BE A JEWISH MOTHER (Price/Stem/Sloan Pub- 
lishers, Inc.) copyright © 1964 by Dan Greenburg. Photographs by Sam Greenburg; 
MAXIMUM BOY: HOW I BECAME A SUPERHERO text copyright © 2001 by Dan 
Greenburg. Illustrations copyright © 2001 by Scholastic Inc.; MAXIMUM BOY: THE 




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PHOTO AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS 



WORST BULLY IN THE ENTIRE UNIVERSE text copyright © 2003 by Dan Green- 
burg. Illustrations copyright © 2003 by Scholastic Inc., both Little Apple Paperback/ 
Scholastic; THE ZACK FILES: GREAT-GRANDPA'S IN THE LITTER BOX text copy- 
right © 1996 by Dan Greenburg. Illustrations copyright © 1996 by Jack E. Davis; THE 
ZACK FILES: IT'S rTCHCRAFT! text copyright © 2003 by Dan Greenburg. Illustra- 
tions copyright © 2003 by Jack E. Davis; THE ZACK FILES: TELL A LIE AND YOUR 
BUTT WILL GROW text copyright © 2002 by Dan Greenburg. Illustrations copyright 
© 2002 by Jack E. Davis, all Grosset & Dunlap/Penguin Putnam Books for Young 
Readers. 

Nikki Grimes/Photo: Joelle Petit Atkins. Covers: BRONX MASQUERADE (Dial Books/ 
Penguin Group) copyright © 2002 by Nikki Grimes. Jacket art copyright © 2002 by 
Christopher Myers; DANILKA BROWN LEAVES TOWN (Amistad/HarperCollins 
Publishers) text copyright © 2002 by Nikki Grimes. Illustrations copyright © 2002 by 
Floyd Cooper; GROWIN' (Puffin Books/Penguin Group) copyright © Nikki Grimes, 
1977; JAZMIN'S NOTEBOOK (Puffin Books/Penguin Putnam Books for Young 
Readers) copyright © Nikki Grimes, 1998; MEET DANITRA BROWN (Mulberry 
Books/William Morrow & Co.) text copyright © 1994 by Nikki Grimes. Illustrations 
copyright © 1994 by Floyd Cooper; TALKIN' ABOUT BESSIE (Orchard Books/ 
Scholastic) text copyright © 2002 by Nikki Grimes. Illustrations copyright © 2002 by 
Earl Lewis. Jacket illustrations © 2002 E.B. Lewis. Front Cover: Steve Elliott. 

Laura Hillenbrand/Photos: Lauren Chelec; AMERICAN EXPERIENCE "Seabiscuit"/ 
Library of Congress; AP/Wide World Photos; copyright © Bettmann/CORBIS; 
AP/Wide World Photos; copyright © Bettmann/CORBIS; AP/Wide World Photos; 
Francois Duhamel. Cover: SEABISCUIT (Random House) copyright © 2001, 2003 by 
Laura Hillenbrand. Jacket photograph © copyright Bettmann/CORBIS. 

Stephen Hillenburg/Photos: Nickelodeon; AP/Wide World Photos; Kevin Win ter/ Getty 
Images. DVD: "Tales from the Deep" copyright © 2003 Viacom International, Inc. 

Norton Juster/Photos: The Phantom Tollbooth copyright © 1972 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 
Inc.; The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Covers: AS (William Morrow & Co.) text 
copyright © 1989 by Norton Juster. Jacket and illustrations copyright © 1989 by David 
Small; THE DOT AND THE LINE (SeaStar Books/North-South Books, Inc.) copy- 
right © 1963, 2001 by Norton Juster; THE PHANTOM TOLLBOOTH (Borzoi/ Alfred 
A. Knopf) text copyright © 1961 by Norton Juster. Text copyright renewed © 1989 by 
Norton Juster. Jacket and illustrations copyright © 1961 by Jules Feiffer. Jacket and il- 
lustrations copyright renewed © 1989 by Jules Feiffer. 

Lurlene McDaniel/Photo: Copeland Photography. Covers: THE ANGELS TRILOGY 
cover art copyright © 2002 by Kamil Vojnar. Angels Watching Over Me copyright © 
1996 by Lurlene McDaniel - Lifted Up By Angels copyright © 1997 by Lurlene 
McDaniel - Until Angels Close My Eyes copyright © 1998 by Lurlene McDaniel; 
DON'T DIE, MY LOVE text copyright © 1995 by Lurlene McDaniel. Cover art copy- 
right © 1995 by Jim Galante, both Dell Laurel-Leaf/Random House Children's Books; 
ONE LAST WISH text copyright © 1998 by Lurlene McDaniel. Cover art copyright © 
1998 by Ericka Meltzer O'Rourke; SIX MONTTJS TO LIVE text copyright © 1985 by 
Lurlene McDaniel; A TIME TO DIE copyright © 1992 by Lurlene McDaniel, all 
Bantam Books/Random House Children's Books; GARDEN OF ANGELS (Delacorte 
Press/Bantam Books) text copyright © 2003 by Lurlene McDaniel; LIFTED UP BY 
ANGELS (Bantam Books/Bantam Doubleday D£ll Publishing Group) text copyright 



O 

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PHOTO AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS 



© 1997 by Lurlene McDaniel. Cover art copyright © 1997 by Kamil Vojnar; THE 
TIME CAPSULE (Delacorte Press/Random House Children's Books) text copyright © 
2003 by Lurlene McDaniel. Jacket illustration copyright © 2003 by Ericka O'Rourke; 
WILL I EVER DANCE AGAIN? (Willowisp Press) copyright © 1982 by Willowisp 
Press, Inc. 

Stephanie S. Tolan/Photo: Judy Owen. Covers: FLIGHT OF THE RAVEN copyright © 
2001 by Stephanie S. Tolan. Jacket art © 2001 by Clif Nielsen. Jacket art copyright © 
2001 by HarperCollins Publishers; GRANDPA — AND ME (Charles Scribner's Sons) 
copyright © 1978 by Stephanie S. Tolan; THE GREAT SKINNER HOMESTEAD 
(Four Winds Press) copyright © 1988 by Stephanie S. Tolan. Copyright © 1988 by 
Macmillan Publishing Company, a division of Macmillan, Inc. Copyright © 1988 by 
Peter Elwell; GUIDING THE GIFTED CHILD (Great Potential Press) copyright © 
1994 by Ohio Psychology Press; ORDINARY MIRACLES (HarperTrophy/Harper 
Collins Publishers) copyright © 1999 Stephanie S. Tolan; PLAGUE YEAR (Fawcett 
Juniper Book/Ballantine Publishing Group) copyright © 1990 by Stephanie S. Tolan; 
SURVIVING THE APPLEWHITES copyright © 2002 by Stephanie S. Tolan. Jacket art 
copyright © 2002 by Hala Witwer. Jacket art copyright © 2002 by HarperCollins 
Publishers; WELCOME TO THE ARK (HarperTempest/HarperCollins Publishers) 
copyright © 1996 by Stephanie S. Tolan. 




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Our indexes have a new look. In an effort to make our indexes easier to 
use, we've combined the Name and General Index into a new, Cumulative 
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Biography Today, both the general series and the special subject series. The 
new Cumulative Index contains complete listings of all individuals who 
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pear in bold-faced type, followed by the issue in which they appear. The 
Cumulative Index also includes references for the occupations, nationali- 
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Today. 

We have also made some changes to our specialty indexes, the Places of 
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Places of Birth Index and the Birthday Index will no longer appear in the 
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dexes can still be found in the September issue of the softbound subscrip- 
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and in each volume of the special subject series. 



General Series 

The General Series of Biography Today is denoted in the index with the 
month and year of the issue in which the individual appeared. Each indi- 
vidual also appears in the Annual Cumulation for that year. 



bin Laden, Osama .... 


Apr 02 


Bush, George W 


. Sep 00; Update 00; 


Update 01; Update 02 


Clarkson, Kelly 


Jan 03 


Eminem 


Apr 03 


Fuller, Millard 


Apr 03 


Giuliani, Rudolph . . . . 


Sep 02 


Hartnett, Josh 


Sep 03 


Lewis, John 


Jan 03 


Roberts, Julia 


Sep 01 


Rowling, J.K 


. . Sep 99; Update 00; 


Update 01; Update 02 


Spears, Britney 


Jan 01 


Tucker, Chris 


Jan 01 


Wood, Elijah 


Apr 02 




IS? 



185 



HOWTO USE THE CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Special Subject Series 

The Special Subject Series of Biography Today are each denoted in the index 
with an abbreviated form of the series name, plus the number of the vol- 
ume in which the individual appears. They are listed as follows. 



Adams, Ansel 


Artist V.l 


(Artists) 


GrandPre, Mary 


Author V. 14 


(Authors) 


Jackson, Peter 


PerfArt V.2 


(Performing Artists) 


Kapell, Dave 


Science V.8 


(Scientists & Inventors) 


Kidd, Jason 


Sport V.9 


(Sports) 


Peterson, Roger Tory .... 


WorLdr V.l 


(World Leaders: 
Environmental Leaders ) 


Sadat, Anwar 


WorLdr V.2 


(World Leaders: 

Modem African Leaders) 


Wolf, Hazel 


WorLdr V.3 


(World Leaders: 
Environmental Leaders 2) 



Updates 

Updated information on selected individuals appears in the Appendix at 
the end of the Biography Today Annual Cumulation. In the index, the origi- 
nal entry is listed first, followed by any updates. 

Arafat, Yasir Sep 94; Update 94; 

Update 95; Update 96; Update 97; Update 98; 

Update 00; Update 01; Update 02 

Gates, Bill Apr 93; Update 98; 

Update 00; Science V.5; Update 01 

Griffith Joyner, Florence Sport V.l; 

Update 98 

Sanders, Barry Sep 95; Update 99 

Spock, Dr. Benjamin .... Sep 95; Update 98 

Yeltsin, Boris Apr 92; Update 93; 

Update 95; Update 96; Update 98; Update 00 





186 



Cumulative Index 



This cumulative index includes names, occupations, nationalities, and ethnic and 
minority origins that pertain to all individuals profiled in Biography Today since 
the debut of the series in 1992. 



Aaliyah Jan 02 

Aaron, Hank Sport V.l 

Abbey, Edward WorLdr V.l 

Abdul, Paula Jan 92; Update 02 

Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem Sport V.l 

Aboriginal 

Freeman, Cathy Jan 01 

Abzug, Bella Sep 98 

activists 

Abzug, Bella Sep 98 

Arafat, Yasir Sep 94; Update 94; 

Update 95; Update 96; Update 97; Update 
98; Update 00; Update 01; Update 02 

Ashe, Arthur Sep 93 

Askins, Renee WorLdr V.l 

Aung San Suu Kyi Apr 96; Update 98; 

Update 01; Update 02 

Banda, Hastings Kamuzu .... WorLdr V.2 

Bates, Daisy Apr 00 

Brower, David WorLdr V.l; Update 01 

Burnside, Aubyn Sep 02 

Calderone, Mary S Science V.3 

Chavez, Cesar Sep 93 

Chavis, Benjamin Jan 94; Update 94 

Cronin, John WorLdr V.3 

Dai Qing WorLdr V.3 

Dalai Lama Sep 98 

Douglas, Marjory Stoneman . . WorLdr V.l; 
Update 98 

Edelman, Marian Wright Apr 93 

Foreman, Dave WorLdr V.l 

Fuller, Millard Apr 03 

Gibbs, Lois WorLdr V.l 

Haddock, Doris (Granny D) Sep 00 

Huerta, Dolores Sep 03 

Jackson, Jesse Sep 95; Update 01 

Ka HsawWa WorLdr V.3 

Kaunda, Kenneth WorLdr V.2 

Kenyatta, Jomo WorLdr V.2 

Kielburger, Craig Jan 00 



Kim Dae-jung 


Sep 01 


LaDuke, Winona . . 


WorLdr V.3; Update 00 


Lewis, John 


Jan 03 


Love, Susan 


Science V.3 


Maathai, Wangari . 


WorLdr V.l 


Mandela, Nelson. . . 


.... Jan 92; Update 94; 


Update 01 


Mandela, Winnie . 


WorLdr V.2 


Mankiller, Wilma . . 


Apr 94 


Martin, Bernard . . . 


WorLdr V.3 


Masih, Iqbal 


Jan 96 


Menchu, Rigoberta 


Jan 93 


Mendes, Chico .... 


WorLdr V.l 


Mugabe, Robert . . . 


WorLdr V.2 


Marshall, Thurgood 


Jan 92; Update 93 


Nakamura, Leanne . 


Apr 02 


Nkrumah, Kwame 


WorLdr V.2 


Nyerere, Julius Kambarage . . . WorLdr V.2; 


Update 99 


Oliver, Patsy Ruth . 


WorLdr V.l 


Parks, Rosa 


.... Apr 92; Update 94 


Pauling, Linus .... 


Jan 95 


Saro-Wiwa, Ken. . . 


WorLdr V.l 


Savimbi, Jonas .... 


WorLdr V.2 


Spock, Benjamin . . . 


.... Sep 95; Update 98 


Steinem, Gloria . . . . 


Oct 92 


Teresa, Mother . . . . 


Apr 98 


Watson, Paul 


WorLdr V.l 


Werbach, Adam . . . 


WorLdr V.l 


Wolf, Hazel 


WorLdr V.3 


Zamora, Pedro . . . . 


Apr 95 


actors/actresses 


Aaliyah 


Jan 02 


Affleck, Ben 


Sep 99 


Alba, Jessica 


Sep 01 


Allen, Tim 


.... Apr 94; Update 99 


Alley, Kirstie 


Jul 92 


Anderson, Gillian . 


Jan 97 


Aniston, Jennifer. . . 


Apr 99 


Arnold, Roseanne . . 


Oct 92 


Banks, Tyra 


PerfArt V.2 


139 


187 




CUMULATIVE INDEX 




Barrymore, Drew 


Jan 01 


Bergen, Candice 




Berry, Halle 


. . Jan 95; Update 02 


Bialik, Mayim 


Jan 94 


Blanchard, Rachel 


Apr 97 


Bledel, Alexis 


Jan 03 


Brandis, Jonathan 


Sep 95 


Brandy 


Apr 96 


Bryan, Zachery Ty . . . . 


Jan 97 


Burke, Chris 


Sep 93 


Bynes, Amanda 


Sep 03 


Cameron, Candace . . . . 


Apr 95 


Campbell, Neve 


Apr 98 


Candy, John 


Sep 94 


Carrey, Jim 


Apr 96 


Carvey, Dana 


Jan 93 


Chan, Jackie 


PerfArt V.l 


Culkin, Macaulay 


Sep 93 


Danes, Claire 


Sep 97 


DiCaprio, Leonardo . . . 


Apr 98 


Diesel, Vin 


Jan 03 


Doherty, Shannen . . . . 


. Apr 92; Update 94 


Duchovny, David 


Apr 96 


Duff, Hilary 


Sep 02 


Dunst, Kirsten 


PerfArt V.l 


Eminem 


Apr 03 


Ford, Harrison 


Sep 97 


Garth, Jennie 


Apr 96 


Gellar, Sarah Michelle. 


Jan 99 


Gilbert, Sara 


Apr 93 


Goldberg, Whoopi . . . . 


Apr 94 


Goodman, John 


Sep 95 


Hanks, Tom 


Jan 96 


Hart, Melissa Joan .... 


Jan 94 


Hartnett, Josh 


Sep 03 


Hewitt, Jennifer Love. . 


Sep 00 


Holmes, Katie 


Jan 00 


Jones, James Earl 


Jan 95 


Lee, Spike 


Apr 92 


Locklear, Heather .... 


Jan 95 


Lopez, George 


PerfArt V.2 


Lopez, Jennifer 


Jan 02 


Mac, Bernie 


PerfArt V.l 


Muniz, Frankie 


Jan 01 


Murphy, Eddie 


PerfArt V.2 


O'Donnell, Rosie 


. Apr 97; Update 02 


Oleynik, Larisa 


Sep 96 


Olsen, Ashley 


Sep 95 


Olsen, Mary Kate 


Sep 95 


Perry, Luke 


Jan 92 


Phoenix, River 


Apr 94 



Pitt, Brad Sep 98 

Portman, Natalie Sep 99 

Priestley, Jason Apr 92 

Prinze, Freddie, Jr Apr 00 

Radcliffe, Daniel Jan 02 

Reeve, Christopher Jan 97; Update 02 

Roberts, Julia Sep 01 

Ryder, Winona Jan 93 

Shatner, William Apr 95 

Sinatra, Frank Jan 99 

Smith, Will Sep 94 

Stewart, Patrick Jan 94 

Stiles, Julia PerfArt V.2 

Thiessen, Tiffani -Amber Jan 96 

Thomas, Jonathan Taylor Apr 95 

Tucker, Chris Jan 01 

Usher PerfArt V.l 

Vidal, Christina PerfArt V.l 

Washington, Denzel .... Jan 93; Update 02 

Watson, Barry Sep 02 

Watson, Emma Apr 03 

Wayans, Keenen Ivory Jan 93 

White, Jaleel Jan 96 

Williams, Robin Apr 92 

Wilson, Mara Jan 97 

Winfrey, Oprah Apr 92; Update 00 

Winslet, Kate Sep 98 

Witherspoon, Reese Apr 03 

Wood, Elijah Apr 02 

Adams, Ansel Artist V.l 

Adams, Yolanda Apr 03 

Affleck, Ben Sep 99 

African-Americans 
see blacks 

Agassi, Andre Jul 92 

Aguilera, Christina Apr 00 

Aidid, Mohammed Farah WorLdr V.2 

Aikman, Troy Apr 95; Update 01 

Alba, Jessica Sep 01 

Albanian 

Teresa, Mother Apr 98 

Albright, Madeleine Apr 97 

Alcindor, Lew 

see Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem Sport V.l 

Alexander, Lloyd Author V.6 

Algerian 

Boulmerka, Hassiba Sport V.l 

Ali, Muhammad Sport V.2 

Allen, Marcus Sep 97 

Allen, Tim Apr 94; Update 99 



O 

ERIC 



188 



130 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Allen, Tori 


Sport V.9 


Alley, Kirstie 


Jul 92 


Almond, David 


Author V.10 


Alvarez, Luis W 


Science V.3 


Amanpour, Christiane. . 


Jan 01 


Amin, Idi 


WorLdr V.2 


Amman, Simon 


. Sport V.8 


An Na 


Author V.12 


Anders, C.J. 




see Bennett, Cherie 


Author V.9 


Anderson, Gillian 


Jan 97 


Anderson, Laurie Halse 


AuthorV.il 


Anderson, Marian 


Jan 94 


Anderson, Terry 


Apr 92 


Andretti, Mario 


Sep 94 


Andrews, Ned 


Sep 94 


Angelou, Maya 


Apr 93 


Angolan 




Savimbi, Jonas 


WorLdr V.2 


animators 




see also cartoonists 




Hillenburg, Stephen . . . 


Author V.14 


Jones, Chuck 


Author V.12 


Lasseter, John 


Sep 00 


Tartakovsky, Genndy . . 


AuthorV.il 


Aniston, Jennifer 


Apr 99 


Annan, Kofi 


. Jan 98; Update 01 


Applegate, K. A 


Jan 00 


Arab-American 




Nye, Naomi Shihab . . . 


Author V.8 


Arafat, Yasir 


Sep 94; Update 94; 


Update 95; Update 96; Update 97; Update 


98; Update 00; Update 01; Update 02 



Arantes do Nascimento, Edson 



seePele Sport V.l 

architects 

Juster, Norton Author V.14 

Lin, Maya Sep 97 

Pei, I.M Artist V.l 

Wright, Frank Lloyd Artist V.l 

Aristide, Jean-Bertrand . . Jan 95; Update 01 

Armstrong, Lance Sep 00; Update 00; 

Update 01; Update 02 

Armstrong, Robb Author V.9 

Armstrong, William H Author V.7 

Arnold, Roseanne Oct 92 

artists 

Adams, Ansel Artist V.l 

Bearden, Romare Artist V.l 

Bennett, Olivia Sep 03 

Calder, Alexander Artist V.l 



Chagall, Marc 


Artist V.l 


Christo 


Sep 96 


Frankenthaler, Helen. 


Artist V.l 


Gorey, Edward 


Author V. 13 


GrandPre, Mary 


Author V.14 


Johns, Jasper 


Artist V.l 


Lawrence, Jacob 


, Artist V.l; Update 01 


Lin, Maya 


Sep 97 


Moore, Henry 


Artist V.l 


Moses, Grandma . . . . 


Artist V.l 


Nechita, Alexandra . . 


Jan 98 


Nevelson, Louise . . . . 


Artist V.l 


O'Keeffe, Georgia . . . 


Artist V.l 


Parks, Gordon 


Artist V.l 


Pinkney, Jerry 


Author V.2 


Ringgold, Faith 


Author V.2 


Rivera, Diego 


Artist V.l 


Rockwell, Norman . . . 


Artist V.l 


Warhol, Andy 


Artist V.l 


Ashanti 


PerfArt V.2 


Ashe, Arthur 


Sep 93 


Ashley, Maurice .... 


Sep 99 


Asians 




An Na 


Author V.12 


Aung San Suu Kyi . . . 


. . Apr 96; Update 98; 


Update 01; Update 02 


Chan, Jackie 


PerfArt V.l 


Chung, Connie 


. . . Jan 94; Update 96 


Dai Qing 


WorLdr V.3 


Fu Mingxia 


Sport V.5 


Guey, Wendy 


Sep 96 


Ho, David 


Science V.6 


Ka Hsaw Wa 


WorLdr V.3 


Kim Dae-jung 


Sep 01 


Kwan, Michelle 


Sport V.3; Update 02 


Lee, Jeanette 


Apr 03 


Lin, Maya 


Sep 97 


Ma, Yo-Yo 


Jul 92 


Ohno, Apolo 


Sport V.8 


Pak, Se Ri 


Sport V.4 


Park, Linda Sue 


Author V.12 


Pei, I.M 


. Artist V.l 


Tan, Amy 


Author V.9 


Wang, Art 


Science V.2 


Woods, Tiger 


Sport V.l; Update 00 


Yamaguchi, Kristi . . . . 


Apr 92 


Yao Ming 


Sep 03 


Yep, Laurence 


Author V.5 


Asimov, Isaac 


Jul 92 


Askins, Renee 


WorLdr V.l 


astronauts 




Collins, Eileen 


Science V.4 




191 



189 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Glenn, John 


Jan 99 


Harris, Bernard 


Science V.3 


Jemison, Mae 


Oct 92 


Lovell, Jim 


Jan 96 


Lucid, Shannon 


Science V.2 


Ochoa, Ellen 


Apr 01; Update 02 


Ride, Sally 


Jan 92 


athletes 




see sports 




Attenborough, David . . . 


Science V.4 


Atwater-Rhodes, Amelia 


Author V.8 


Aung San Suu Kyi 


Apr 96; Update 98; 


Update 01; Update 02 




Australians 




Beachley, Layne 


Sport V.9 


Freeman, Cathy 


Jan 01 


Irwin, Steve 


Science V.7 


Norman, Greg 


Jan 94 


Travers, P.L 


Author V.2 


Webb, Karrie Sport V.5; Update 01; 


Update 02 




authors 




Abbey, Edward 


WorLdr V.l 


Alexander, Lloyd 


Author V.6 


Almond, David 


Author V.10 


An Na 


. . . . .Author V.12 


Anderson Laurie Halse. . 


Author V.ll 


Angelou, Maya 


Apr 93 


Applegate, K. A 


Jan 00 


Armstrong, Robb 


Author V.9 


Armstrong, William H. . . 


Author V.7 


Asimov, Isaac 


Jul 92 


Attenborough, David . . . 


Science V.4 


Atwater-Rhodes, Amelia 


Author V.8 


Avi 


Jan 93 


Baldwin, James 


Author V.2 


Bauer, Joan 


Author V.10 


Bennett, Cherie 


Author V.9 


Benson, Mildred 


Jan 03 


Berenstain, Jan 


Author V.2 


Berenstain, Stan 


Author V.2 


Blum, Deborah 


Science V.8 


Blume, Judy 


Jan 92 


Boyd, Candy Dawson . . . 


Author V.3 


Bradbury, Ray 


Author V.3 


Brody, Jane 


Science V.2 


Brooks, Gwendolyn . . . . 


Author V.3 


Brower, David WorLdr V.l; Update 01 


Brown, Claude 


Author V.12 


Byars, Betsy 


Author V.4 


Cabot, Meg 


Author V.12 




Caplan, Arthur Science V.6 

Card, Orson Scott Author V.14 

Carle, Eric Author V.l 

Carson, Rachel WorLdr V.l 

Childress, Alice Author V.l 

Cleary, Beverly Apr 94 

Clements, Andrew Author V.13 

Colfer, Eoin Author V.13 

Collier, Bryan Author V.ll 

Cooney, Barbara Author V.8 

Cooney, Caroline B Author V.4 

Cormier, Robert. . . . Author V.l; Update 01 

Cosby, Bill Jan 92 

Coville, Bruce Author V.9 

Creech, Sharon Author V.5 

Crichton, Michael Author V.5 

Cronin, John WorLdr V.3 

Curtis, Christopher Paul Author V.4; 

Update 00 

Cushman, Karen Author V.5 

Dahl, Roald Author V.l 

Dai Qing WorLdr V.3 

Danziger, Paula Author V.6 

Delany, Bessie Sep 99 

Delany, Sadie Sep 99 

dePaola, Tomie Author V.5 

DiCamillo, Kate Author V.10 

Douglas, Marjory Stoneman . . WorLdr V.l; 

Update 98 

Dove, Rita Jan 94 

Draper, Sharon Apr 99 

Dunbar, Paul Lawrence Author V.8 

Duncan, Lois Sep 93 

Ellison, Ralph Author V.3 

Farmer, Nancy Author V.6 

Filipovic, Zlata Sep 94 

Fitzhugh, Louise Author V.3 

Hake, Sharon Author V.13 

Frank, Anne Author V.4 

Freedman, Russell Author V.14 

Gantos, Jack Author V.10 

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr Apr 00 

George, Jean Craighead Author V.3 

Giff, Patricia Reilly Author V.7 

Gorey, Edward Author V.13 

Gould, Stephen Jay Science V.2; 

Update 02 

Grandin, Temple Science V.3 

Greenburg, Dan Author V.14 

Grimes, Nikki Author V.14 

Grisham, John Author V.l 



190 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 




Guy, Rosa Author V.9 

Gwaltney, John Langston Science V.3 

Haddix, Margaret Peterson . . . AuthorV.il 

Haley, Alex Apr 92 

Hamilton, Virginia Author V.l; 

Author V.12 

Handford, Martin Jan 92 

Hansberry, Lorraine Author V.5 

Heinlein, Robert Author V.4 

Henry, Marguerite Author V.4 

Herriot, James Author V.l 

Hesse, Karen Author V.5; Update 02 

Hillenbrand, Laura Author V.14 

Hinton, S.E Author V.l 

Hughes, Langston Author V.7 

Hurston, Zora Neale Author V.6 

Jackson, Shirley Author V.6 

Jacques, Brian Author V.5 

Jimenez, Francisco Author V.13 

Johnson, Angela Author V.6 

Juster, Norton Author V.14 

Kamler, Kenneth Science V.6 

Kerr, M.E Author V.l 

King, Stephen Author V.l; Update 00 

Konigsburg, E. L Author V.3 

Krakauer, Jon Author V.6 

LaDuke, Winona . . WorLdr V.3; Update 00 

Lee, Harper Author V.9 

Lee, Stan Author V.7; Update 02 

Le Guin, Ursula K Author V.8 

L'Engle, Madeleine Jan 92; Apr 01 

Leopold, Aldo WorLdr V.3 

Lester, Julius Author V.7 

Lewis, C. S Author V.3 

Lindgren, Astrid Author V.13 

Lionni, Leo Author V.6 

Lipsyte, Robert Author V.12 

Love, Susan Science V.3 

Lowry, Lois Author V.4 

Lynch, Chris Author V.13 

Macaulay, David Author V.2 

MacLachlan, Patricia Author V.2 

Martin, Ann M Jan 92 

McCully, Emily Arnold. . . Jul 92; Update 93 

McDaniel, Lurlene Author V.14 

McKissack, Fredrick L Author V.3 

McKissack, Patricia C Author V.3 

Mead, Margaret Science V.2 

Meltzer, Milton Author V.ll 

Morrison, Lillian Author V.12 

Morrison, Toni Jan 94 



Moss, Cynthia WorLdr V.3 

Mowat, Farley Author V.8 

Muir, John WorLdr V.3 

Murie, Margaret WorLdr V.l 

Murie, Olaus J WorLdr V.l 

Myers, Walter Dean Jan 93; Update 94 

Naylor, Phyllis Reynolds Apr 93 

Nelson, Marilyn. Author V.13 

Nielsen, Jerri Science V.7 

Nixon, Joan Lowery Author V.l 

Nye, Naomi Shihab Author V.8 

O'Dell, Scott Author V.2 

Opdyke, Irene Gut Author V.9 

Park, Linda Sue Author V.12 

Pascal, Francine Author V.6 

Paterson, Katherine Author V.3 

Paulsen, Gary Author V.l 

Peck, Richard Author V.10 

Peet, Bill Author V.4 

Peterson, Roger Tory WorLdr V.l 

Pierce, Tamora Author V.13 

Pike, Christopher Sep 96 

Pinkney, Andrea Davis Author V.10 

Pinkwater, Daniel Author V.8 

Pinsky, Robert Author V.7 

Potter, Beatrix Author V.8 

Prelutsky, Jack Author V.2 

Pullman, Philip Author V.9 

Reid Banks, Lynne Author V.2 

Rennison, Louise Author V.10 

Rice, Anne Author V.3 

Rinaldi, Ann Author V.8 

Ringgold, Faith Author V.2 

Rowan, Carl Sep 01 

Rowling, J. K Sep 99; Update 00; 

Update 01; Update 02 

Ryan, Pam Munoz Author V.12 

Rylant, Cynthia Author V.l 

Sachar, Louis Author V.6 

Sacks, Oliver Science V.3 

Salinger, J.D Author V.2 

Saro-Wiwa, Ken WorLdr V.l 

Scarry, Richard Sep 94 

Scieszka, Jon Author V.9 

Sendak, Maurice Author V.2 

Senghor, Leopold Sedar WorLdr V.2 

Seuss, Dr Jan 92 

Silverstein, Shel .... Author V.3; Update 99 

Sleator, William AuthorV.il 

Small, David Author V.10 

Snicket, Lemony Author V.12 





191 





CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Sones, Sonya 


. .AuthorV.il 


Banks, Tyra 


PerfArt V.2 


Soto, Gary 


. . . Author V.5 


Bardeen, John 


Science V.l 


Speare, Elizabeth George . . 


Sep 95 


Barkley, Charles 


. . Apr 92; Update 02 


Spinelli, Jerry 


Apr 93 


Barr, Roseanne 




Spock, Benjamin Sep 95; Update 98 


see Arnold, Roseanne . 


Oct 92 


Stepanek, Mattie 


Apr 02 


Barrymore, Drew 


Jan 01 


Stine, R.L 


Apr 94 


Barton, Hazel 


Science V.6 


Strasser, Todd 


. . . Author V.7 


baseball 




Tan, Amy 


. . . Author V.9 


Aaron, Hank 


Sport V.l 


Tarbox, Katie 


. . Author V.10 


Bonds, Barry 


Jan 03 


Taylor, Mildred D. . . . Author V.l; Update 02 


Fielder, Cecil 


Sep 93 


Thomas, Lewis 


Apr 94 


Griffey, Ken, Jr 


Sport V.l 


Tolan, Stephanie S 


. . Author V.14 


Hernandez, Livan . . . . 


Apr 98 


Tolkien, J.R.R 


Jan 02 


Jackson, Bo 


. . . Jan 92; Update 93 


Travers, P.L 


. . . Author V.2 


Jeter, Derek 


Sport V.4 


Van Allsburg, Chris 


Apr 92 


Johnson, Randy 


Sport V.9 


Van Draanen, Wendelin. . . . 


. .AuthorV.il 


Jordan, Michael 


. . Jan 92; Update 93; 


Voigt, Cynthia 


Oct 92 


Update 94; Update 95; Update 99; Update 


Vonnegut, Kurt, Jr 


. . . Author V.l 


01 




White, E.B 


. . . Author V.l 


Maddux, Greg 


Sport V.3 


White, Ruth 


. . AuthorV.il 


Mantle, Mickey 


Jan 96 


Wilder, Laura Ingalls 


. . . Author V.3 


Martinez, Pedro 


Sport V.5 


Williams, Garth 


. . . Author V.2 


McGwire, Mark 


. . . Jan 99; Update 99 


Williamson, Kevin 


. . . Author V.6 


Ripken, Cal, Jr 


Sport V.l; Update 01 


Wilson, August 


. . . Author V.4 


Robinson, Jackie 


Sport V.3 


Wilson, Edward O 


. . . Science V.8 


Rodriguez, Alex 


Sport V.6 


Wolff, Virginia Euwer 


. . Author V.13 


Rose, Pete 


Jan 92 


Woodson, Jacqueline 


. . . Author V.7; 


Ryan, Nolan 


. . Oct 92; Update 93 


Update 01 




Sanders, Deion 


Sport V.l 


Wrede, Patricia C 


... Author V.7 


Sosa, Sammy 


... Jan 99; Update 99 


Wright, Richard 


. . . Author V.5 


Williams, Ted 


Sport V.9 


Yep, Laurence 


... Author V.5 


Winfield, Dave 


Jan 93 


Yolen, Jane 


... Author V.7 


basketball 




Zindel, Paul Author V.l; Update 02 


Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem 


Sport V.l 


autobiographies 




Barkley, Charles 


. . Apr 92; Update 02 


Handford, Martin 


Jan 92 


Bird, Larry 


. . . Jan 92; Update 98 


Iacocca, Lee 


Jan 92 


Bird, Sue 


Sport V.9 


L'Engle, Madeleine 


Jan 92 


Bryant, Kobe 


Apr 99 


Parkinson, Jennifer 


Apr 95 


Carter, Vince 


Sport V.5; Update 01 


Avi 


Jan 93 


Chamberlain, Wilt . . . 


Sport V.4 


Babbitt, Bruce 


Jan 94 


Dumars, Joe 


Sport V.3; Update 99 


Backstreet Boys 


Jan 00 


Ewing, Patrick 


. . . Jan 95; Update 02 


Bahrke, Shannon 


Sport V.8 


Garnett, Kevin 


Sport V.6 


Bailey, Donovan 


. . ; . . Sport V.2 


Hardaway, Anfemee " 


Penny" . . . Sport V.2 


Baiul, Oksana 


Apr 95 


Hill, Grant 


Sport V.l 


Baker, James 


Oct 92 


Holdsclaw, Chamique 


Sep 00 


Baldwin, James 


. . . . Author V.2 


Iverson, Allen 


Sport V.7 


Ballard, Robert 


. . . Science V.4 


Johnson, Magic 


. . Apr 92; Update 02 


ballet 




Jordan, Michael 


. . Jan 92; Update 93; 


see dance 




Update 94; Update 95; Update 99; Update 


Banda, Hastings Kamuzu . 


. ..WorLdrV.2 


01 





192 



194 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Kidd, Jason 


Sport V.9 


Abdul- Jabbar, Kareem. . . 


Sport V.l 


Lobo, Rebecca 


Sport V.3 


Adams, Yolanda 


Apr 03 


Olajuwon, Hakeem . . . 


Sep 95 


Aidid, Mohammed Farah 


WorLdr V.2 


O'Neal, Shaquille 


Sep 93 


Ali, Muhammad 


Sport V.2 


Pippen, Scottie 


Oct 92 


Allen, Marcus 


Sep 97 


Robinson, David 


Sep 96 


Amin, Idi 


WorLdr V.2 


Rodman, Dennis 


. Apr 96; Update 99 


Anderson, Marian 


Jan 94 


Stiles, Jackie 


Sport V.6 


Angelou, Maya 


Apr 93 


Stockton, John 


Sport V.3 


Annan, Kofi 


Jan 98; Update 01 


Summitt, Pat 


Sport V.3 


Aristide, Jean-Bertrand . . 


Jan 95; Update 01 


Swoopes, Sheryl 


Sport V.2 


Armstrong, Robb 


Author V.9 


Ward, Charlie 


Apr 94 


Ashanti 


PerfArt V.2 


Yao Ming 


Sep 03 


Ashe, Arthur 


Sep 93 


Bass, Lance 




Ashley, Maurice 


Sep 99 


see *N Sync 


Jan 01 


Bailey, Donovan 


Sport V.2 


Bates, Daisy 


Apr 00 


Baldwin, James 


Author V.2 


Battle, Kathleen 


Jan 93 


Banda, Hastings Kamuzu 


WorLdr V.2 


Bauer, Joan 


Author V.10 


Banks, Tyra 


PerfArt V.2 


Beachley, Layne 


Sport V.9 


Bates, Daisy 


Apr 00 


Bearden, Romare 


Artist V.l 


Battle, Kathleen 


Jan 93 


beauty pageants 




Bearden, Romare 


Artist V.l 


Lopez, Charlotte 


Apr 94 


Berry, Halle 


Jan 95 


Whitestone, Heather . . 


. Apr 95; Update 02 


Blige, Mary J 


Apr 02 


Bennett, Cherie 


Author V.9 


Bonds, Barry 


Jan 03 


Bennett, Olivia 


Sep 03 


Boyd, Candy Dawson . . . 


Author V.3 


Benson, Mildred 


Jan 03 


Boyz II Men 


Jan 96 


Berenstain, Jan 


Author V.2 


Bradley, Ed 


Apr 94 


Berenstain, Stan 


Author V.2 


Brandy 


Apr 96 


Bergen, Candice 


Sep 93 


Brooks, Gwendolyn .... 


Author V.3 


Berners-Lee, Tim 


Science V. 7 


Brooks, Vincent 


Sep 03 


Berry, Halle 


. Jan 95; Update 02 


Brown, Claude 


Author V.12 


Bethe, Hans A 


Science V.3 


Brown, Ron 


Sep 96 


Bezos, Jeff 


Apr 01 


Bryant, Kobe 


Apr 99 


Bhutto, Benazir 


Apr 95; Update 99; 


Canady, Alexa 


Science V.6 


Update 02 




Carson, Ben 


Science V.4 


Bialik, Mayim 


Jan 94 


Carter, Vince Sport V.5; Update 01 


bicycle riding 




Chamberlain, Wilt 


Sport V.4 


Armstrong, Lance 


Sep 00; Update 00; 


Champagne, Larry III. . . 


Apr 96 


Update 01; Update 02 




Chavis, Benjamin 


Jan 94; Update 94 


Dunlap, Alison 


Sport V.7 


Childress, Alice 


Author V.l 


LeMond, Greg 


Sport V.l 


Collier, Bryan 


AuthorV.il 


Mirra, Dave 


Sep 02 


Combs, Sean (Puff Daddy) Apr 98 


billiards 




Coolio 


Sep 96 


Lee, Jeanette 


Apr 03 


Cosby, Bill 


Jan 92 


bin Laden, Osama 


Apr 02 


Curtis, Christopher Paul . 


Author V.4; 


Bird, Larry 


. Jan 92; Update 98 


Update 00 




Bird, Sue 


Sport V.9 


Dayne, Ron 


Apr 00 


Blackmun, Harry 


Jan 00 


Delany, Bessie 


Sep 99 


blacks 




Delany, Sadie 


Sep 99 


Aaliyah 


Jan 02 


Destiny's Child 


Apr 01 


Aaron, Hank 


Sport V.l 


Devers, Gail 


Sport V.2 



O 

ERIC 



193 




CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Dove, Rita Jan 94 

Draper, Sharon Apr 99 

Dumars, Joe Sport V.3; Update 99 

Dunbar, Paul Lawrence Author V.8 

Edelman, Marian Wright Apr 93 

Ellison, Ralph Author V.3 

Ewing, Patrick Jan 95; Update 02 

Farrakhan, Louis Jan 97 

Fielder, Cecil Sep 93 

Fitzgerald, Ella Jan 97 

Flake, Sharon Author V. 13 

Flowers, Vonetta Sport V.8 

Franklin, Aretha Apr 01 

Freeman, Cathy Jan 01 

Garnett, Kevin Sport V.6 

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr Apr 00 

Gayle, Helene Science V.8 

George, Eddie Sport V.6 

Gillespie, Dizzy Apr 93 

Glover, Savion Apr 99 

Goldberg, Whoopi Apr 94 

Griffey, Ken, Jr Sport V.l 

Grimes, Nikki Author V. 14 

Gumbel, Bryant Apr 97 

Guy, Jasmine Sep 93 

Guy, Rosa Author V.9 

Gwaltney, John Langston Science V.3 

Haley, Alex Apr 92 

Hamilton, Virginia Author V.l; 

Author V. 12 

Hammer Jan 92 

Hansberry, Lorraine Author V.5 

Hardaway, Anfernee "Penny" . . . Sport V.2 

Harris, Bernard Science V.3 

Hernandez, Livan Apr 98 

Hill, Anita Jan 93 

Hill, Grant Sport V.l 

Hill, Lauryn Sep 99 

Holdsclaw, Chamique Sep 00 

Houston, Whitney Sep 94 

Hughes, Langston Author V. 7 

Hunter-Gault, Charlayne Jan 00 

Hurston, Zora Neale Author V.6 

Ice-T Apr 93 

Iverson, Allen Sport V.7 

Jackson, Bo Jan 92; Update 93 

Jackson, Jesse Sep 95; Update 01 

Jackson, Shirley Ann Science V.2 

Jamison, Judith Jan 96 

Jemison, Mae Oct 92 



Jeter, Derek 


Sport V.4 


Johnson, Angela .... 


Author V.6 


Johnson, John 


Jan 97 


Johnson, Lonnie 


Science V.4 


Johnson, Magic 


. . Apr 92; Update 02 


Johnson, Michael .... 


. . . Jan 97; Update 00 


Jones, James Earl .... 


Jan 95 


Jones, Marion 


Sport V.5 


Jones, Quincy 


PerfArt V.2 


Jordan, Barbara 


Apr 96 


Jordan, Michael 


. . Jan 92; Update 93; 


Update 94; Update 95; Update 99; Update 


01 


Joyner-Kersee, Jackie. 


Oct 92; Update 


96; Update 97; Update 98 


Kaunda, Kenneth . . . 


WorLdr V.2 


Kenyatta, Jomo 


WorLdr V.2 


Kidd, Jason 


Sport V.9 


Lawrence, Jacob 


Artist V.l; Update 01 


Lee, Spike 


Apr 92 


Lester, Julius 


Author V.7 


Lewis, Carl 


, . . Sep 96; Update 97 


Lewis, John 


Jan 03 


Maathai, Wangari . . . 


WorLdr V.l 


Mac, Bemie 


PerfArt V.l 


Mandela, Nelson 


. . Jan 92; Update 94; 


Update 01 


Mandela, Winnie . . . 


WorLdr V.2 


Marsalis, Wynton . . . . 


Apr 92 


Marshall, Thurgood . . 


. . . Jan 92; Update 93 


Martinez, Pedro 


Sport V.5 


Maxwell, Jody- Anne . 


Sep 98 


McCarty, Oseola 


. . . Jan 99; Update 99 


McGruder, Aaron . . . 


Author V. 10 


McKissack, Fredrick L 


Author V.3 


McKissack, Patricia C. 


Author V.3 


McNabb, Donovan . . . 


Apr 03 


Mobutu Sese Seko . . . 


WorLdr V.2; 


Update 97 


Morgan, Garrett 


Science V.2 


Morrison, Sam 


Sep 97 


Morrison, Toni 


Jan 94 


Moss, Randy 


Sport V.4 


Mugabe, Robert 


WorLdr V.2 


Murphy, Eddie 


PerfArt V.2 


Myers, Walter Dean. . 


. . . Jan 93; Update 94 


Ndeti, Cosmas 


Sep 95 


Nelly 


Sep 03 


Nelson, Marilyn 


Author V.13 


Nkrumah, Kwame . . 


WorLdr V.2 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Nyerere, Julius Kambarage . . . WorLdr V.2; 

Update 99 

Olajuwon, Hakeem Sep 95 

Oliver, Patsy Ruth WorLdr V.l 

O'Neal, Shaquille Sep 93 

Parks, Gordon Artist V.l 

Parks, Rosa Apr 92; Update 94 

Payton, Walter Jan 00 

Pele Sport V.l 

Pinkney, Andrea Davis Author V.10 

Pinkney, Jerry Author V.2 

Pippen, Scottie Oct 92 

Powell, Colin Jan 92; Update 93; 

Update 95; Update 01 

Queen Latifah Apr 92 

Rice, Condoleezza Apr 02 

Rice, Jerry Apr 93 

Ringgold, Faith Author V.2 

Roba, Fatuma Sport V.3 

Robinson, David Sep 96 

Robinson, Jackie Sport V.3 

Rodman, Dennis Apr 96; Update 99 

Rowan, Carl Sep 01 

Rudolph, Wilma Apr 95 

Salt 'N' Pepa Apr 95 

Sanders, Barry Sep 95; Update 99 

Sanders, Deion Sport V.l 

Sapp, Warren Sport V.5 

Saro-Wiwa, Ken WorLdr V.l 

Satcher, David Sep 98 

Savimbi, Jonas WorLdr V.2 

Schwikert, Tasha Sport V.7 

Scurry, Briana Jan 00 

Senghor, Leopold Sedar WorLdr V.2 

Shabazz, Betty Apr 98 

Shakur, Tupac Apr 97 

Simmons, Ruth Sep 02 

Smith, Emmitt Sep 94 

Smith, Will Sep 94 

Sosa, Sammy Jan 99; Update 99 

Stanford, John Sep 99 

Stewart, Kordell Sep 98 

Swoopes, Sheryl Sport V.2 

Tarvin, Herbert Apr 97 

Taylor, Mildred D. . . Author V.l; Update 02 

Thomas, Clarence Jan 92 

Tubman, William V. S WorLdr V.2 

Tucker, Chris Jan 01 

Usher PerfArt V.l 

Vick, Michael Sport V.9 

Ward, Charlie Apr 94 



Ward, Lloyd D Jan 01 

Washington, Denzel .... Jan 93; Update 02 

Wayans, Keenen Ivory Jan 93 

White, Jaleel Jan 96 

White, Reggie Jan 98 

WilderBrathwaite, Gloria Science V.7 

Williams, Serena .... Sport V.4; Update 00; 

Update 02 



Williams, Venus 


Jan 99; Update 00; 


Update 01; Update 02 




Willingham, Tyrone . . . . 


Sep 02 


Wilson, August 


Author V.4 


Winans, CeCe 


Apr 00 


Winfield, Dave 


Jan 93 


Winfrey, Oprah 


Apr 92; Update 00 


Woods, Tiger Sport V.l; Update 00; 


Sport V.6 




Woodson, Jacqueline . . . 


Author V.7; 


Update 01 




Wright, Richard 


Author V.5 


Blair, Bonnie 


Apr 94; Update 95 


Blanchard, Rachel 


Apr 97 


Bledel, Alexis 


Jan 03 


Blige, Mary J 


Apr 02 


Blum, Deborah 


Science V.8 


Blume, Judy 


Jan 92 


BMX 




see bicycle riding 




bobsledding 




Howers, Vonetta 


Sport V.8 


Bonds, Barry 


Jan 03 


Bosnian 




Filipovic, Zlata 


Sep 94 


Boulmerka, Hassiba . . . . 


Sport V.l 


Bourke-White, Margaret 


Artist V.l 


Boutros-Ghali, Boutros . 


Apr 93; 


Update 98 




boxing 




Ali, Muhammad 


Sport V.2 


Boyd, Candy Dawson . 


Author V.3 


Boyz II Men 


Jan 96 


Bradbury, Ray 


Author V.3 


Bradley, Ed 


Apr 94 


Brady, Tom 


Sport V.7 


Brandis, Jonathan 


: Sep 95 


Brandy 


Apr 96 


Brazilians 




da Silva, Fabiola 


Sport V.9 


Mendes, Chico 


WorLdr V.l 


Pele 


Sport V.l 


Breathed, Berke 


Jan 92 



197 



195 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 




Brody, Jane Science V.2 

Brooks, Garth Oct 92 

Brooks, Gwendolyn Author V.3 

Brooks, Vincent Sep 03 

Brower, David WorLdr V.l; Update 01 

Brown, Claude Author V.12 

Brown, Ron Sep 96 

Brundtland, Gro Harlem Science V.3 

Bryan, Zachery Ty Jan 97 

Bryant, Kobe Apr 99 

Bulgarian 

Christo Sep 96 

Burger, Warren Sep 95 

Burke, Chris Sep 93 

Burmese 

Aung San Suu Kyi Apr 96; Update 98; 

Update 01; Update 02 

KaHsawWa WorLdr V.3 

Bums, Ken Jan 95 

Burnside, Aubyn Sep 02 

Burrell, Stanley Kirk 

see Hammer Jan 92 

Bush, Barbara Jan 92 

Bush, George Jan 92 

Bush, George W Sep 00; Update 00; 

Update 01; Update 02 

Bush, Laura Apr 03 

business 

Bezos, Jeff Apr 01 

Brown, Ron Sep 96 

Case, Steve Science V.5 

Chavez, Julz Sep 02 

Cheney, Dick Jan 02 

Combs, Sean (Puff Daddy) Apr 98 

Diemer, Walter Apr 98 

Fields, Debbi Jan 96 

Fiorina, Carly Sep 01; Update 01; 

Update 02 

Fox, Vicente Apr 03 

Fuller, Millard Apr 03 

Gates, Bill Apr 93; Update 98; 

Update 00; Science V.5; Update 01 

Groppe, Laura Science V.5 

Handler, Ruth Apr 98; Update 02 

Iacocca, Lee A Jan 92 

Jobs, Steven Jan 92; Science V.5 

Johnson, John Jan 97 

Johnson, Lonnie Science V.4 

Kapell, Dave Science V.8 

Kurzweil, Raymond Science V.2 



Land, Edwin Science V.l 

Mars, Forrest Sr Science V.4 

Mohajer, Dineh Jan 02 

Morgan, Garrett Science V.2 

Morita, Akio Science V.4 

Perot, H. Ross Apr 92; Update 93 

Romero, John Science V.8 

Stachowski, Richie Science V.3 

Swanson, Janese Science V.4 

Thomas, Dave Apr 96; Update 02 

Tompkins, Douglas WorLdr V.3 

Wang, An Science V.2 

Ward, Lloyd D Jan 01 

Whitman, Meg Sep 03 

Butcher, Susan Sport V.l 

Byars, Betsy Author V.4 

Bynes, Amanda Sep 03 

Cabot, Meg Author V.12 

Caldecott Medal 

Cooney, Barbara Author V.8 

Macauley, David Author V.2 

McCully, Emily Arnold. . . Jul 92; Update 93 

Myers, Walter Dean Jan 93; Update 94 

Sendak, Maurice Author V.2 

Small, David Author V.10 

Van Allsburg, Chris Apr 92 

Calder, Alexander Artist V.l 

Calderone, Mary S Science V.3 

Cameron, Candace Apr 95 

Campbell, Neve Apr 98 

Canadians 

Bailey, Donovan Sport V.2 

Blanchard, Rachel Apr 97 

Campbell, Neve Apr 98 

Candy, John Sep 94 

Carrey, Jim Apr 96 

Dion, Celine Sep 97 

Galdikas, Birute Science V.4 

Gretzky, Wayne Jan 92; Update 93; 

Update 99 

Howe, Gordie Sport V.2 

Jennings, Peter Jul 92 

Johnston, Lynn Jan 99 

Kielburger, Craig Jan 00 

lang, k.d Sep 93 

Lavigne, Avril PerfArt V.2 

Lemieux, Mario Jul 92; Update 93 

Martin, Bernard WorLdr V.3 

Messier, Mark Apr 96 

Morissette, Alanis Apr 97 

Mowat, Farley Author V.8 





196 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Priestley, Jason . . . . 


Apr 92 


Roy, Patrick 


Sport V. 7 


Sakic, Joe 


Sport V.6 


Shatner, William . . . 


Apr 95 


Twain, Shania 


Apr 99 


Vernon, Mike 


Jan 98; Update 02 


Watson, Paul 


WorLdrV.l 


Wolf, Hazel 


WorLdr V.3 


Yzerman, Steve. . . . 


Sport V.2 


Canady, Alexa 


Science V.6 


Candy, John 


Sep 94 


Caplan, Arthur 


Science V.6 


Capriati, Jennifer. . . 


Sport V.6 


car racing 


Andretti, Mario . . . . 


Sep 94 


Earnhardt, Dale .... 


Apr 01 


Gordon, Jeff 


Apr 99 


Muldowney, Shirley 


Sport V. 7 


Petty, Richard 


Sport V.2 


Stewart, Tony 


Sport V.9 


Card, Orson Scott . . . 


Author V.14 


Carey, Mariah 


Apr 96 


Carle, Eric 


Author V.l 


Carmona, Richard . . 


Science V.8 


Carpenter, Mary Chapin Sep 94 


Carrey, Jim 


Apr 96 


Carson, Ben 


Science V.4 


Carson, Rachel 


WorLdrV.l 


Carter, Aaron 


Sep 02 


Carter, Chris 


Author V.4 


Carter, Jimmy 


. . . . Apr 95; Update 02 


Carter, Nick 


see Backstreet Boys. . 


Jan 00 


Carter, Vince 


. . Sport V.5; Update 01 


cartoonists 

see also animators 


Armstrong, Robb . . . 


Author V.9 


Breathed, Berke . . . . 


Jan 92 


Davis, Jim 


Author V.l 


Groening, Matt . . . . 


Jan 92 


Guisewite, Cathy . . 


Sep 93 


Hillenburg, Stephen 


Author V.14 


Johnston, Lynn . . . . 


Jan 99 


Jones, Chuck 


Author V.12 


Larson, Gary 


Author V.l 


Lee, Stan 


Author V.7; Update 02 


McGruder, Aaron . . 


Author V.10 


Schulz, Charles . . . . 


Author V.2; Update 00 


Tartakovsky, Genndy Author V.ll 


Watterson, Bill 


Jan 92 


Carvey, Dana 


Jan 93 



Case, Steve 


Science V.5 


Castro, Fidel 


. . . . Jul 92; Update 94 


Chagall, Marc 


Artist V.l 


Chamberlain, Wilt . . . 


Sport V.4 


Champagne, Larry III . 


Apr 96 


Chan, Jackie 


PerfArt V.l 


Chan Kwong Sang 




see Chan, Jackie 


PerfArt V.l 


Chasez, JC 




see *N Sync 


Jan 01 


Chastain, Brandi 


Sport V.4; Update 00 


Chavez, Cesar 


Sep 93 


Chavez, Julz 


Sep 02 


Chavis, Benjamin .... 


. . . Jan 94; Update 94 


Cheney, Dick 


Jan 02 


chess 




Ashley, Maurice 


Sep 99 


Childress, Alice 


Author V.l 


Chinese 




Chan, Jackie 


PerfArt V.l 


Dai Qing 


WorLdr V.3 


FuMingxia 


Sport V.5 


Pei, I.M 


Artist V.l 


Wang, An 


Science V.2 


Yao Ming 


Sep 03 


choreography 




see dance 




Christo 


Sep 96 


Chung, Connie 


. . Jan 94; Update 95; 


Update 96 




Cisneros, Henry 


Sep 93 


civil rights movement 




Chavis, Benjamin .... 


. . . Jan 94; Update 94 


Edelman, Marian Wright Apr 93 


Jackson, Jesse 


. . Sep 95; Update 01 


Lewis, John 




Marshall, Thurgood . . 


. . . Jan 92; Update 93 


Parks, Rosa 


Apr 92 


Shabazz, Betty 




Clark, Kelly 


Sport V.8 


Clarkson, Kelly 




Clay, Cassius Marcellus, Jr. 


see Ali, Muhammad . . 


Sport V.2 


Cleary, Beverly 




Clements, Andrew. . . . 




Clinton, Bill 


. . . Jul 92; Update 94; 



Update 95; Update 96; Update 97; Update 98; 
Update 99; Update 00; Update 01 

Clinton, Chelsea Apr 96; Update 97; 

Update 01 



O 

ERIC 



1 99 



197 




CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Clinton, Hillary Rodham Apr 93; 

Update 94; Update 95; Update 96; Update 
99; Update 00; Update 01 



Cobain, Kurt 


Sep 94 


Cohen, Adam Ezra 


Apr 97 


Colfer, Eoin 


Author V.13 


Collier, Bryan 


AuthorV.il 


Collins, Eileen 


Science V.4 


Collins, Francis 


Science V.6 


Columbian 


Ocampo, Adriana C. . . 


Science V.8 


Shakira 


PerfArt V.l 


Combs, Sean (Puff Daddy) Apr 98 


comedians 


Allen, Tim 


. Apr 94; Update 99 


Arnold, Roseanne 


Oct 92 


Candy, John 


Sep 94 


Carrey, Jim 


Apr 96 


Carvey, Dana 


Jan 93 


Cosby, Bill 


. Jan 92 


Goldberg, Whoopi .... 


Apr 94 


Leno, Jay 


Jul 92 


Letterman, David 


Jan 95 


Lopez, George 


PerfArt V.2 


Mac, Bemie 


PerfArt V.l 


Murphy, Eddie 


PerfArt V.2 


O'Donnell, Rosie 


. Apr 97; Update 02 


Seinfeld, Jerry 


. Oct 92; Update 98 


Tucker, Chris 


Jan 01 


Wayans, Keenen Ivory . 


Jan 93 


Williams, Robin 


Apr 92 


comic strips 

see cartoonists 

computers 


Bemers-Lee, Tim 


Science V.7 


Bezos, Jeff 


Apr 01 


Case, Steve 


Science V.5 


Cray, Seymour 


Science V.2 


Engelbart, Douglas .... 


Science V.5 


Fanning Shawn . . . Science V.5; Update 02 


Fiorina, Carly 


. Sep 01; Update 01; 


Update 02 


Flannery, Sarah 


Science V.5 


Gates, Bill 


. Apr 93; Update 98; 


Update 00; Science V.5; Update 01 


Groppe, Laura 


Science V.5 


Hopper, Grace Murray. 


Science V.5 


Jobs, Steven 


. Jan 92; Science V.5 


Kurzweil, Raymond . . . 


Science V.2 


Miller, Rand 


Science V.5 


Miller, Robyn 





Miyamoto, Shigeru Science V.5 

Perot, H. Ross Apr 92 

Romero, John Science V.8 

Wang, An Science V.2 

Wozniak, Steve Science V.5 

Congress 
see representatives 
see senators 
conservationists 
see environmentalists 

Coolio Sep 96 

Cooney, Barbara Author V.8 

Cooney, Caroline B Author V.4 

Cordova, France Science V.7 

Cormier, Robert .... Author V.l; Update 01 

Cosby, Bill Jan 92 

Cousteau, Jacques Jan 93; Update 97 

Coville, Bruce Author V.9 

Crawford, Cindy Apr 93 

Cray, Seymour Science V.2 

Creech, Sharon Author V.5 

Crichton, Michael Author V.5 

Cronin, John WorLdr V.3 

Cubans 

Castro, Fidel Jul 92; Update 94 

Estefan, Gloria Jul 92 

Fuentes, Daisy Jan 94 

Hernandez, Livan Apr 98 

Zamora, Pedro Apr 95 

Culkin, Macaulay Sep 93 

Curtis, Christopher Paul Author V.4; 

Update 00 

Cushman, Karen Author V.5 

Czechoslovakians 

Hasek, Dominik Sport V.3 

Plingis, Martina Sport V.2 

Jagr, Jaromir Sport V.5 

Navratilova, Martina .... Jan 93; Update 94 

da Silva, Fabiola Sport V.9 

Dae-jung, Kim 

see Kim Dae-jung Sep 01 

Dahl, Roald Author V.l 

Dai Qing WorLdr V.3 

Dakides, Tara Sport V.7 

Dalai Lama Sep 98 

Daly, Carson Apr 00 

dance 

Abdul, Paula Jan 92; Update 02 

de Mille, Agnes Jan 95 

Estefan, Gloria Jul 92 



9 

i- 




198 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Farrell, Suzanne PerfArt V.l 

Glover, Savion Apr 99 

Hammer Jan 92 

Jamison, Judith Jan 96 

Kistler, Darci Jan 93 

Nureyev, Rudolf Apr 93 

Danes, Claire Sep 97 

Daniel, Beth Sport V.l 

Danziger, Paula Author V.6 

da Silva, Fabiola Sport V.9 

Davenport, Lindsay Sport V.5 

Davis, Jim Author V.l 

Dayne, Ron Apr 00 

de Klerk, F.W Apr 94; Update 94 

Delany, Bessie Sep 99 

Delany, Sadie Sep 99 

de Mille, Agnes Jan 95 

Democratic Party 

Brown, Ron Sep 96 

Carter, Jimmy Apr 95; Update 02 

Clinton, Bill Jul 92; Update 94; 

Update 95; Update 96; Update 97; Update 
98; Update 99; Update 00; Update 01 

Gore, A1 Jan 93; Update 96; Update 97; 

Update 98; Update 99; Update 00; Update 
01 



Lewis, John 


Jan 03 


dentist 




Delany, Bessie 


Sep 99 


Denton, Sandi 




see Salt 'N' Pepa 


Apr 95 


dePaola, Tomie 


. . Author V.5 


Destiny's Child 


Apr 01 


Devers, Gail 


. . . Sport V.2 


Diana, Princess of Wales 


Jul 92; 


Update 96; Update 97; Jan 98 




DiCamillo, Kate 


. Author V.10 


DiCaprio, Leonardo 


Apr 98 


Diemer, Walter 


Apr 98 


Diesel, Vin 


Jan 03 


Dion, Celine 


Sep 97 


diplomats 




Albright, Madeleine 


Apr 97 


Annan, Kofi Jan 98; Update 01 


Boutros-Ghali, Boutros 


Apr 93; 


Update 98 




Rowan, Carl 


Sep 01 


directors 




Bums, Ken 


Jan 95 


Carter, Chris 


. . Author V.4 


Chan, Jackie 


. . PerfArt V.l 



Crichton, Michael Author V.5 

Farrell, Suzanne PerfArt V.l 

Jackson, Peter PerfArt V.2 

Jones, Chuck Author V.12 

Lasseter, John Sep 00 

Lee, Spike Oct 92 

Lucas, George Apr 97; Update 02 

Parks, Gordon Artist V.l 

Spielberg, Steven Jan 94; Update 94; 

Update 95 

Taymor, Julie PerfArt V.l 

Warhol, Andy Artist V.l 

Wayans, Keenen Ivory Jan 93 

Whedon, Joss Author V.9 

Williamson, Kevin Author V.6 

disabled 

Burke, Chris Sep 93 

Dole, Bob Jan 96 

Driscoll, Jean Sep 97 

Grandin, Temple Science V.3 

Gwaltney, John Langston Science V.3 

Hawking, Stephen Apr 92 

Hillenbrand, Laura Author V. 14 

Parkinson, Jennifer Apr 95 

Perlman, Itzhak Jan 95 

Reeve, Christopher Jan 97; Update 02 

Runyan, Marla Apr 02 

Stepanek, Mattie Apr 02 

Whitestone, Heather . . . Apr 95; Update 02 
diving 

Fu Mingxia Sport V.5 

Dixie Chicks PerfArt V.l 

doctors 

Brundtland, Gro Harlem Science V.3 

Calderone, Mary S Science V.3 

Canady, Alexa Science V.6 

Carmona, Richard Science V.8 

Carson, Ben Science V.4 

Collins, Francis Science V.6 

Fauci, Anthony S Science V.7 

Gayle, Helene Science V.8 

Harris, Bernard Science V.3 

Healy, Bemadine . . . Science V.l; Update 01 

Heimlich, Henry Science V.6 

Ho, David : Science V.6 

Jemison, Mae Oct 92 

Kamler, Kenneth Science V.6 

Love, Susan Science V.3 

Nielsen, Jerri Science V.7 

Novello, Antonia Apr 92 

Pippig, Uta Sport V.l 



201 



199 




CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Richardson, Dot . . . . 


. Sport V.2; Update 00 


Egyptians 




Sabin, Albert 


Science V.l 


Boutros-Ghali, Boutros 


Apr 93; 


Sacks, Oliver 


Science V.3 


Update 98 




Salk, Jonas 


.... Jan 94; Update 95 


Sadat, Anwar 


WorLdr V.2 


Satcher, David . . . . 


Sep 98 


Elion, Getrude 


. Science V.6 


Spelman, Lucy 


Science V.6 


Ellerbee, Linda 


Apr 94 


Spock, Benjamin . . . 


. . . . Sep 95; Update 98 


Ellison, Ralph 


. Author V.3 


WilderBrathwaite, Gloria Science V. 7 


Elway, John Sport V.2; Update 99 


Doherty, Shannen . . 


. . . . Apr 92; Update 94 


Eminem 


Apr 03 


Dole, Bob 


.... Jan 96; Update 96 


Engelbart, Douglas 


. Science V.5 


Dole, Elizabeth 


. . . . Jul 92; Update 96; 


English 




Update 99 




Almond, David 


Author V. 10 


Domingo, Placido . . 


Sep 95 


Amanpour, Christiane 


Jan 01 


Dominicans 




Attenborough, David 


. Science V.4 


Martinez, Pedro . . . . 


Sport V.5 


Barton, Hazel 


. Science V.6 


Sosa, Sammy 


Jan 99; Update 99 


Berners-Lee, Tim 


. Science V.7 


Dorough, Howie 




Dahl, Roald 


. Author V.l 


see Backstreet Boys. . 


Jan 00 


Diana, Princess of Wales 


Jul 92; 


Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. . WorLdr V.l; 


Update 96; Update 97; Jan 98 





O 

ERIC 



Update 98 




Goodall, Jane 


Science V.l; Update 02 


Dove, Rita 


Jan 94 


Handford, Martin . 


Jan 92 


Dragila, Stacy 


Sport V.6 


Hargreaves, Alison 


Jan 96 


Draper, Sharon 


Apr 99 


Hawking, Stephen 


Apr 92 


Driscoll, Jean 


Sep 97 


Herriot, James .... 


Author V.l 


Duchovny, David 


Apr 96 


Jacques, Brian 


Author V.5 


Duff, Hilary 


Sep 02 


Leakey, Louis 


Science V.l 


Duke, David 


Apr 92 


Leakey, Mary 


Science V.l 


Dumars, Joe Sport V.3; Update 99 


Lewis, C. S 


Author V.3 


Dumitriu, Ioana 


. . . Science V.3 


Macaulay, David . . 


Author V.2 


Dunbar, Paul Lawrence . . . . 


. . . . Author V.8 


Moore, Henry 


Artist V.l 


Duncan, Lois 


Sep 93 


Potter, Beatrix .... 


Author V.8 


Dunlap, Alison 


Sport V.7 


Pullman, Philip . . . . 


Author V.9 


Dunst, Kirsten 


. . .PerfArtV.l 


Radcliffe, Daniel. . . 


Jan 02 


Dutch 




Reid Banks, Lynne 


Author V.2 


Lionni, Leo 


. . . . Author V.6 


Rennison, Louise. . 


Author V. 10 


Earle, Sylvia 


. . . Science V.l 


Rowling, J. K 


.... Sep 99; Update 00; 


Earnhardt, Dale 


Apr 01 


Update 01; Update 02 


Edelman, Marian Wright . . . 


Apr 93 


Sacks, Oliver 


Science V.3 


educators 




Stewart, Patrick . . . 


Jan 94 


Armstrong, William H 


. . . . Author V.7 


Tolkien, J.R.R 


Jan 02 


Calderone, Mary S 


. . . Science V.3 


Watson, Emma . . . 


Apr 03 


Cordova, France 


. . . Science V.7 


Winslet, Kate .... 


Sep 98 


Delany, Sadie 


Sep 99 


environmentalists 




Draper, Sharon 


Apr 99 


Abbey, Edward . . . . 


WorLdr V.l 


Forman, Michele 


Jan 03 


Adams, Ansel 


, ; Artist V.l 


Gates, Henry Louis, Jr 


Apr 00 


Askins, Renee 


WorLdr V.l 


Giff, Patricia Reilly 


. . . . Author V.7 


Babbitt, Bruce 


Jan 94 


Jimenez, Francisco 


. . . Author V. 13 


Brower, David 


WorLdr V.l; Update 01 


Simmons, Ruth 


Sep 02 


Brundtland, Gro Harlem Science V.3 


Stanford, John 


Sep 99 


Carson, Rachel . . . . 


WorLdr V.l 


Suzuki, Shinichi 


Sep 98 


Cousteau, Jacques . 


Jan 93 


200 










202 







CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Cronin, John WorLdr V.3 

Dai Qing WorLdr V.3 

Douglas, Marjory Stoneman . . WorLdr V.l; 

Update 98 

Earle, Sylvia Science V.l 

Foreman, Dave WorLdr V.l 

Gibbs, Lois WorLdr V.l 

Irwin, Steve Science V.7 

Ka HsawWa WorLdr V.3 

LaDuke, Winona . . WorLdr V.3; Update 00 

Leopold, Aldo WorLdr V.3 

Maathai, Wangari WorLdr V.l 

Martin, Bernard WorLdr V.3 

Mendes, Chico WorLdr V.l 

Mittermeier, Russell A WorLdr V.l 

Moss, Cynthia WorLdr V.3 

Mowat, Farley Author V.8 

Muir, John WorLdr V.3 

Murie, Margaret WorLdr V.l 

Murie, Olaus J WorLdr V.l 

Nakamura, Leanne Apr 02 

Nelson, Gaylord WorLdr V.3 

Oliver, Patsy Ruth WorLdr V.l 

Patrick, Ruth Science V.3 

Peterson, Roger Tory WorLdr V.l 

Saro-Wiwa, Ken WorLdr V.l 

Tompkins, Douglas WorLdr V.3 

Watson, Paul WorLdr V.l 

Werbach, Adam WorLdr V.l 

Wolf, Hazel WorLdr V.3 

Erdos, Paul Science V.2 

Estefan, Gloria Jul 92 

Ethiopians 

Haile Selassie WorLdr V.2 

Roba, Fatuma Sport V.3 

Evans, Janet Jan 95; Update 96 

Evert, Chris Sport V.l 

Ewing, Patrick Jan 95; Update 02 

Fanning, Shawn .... Science V.5; Update 02 

Farmer, Nancy Author V.6 

Farrakhan, Louis Jan 97 

Farrell, Suzanne PerfArt V.l 

Fatone, Joey 

see *N Sync Jan 01 

Fauci, Anthony S Science V.7 

Favre, Brett Sport V.2 

Fedorov, Sergei Apr 94; Update 94 

Fernandez, Lisa Sport V.5 

Ficker, Roberta Sue 

see Farrell, Suzanne PerfArt V.l 



Fielder, Cecil 


Sep 93 


Fields, Debbi 


Jan 96 


Filipovic, Zlata 


Sep 94 


film critic 


Siskel, Gene 


Sep 99 


Fiorina, Carly 


. . . Sep 01; Update 01; 


Update 02 


First Ladies of the United States 


Bush, Barbara 


Jan 92 


Bush, Laura 


Apr 03 


Clinton, Hillary Rodham Apr 93; 


Update 94; Update 95; Update 96; Update 


99; Update 00; Update 01 


fishing 


Yelas, Jay 


Sport V.9 


Fitzgerald, Ella 


Jan 97 


Fitzhugh, Louise. . . . 


Author V.3 


Flake, Sharon 


Author V.13 


Flannery, Sarah 


Science V.5 


Flowers, Vonetta . . . . 


Sport V.8 


football 


Aikman, Troy 


, . . . Apr 95; Update 01 


Allen, Marcus 


Sep 97 


Brady, Tom 


Sport V.7 


Dayne, Ron 


Apr 00 


Elway, John 


, . Sport V.2; Update 99 


Favre, Brett 


Sport V.2 


George, Eddie 


Sport V.6 


Griese, Brian 


Jan 02 


Harbaugh, Jim 


Sport V.3 


Jackson, Bo 


. . . . Jan 92; Update 93 


Johnson, Jimmy 


Jan 98 


Madden, John 


Sep 97 


Manning, Peyton. . . . 


Sep 00 


Marino, Dan 


. . . Apr 93; Update 00 


McNabb, Donovan . . 


Apr 03 


Montana, Joe 


. . . . Jan 95; Update 95 


Moss, Randy 


Sport V.4 


Payton, Walter 


Jan 00 


Rice, Jerry 


Apr 93 


Sanders, Barry 


. . . ; Sep 95; Update 99 


Sanders, Deion 


Sport V.l 


Sapp, Warren 


Sport V.5 


Shula, Don 


Apr 96 


Smith, Emmitt 


. . . : Sep 94 


Stewart, Kordell . . . . 


Sep 98 


Vick, Michael 


Sport V.9 


Ward, Charlie 


Apr 94 


Warner, Kurt 


Sport V.4 


Weinke, Chris 


Apr 01 


White, Reggie 


Jan 98 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 




Willingham, Tyrone . . . 


Sep 02 


Young, Steve 


. Jan 94; Update 00 


Ford, Harrison 


Sep 97 


Foreman, Dave 


WorLdr V.l 


Forman, Michele 


Jan 03 


Fossey, Dian 


Science V.l 


Fox, Vicente 


Apr 03 


Frank, Anne 


Author V.4 


Frankenthaler, Helen . . . 


Artist V.l 


Franklin, Aretha 


Apr 01 


Freedman, Russell 


Author V.14 


Freeman, Cathy 


Jan 01 


French 




Cousteau, Jacques 


. Jan 93; Update 97 


Marceau, Marcel 


PerfArt V.2 


Fresh Prince 




see Smith, Will 


Sep 94 


Fu Mingxia 


Sport V.5 


Fuentes, Daisy 


Jan 94 


Fuller, Millard 


Apr 03 


Galdikas, Birute 


Science V.4 


Galeczka, Chris 


Apr 96 


Gantos, Jack 


Author V.10 


Garcia, Jerry 


Jan 96 


Garcia, Sergio 


Sport V.7 


Garnett, Kevin 


Sport V.6 


Garth, Jennie 


Apr 96 


Gates, Bill 


Apr 93; Update 98; 


Update 00; Science V.5; Update 01 


Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. . 


Apr 00 


Gayle, Helene 


Science V.8 


Geisel, Theodor Seuss 




see Seuss, Dr 


Jan 92 


Gellar, Sarah Michelle . 


Jan 99 


Geography Bee, National 


Galeczka, Chris 


Apr 96 


George, Eddie 


Sport V.6 


George, Jean Craighead 


Author V.3 


Germans 




Bethe, Hans A 


Science V.3 


Frank, Anne 


Author V.4 


Graf, Steffi 


. Jan 92; Update 01 


Otto, Sylke 


Sport V.8 


Pippig, Uta 


Sport V.l 


Ghanaians 




Annan, Kofi 


. Jan 98; Update 01 


Nkrumah, Kwame . . . . 


WorLdr V.2 


Gibbs, Lois 


WorLdr V.l 


Giff, Patricia Reilly . . . . 


Author V.7 


Gilbert, Sara 


Apr 93 


Gilbert, Walter 


Science V.2 



Gillespie, Dizzy 

Gilman, Billy 

Gingrich, Newt 

Ginsburg, Ruth Bader 
Giuliani, Rudolph 

Glenn, John 

Glover, Savion 

Goldberg, Whoopi. . . . 
golf 

Daniel, Beth 

Garcia, Sergio 

Nicklaus, Jack 

Norman, Greg 



Apr 93 

Apr 02 

Apr 95; Update 99 

Jan 94 

Sep 02 

Jan 99 

Apr 99 

Apr 94 

Sport V.l 

Sport V.7 

Sport V.2 

Jan 94 



Pak, Se Ri Sport V.4 

Sorenstam, Annika Sport V.6 

Webb, Karrie Sport V.5; Update 01; 

Update 02 

Woods, Tiger Sport V.l; Update 00; 

Sport V.6 

Goodall, Jane Science V.l; Update 02 

Goodman, John Sep 95 

Gorbachev, Mikhail Jan 92; Update 96 

Gordon, Jeff Apr 99 

Gore, A1 Jan 93; Update 96; 

Update 97; Update 98; Update 99; Update 00; 
Update 01 

Gorey, Edward Author V.13 

Gould, Stephen Jay Science V.2; 

Update 02 
governors 

Babbitt, Bruce Jan 94 

Bush, George W Sep 00; Update 00; 

Update 01; Update 02 

Carter, Jimmy Apr 95; Update 02 

Clinton, Bill Jul 92; Update 94; 

Update 95; Update 96; Update 97; Update 
98; Update 99; Update 00; Update 01 



Nelson, Gaylord 


WorLdr V.3 


Ventura, Jesse 


. . . Apr 99; Update 02 


Graf, Steffi 


. . . Jan 92; Update 01 


Granato, Cammi 


Sport V.8 


Grandin, Temple 


Science V.3 


GrandPre, Mary 


Author V.14 


Granny D 


see Haddock, Doris. . 


Sep 00 


Grant, Amy 


Jan 95 


Greenburg, Dan 


Author V.14 


Gretzky, Wayne 


. . . Jan 92; Update 93; 


Update 99 


Griese, Brian 


Jan 02 



ERIC 



202 



204 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 




Griffey, Ken, Jr Sport V.l 

Griffith Joyner, Florence Sport V.l; 

Update 98 

Grimes, Nikki Author V.14 

Grisham, John Author V.l 

Groening, Matt Jan 92 

Groppe, Laura Science V.5 

Guatemalan 

Menchu, Rigoberta Jan 93 

Guey, Wendy Sep 96 

Guisewite, Cathy Sep 93 

Gumbel, Bryant Apr 97 

Guy, Jasmine Sep 93 

Guy, Rosa Author V.9 

Gwaltney, John Langston Science V.3 

Gyatso, Tenzin 

see Dalai Lama Sep 98 

gymnastics 

Miller, Shannon Sep 94; Update 96 

Moceanu, Dominique Jan 98 

Schwikert, Tasha Sport V.7 

Zmeskal, Kim Jan 94 

Haddix, Margaret Peterson . . . Author V.ll 

Haddock, Doris Sep 00 

Haile Selassie WorLdr V.2 

Haitian 

Aristide, Jean-Bertrand . . Jan 95; Update 01 

Haley, Alex Apr 92 

Hamilton, Virginia Author V.l; 

Author V. 12 

Hamm, Mia Sport V.2; Update 00 

Hammer Jan 92 

Hampton, David Apr 99 

Handford, Martin Jan 92 

Handler, Daniel 

see Snicket, Lemony Author V.12 

Handler, Ruth Apr 98; Update 02 

Hanks, Tom Jan 96 

Hansberry, Lorraine Author V.5 

Hanson Jan 98 

Hanson, Ike 

see Hanson Jan 98 

Hanson, Taylor 

see Hanson Jan 98 

Hanson, Zac 

see Hanson Jan 98 

Harbaugh, Jim Sport V.3 

Hardaway, Anfemee "Penny" . . . Sport V.2 

Harding, Tonya Sep 94 

Hargreaves, Alison Jan 96 

Harris, Bernard Science V.3 



Hart, Melissa Joan Jan 94 

Hartnett, Josh Sep 03 

Hasek, Dominik Sport V.3 

Hassan II WorLdr V.2; Update 99 

Haugh ton, Aaliyah Dana 

see Aaliyah Jan 02 

Hawk, Tony Apr 01 

Hawking, Stephen Apr 92 

Haynes, Cornell, Jr. 

see Nelly Sep 03 

Healy, Bemadine .... Science V.l; Update 01 

Heimlich, Henry Science V.6 

Heinlein, Robert Author V.4 

Hendrickson, Sue Science V.7 

Henry, Marguerite Author V.4 

Hernandez, Livan Apr 98 

Herriot, James Author V.l 

Hesse, Karen Author V.5; Update 02 

Hewitt, Jennifer Love Sep 00 

Hill, Anita Jan 93 

Hill, Faith Sep 01 

Hill, Grant Sport V.l 

Hill, Lauryn Sep 99 

Hillary, Sir Edmund Sep 96 

Hillenbrand, Laura Author V.14 

Hillenburg, Stephen Author V.14 

Hingis, Martina Sport V.2 

Hinton, S.E Author V.l 

Hispanics 

Aguilera, Christina Apr 00 

Alba, Jessica Sep 01 

Alvarez, Luis W Science V.3 

Bledel, Alexis Jan 03 

Carmona, Richard Science V.8 

Castro, Fidel Jul 92; Update 94 

Chavez, Cesar Sep 93 

Chavez, Julz Sep 02 

Cisneros, Henry Sep 93 

Cordova, France Science V.7 

Domingo, Placido Sep 95 

Estefan, Gloria Jul 92 

Fernandez, Lisa Sport V.5 

Fox, Vicente Apr 03 

Fuentes, Daisy Jan 94 

Garcia, Sergio Sport V.7 

Hernandez, Livan Sep 93 

Huerta, Dolores Sep 03 

Iglesias, Enrique Jan 03 

Jimenez, Francisco Author V.13 

Lopez, Charlotte Apr 94 

Lopez, Jennifer Jan 02 



205 



203 




CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Lopez, George 


PerfArt V.2 


Martin, Ricky 


Jan 00 


Martinez, Pedro 


Sport V.5 


Mendes, Chico 


WorLdr V.l 


Muniz, Frankie 




Novello, Antonia 


Apr 92 


Ocampo, Adriana C. . . . 


Science V.8 


Ochoa, Ellen 


Apr 01; Update 02 


Ochoa, Severo 


Jan 94 


Pele 


Sport V.l 


Prinze, Freddie, Jr 


Apr 00 


Rivera, Diego 


Artist V.l 


Rodriguez, Alex 


Sport V.6 


Rodriguez, Eloy 


Science V.2 


Ryan, Pam Munoz 


Author V.12 


Sanchez Vicario, Arantxa 


i Sport V.l 


Selena 


Jan 96 


Shakira 


PerfArt V.l 


Soto, Gary 


Author V.5 


Toro, Natalia 


Sep 99 


Vidal, Christina 


PerfArt V.l 


Villa-Komaroff, Lydia . . 


Science V.6 


Zamora, Pedro 


Apr 95 


Ho, David 

hockey 


Science V.6 


Fedorov, Sergei 


Apr 94; Update 94 


Granato, Cammi 


Sport V.8 


Gretzky, Wayne 

Update 99 


Jan 92; Update 93; 


Hasek, Dominik 


Sport V.3 


Howe, Gordie 


Sport V.2 


Jagr, Jaromir 


Sport V.5 


Lemieux, Mario 


. Jul 92; Update 93 


Lidstrom, Nicklas 


Sep 03 


Messier, Mark 


Apr 96 


Roy, Patrick 


Sport V.7 


Sakic, Joe 


Sport V.6 


Vernon, Mike 


. Jan 98; Update 02 


Yzerman, Steve 


Sport V.2 


Hogan, Hulk 


Apr 92 


Holdsclaw, Chamique. . . 


Sep 00 


Holmes, Katie 


Jan 00 


Hooper, Geoff 


Jan 94 


Hopper, Grace Murray . . 


Science V.5 


Homer, Jack 

horse racing 


Science V.l 


Krone, Julie 


. Jan 95; Update 00 


House of Representatives 

see representatives 


Houston, Whitney 


Sep 94 


Howe, Gordie 


Sport V.2 


204 • 


206 



Huerta, Dolores Sep 03 

Hughes, Langston Author V.7 

Hughes, Sarah Jan 03 

Hungarians 

Erdos, Paul Science V.2 

Seles, Monica Jan 96 

Hunter-Gault, Charlayne Jan 00 

Hurston, Zora Neale Author V.6 

Hussein, King Apr 99 

Hussein, Saddam Jul 92; Update 96; 

Update 01; Update 02 

Iacocca, Lee A Jan 92 

Ice-T Apr 93 

Iglesias, Enrique Jan 03 

illustrators 

Berenstain, Jan Author V.2 

Berenstain, Stan Author V.2 

Carle, Eric Author V.l 

Collier, Bryan Author V.ll 

Cooney, Barbara Author V.8 

dePaola, Tomie Author V.5 

Fitzhugh, Louise Author V.3 

George, Jean Craighead Author V.3 

Gorey, Edward Author V.13 

GrandPre, Mary Author V.14 

Handford, Martin Jan 92 

Konigsburg, E. L Author V.3 

Lionni, Leo Author V.6 

Macaulay, David Author V.2 

McCully, Emily Arnold. . Apr 92; Update 93 

Peet, Bill Author V.4 

Pinkney, Jerry Author V.2 

Pinkwater, Daniel Author V.8 

Potter, Beatrix Author V.8 

Ringgold, Faith Author V.2 

Rockwell, Norman Artist V.l 

Scarry, Richard Sep 94 

Sendak, Maurice Author V.2 

Seuss, Dr Jan 92 

Silverstein, Shel .... Author V.3; Update 99 

Small, David Author V.10 

Van Allsburg, Chris Apr 92 

Williams, Garth Author V.2 

in-line skating 

see skating (in-line). Sport V.9 

Internet 

Berners-Lee, Tim Science V.7 

Bezos, Jeff Apr 01 

Case, Steve Science V.5 

Fanning, Shawn . . . Science V.5; Update 02 
Flannery, Sarah Science V.5 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Groppe, Laura Science V.5 

Tarbox, Katie Author V.10 

Whitman, Meg Sep 03 

inventors 

Alvarez, Luis W Science V.3 

Berners-Lee, Tim Science V.7 

Cousteau, Jacques Jan 93; Update 97 

Diemer, Walter Apr 98 

Engelbart, Douglas Science V.5 

Fanning, Shawn . . . Science V.5; Update 02 

Grandin, Temple Science V.3 

Hampton, David Apr 99 

Handler, Ruth Apr 98; Update 02 

Heimlich, Henry Science V.6 

Johnson, Lonnie Science V.4 

Kapell, Dave Science V.8 

Kurzweil, Raymond Science V.2 

Land, Edwin Science V.l 

Lemelson, Jerome Science V.3 

Mars, Forrest Sr Science V.4 

Morgan, Garrett Science V.2 

Ochoa, Ellen Apr 01; Update 02 

Patterson, Ryan Science V.7 

Stachowski, Richie Science V.3 

Swanson, Janese Science V.4 

Wang, An Science V.2 

Warrick, Earl Science V.8 

Wozniak, Steve Science V.5 

Iraqi 

Hussein, Saddam Jul 92; Update 96; 

Update 01; Update 02 

Irish 



Colfer, Eoin 


Author V.13 


Rannery, Sarah 


Science V.5 


Lewis, C. S 


Author V.3 


Robinson, Mary 


Sep 93 


Irwin, Steve 


Science V.7 


Israelis 


Perlman, Itzhak 


Jan 95 


Portman, Natalie 


Sep 99 


Rabin, Yitzhak 


Oct 92; Update 93; 


Update 94; Update 95 

Italians 


Andretti, Mario 


Sep 94 


Krim, Mathilde 


Science V.l 


Levi-Montalcini, Rita . . , 


Science V.l 


Iverson, Allen 


Sport V.7 


Ivey, Artis, Jr. 


see Coolio 


Sep 96 


Jackson, Bo 


. Jan 92; Update 93 


Jackson, Jesse 


. Sep 95; Update 01 



Jackson, Peter PerfArt V.2 

Jackson, Shirley Author V.6 

Jackson, Shirley Ann Science V.2 

Jacques, Brian Author V.5 

Jagr, Jaromir Sport V.5 

Jamaicans 

Ashley, Maurice Sep 99 

Bailey, Donovan Sport V.2 

Denton, Sandi 

see Salt 'N' Pepa Apr 95 

Ewing, Patrick Jan 95; Update 02 

Maxwell, Jody-Anne Sep 98 

James, Cheryl 

see Salt 'N' Pepa Apr 95 

Jamison, Judith Jan 96 

Jansen, Dan Apr 94 

Japanese 

Miyamoto, Shigeru Science V.5 

Morita, Akio Science V.4 

Suzuki, Shinichi Sep 98 

Uchida, Mitsuko Apr 99 

Javacheff, Christo V. 

see Christo Sep 96 

Jemison, Mae Oct 92 

Jennings, Peter Jul 92 

Jeter, Derek Sport V.4 

Jewel Sep 98 

Jimenez, Francisco Author V.13 

Jobs, Steven Jan 92; Science V.5 

jockey 

Krone, Julie Jan 95; Update 00 

John Paul II Oct 92; Update 94; 

Update 95 

Johns, Jasper Artist V.l 

Johnson, Angela Author V.6 

Johnson, Jimmy Jan 98 

Johnson, Johanna Apr 00 

Johnson, John Jan 97 

Johnson, Lonnie Science V.4 

Johnson, Magic Apr 92; Update 02 

Johnson, Michael Jan 97; Update 00 

Johnson, Randy Sport V.9 

Johnston, Lynn Jan 99 

Jones, Chuck Author V.12 

Jones, James Earl Jan 95 

Jones, Marion Sport V.5 

Jones, Norah PerfArt V.2 

Jones, Quincy PerfArt V.2 

Jordan, Barbara Apr 96 

Jordan, Michael Jan 92; Update 93; 

Update 94; Update 95; Update 99; Update 
01 



3 

ERIC 



07 



205 




CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Jordanian 



Hussein, King 


Apr 99 


journalists 


Amanpour, Christiane . . . 


Jan 01 


Anderson, Terry 


Apr 92 


Benson, Mildred 




Blum, Deborah 


.... Science V.8 


Bradley, Ed 


Apr 94 


Brody, Jane 


.... Science V.2 


Chung, Connie Jan 94; Update 95; 


Update 96 


Dai Qing 


. . . .WorLdr V.3 


Ellerbee, Linda 


Apr 94 


Hunter-Gault, Charlayne . 


Jan 00 


Jennings, Peter 


Jul 92 


Krakauer, Jon 


Author V.6 


Lipsyte, Robert 


. . . .Author V.12 


Pauley, Jane 


Oct 92 


Roberts, Cokie 


Apr 95 


Rowan, Carl 


Sep 01 


Soren, Tabitha 


Jan 97 


Steinem, Gloria 


Oct 92 


Walters, Barbara 


Sep 94 


Joyner-Kersee, Jackie 


. Oct 92; Update 



96; Update 97; Update 98 

Jung, Kim Dae 



see Kim Dae-jung . . 




Sep 01 


Juster, Norton 




. . . Author V. 14 


Ka Hsaw Wa 




. . . .WorLdr V.3 


Kaddafi, Muammar 

see Qaddafi, Muammar . . . 


Apr 97 


Kamler, Kenneth . . . 




.... Science V.6 


Kapell, Dave 




.... Science V.8 


Kaunda, Kenneth . . . 




. . . . WorLdr V.2 


Keene, Carolyne 

see Benson, Mildred . 




Jan 03 


Kenyans 

Kenyatta, Jomo . . . . 




. . . .WorLdr V.2 


Maathai, Wangari . . 




. . . .WorLdr V.l 


Ndeti, Cosmas 




Sep 95 


Kenyatta, Jomo 




. . . .WorLdr V.2 


Kerr, M.E 




Author V.l 


Kerrigan, Nancy. . . . 




Apr 94 


Kidd, Jason 




Sport V.9 


Kielburger, Craig . . . 




Jan 00 


Kilcher, Jewel 

see Jewel 




Sep 98 


Kim Dae-jung 




Sep 01 


King, Stephen 


. Author V.l; Update 00 


Kiraly, Karch 




Sport V.4 



Kirkpatrick, Chris 

see *N Sync Jan 01 

Kistler, Darci Jan 93 

Klug, Chris Sport V.8 

Knowles, Beyonce 

see Destiny's Child Apr 01 

Konigsburg, E. L Author V.3 

Korean 

An Na Author V.12 

Kim Dae-jung Sep 01 

Pak, Se Ri Sport V.4 

Krakauer, Jon Author V.6 

Krim, Mathilde Science V.l 

Krone, Julie Jan 95; Update 00 

Kurzweil, Raymond Science V.2 

Kwan, Michelle Sport V.3; Update 02 

Laden, Osama bin 

see bin Laden, Osama Apr 02 

LaDuke, Winona . . . WorLdr V.3; Update 00 

Lalas, Alexi Sep 94 

Lama, Dalai 

see Dalai Lama Sep 98 

Land, Edwin Science V.l 

lang, k.d Sep 93 

Larson, Gary Author V.l 

Lasseter, John Sep 00 

Latino/Latina 

see Hispanics 

Lavigne, Avril PerfArt V.2 

Lawrence, Jacob Artist V.l; Update 01 

Leakey, Louis Science V.l 

Leakey, Mary Science V.l 

Lee, Harper Author V.9 

Lee, Jeanette Apr 03 

Lee, Spike Apr 92 

Lee, Stan Author V.7; Update 02 

Le Guin, Ursula K Author V.8 

Leibovitz, Annie Sep 96 

Lemelson, Jerome Science V.3 

Lemieux, Mario Jul 92; Update 93 

LeMond, Greg Sport V.l 

L'Engle, Madeleine Jan 92; Apr 01 

Leno, Jay Jul 92 

Leopold, Aldo WorLdr V.3 

Lester, Julius Author V.7 

Letterman, David Jan 95 

Levi-Montalcini, Rita Science V.l 

Lewis, C. S Author V.3 

Lewis, Carl Sep 96; Update 97 

Lewis, John Jan 03 

Lewis, Shari Jan 99 



206 



208 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Liberian 



Tubman, William V. S. 


WorLdr V.2 


librarians 




Avi 


Jan 93 


Bush, Laura 




Cleary, Beverly 




Morrison, Lillian 


Author V.12 


Morrison, Sam 


Sep 97 


Rylant, Cynthia 


Author V.l 


Libyan 




Qaddafi, Muammar . . . 


Apr 97 


Lidstrom, Nicklas 


Sep 03 


Limbaugh, Rush 


. Sep 95; Update 02 


Lin, Maya 


Sep 97 


Lindgren, Astrid 


Author V.13 


Lionni, Leo 


Author V.6 


Lipinski, Tara 


Apr 98 


Lipsyte, Robert 


Author V.12 


Lisanti, Mariangela . . . . 


Sep 01 


Lithuanian 




Galdikas, Birute 


Science V.4 


Littrell, Brian 




see Backstreet Boys. . . . 


Jan 00 


Lobo, Rebecca 


Sport V.3 


Locklear, Heather 


Jan 95 


Lopez, Charlotte 


Apr 94 


Lopez, George 


PerfArt V.2 


Lopez, Jennifer 


Jan 02 


Love, Susan 


Science V.3 


Lovell, Jim 


Jan 96 


Lowe, Alex 


Sport V.4 


Lowman, Meg 


Science V.4 


Lowry, Lois 


Author V.4 


Lucas, George 


. Apr 97; Update 02 


Lucid, Shannon 


Science V.2 


luge 




Otto, Sylke 


Sport V.8 


Lynch, Chris 


Author V.13 


Ma, Yo-Yo 


Jul 92 


Maathai, Wangari .... 


WorLdr V.l 


Mac, Bemie 


PerfArt V.l 


Macaulay, David 


Author V.2 


MacLachlan, Patricia . . . 


Author V.2 


Madden, John 


Sep 97 


Maddux, Greg 


Sport V.3 


Maguire, Martie 




See Dixie Chicks 


PerfArt V.l 


Maines, Natalie 




see Dixie Chicks 


PerfArt V.l 



Malawian 

Banda, Hastings Kamuzu .... WorLdr V.2 



Mandela, Nelson Jan 92; Update 94; 

Update 01 

Mandela, Winnie WorLdr V.2 

Mangel, Marcel 

see Marceau, Marcel PerfArt V.2 

Mankiller, Wilma Apr 94 

Manning, Peyton Sep 00 

Mantle, Mickey Jan 96 

Marceau, Marcel PerfArt V.2 

Margulis, Lynn Sep 96 

Marino, Dan Apr 93; Update 00 

Marrow, Tracy 

see Ice-T Apr 93 

Mars, Forrest Sr Science V.4 

Marsalis, Wynton Apr 92 

Marshall, Thurgood Jan 92; Update 93 

Martin, Ann M Jan 92 

Martin, Bernard WorLdr V.3 

Martin, Ricky Jan 00 

Martinez, Pedro Sport V.5 

Masih, Iqbal Jan 96 

mathematicians 

Dumitriu, Ioana Science V.3 

Erdos, Paul Science V.2 

Flannery, Sarah Science V.5 

Hopper, Grace Murray Science V.5 

Nash, John Forbes, Jr Science V.7 

Mathers, Marshall III 

see Eminem Apr 03 

Mathis, Clint Apr 03 

Mathison, Melissa Author V.4 

Maxwell, Jody- Anne Sep 98 

McCain, John Apr 00 

McCarty, Oseola Jan 99; Update 99 

McCary, Michael 

see Boyz II Men Jan 96 

McClintock, Barbara Oct 92 

McCully, Emily Arnold . . Jul 92; Update 93 

McDaniel, Lurlene Author V.14 

McEntire, Reba Sep 95 

McGruder, Aaron Author V.10 

McGwire, Mark Jan 99; Update 99 

McKissack, Fredrick L Author V.3 

McKissack, Patricia C. Author V.3 

McLean, A. J. 

see Backstreet Boys Jan 00 

McNabb, Donovan Apr 03 

Mead, Margaret Science V.2 

Meaker, Marijane 

see Kerr, M.E Author V.l 




209 



207 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Mebarak Ripoll, Shakira Isabel 



see Shakira 


PerfArt V.l 


Meltzer, Milton 


AuthorV.il 


Menchu, Rigoberta 


Jan 93 


Mendes, Chico 


. . . .WorLdr V.l 


Messier, Mark 


Apr 96 


Mexicans 




Fox, Vicente 


Apr 03 


Jimenez, Francisco 


.... Author V.13 


Rivera, Diego 


Artist V.l 


military service 




- Israel 




Rabin, Yitzhak 


Oct 92 


- Libya 




Qaddafi, Muammar . . . 


Apr 97 



- Somalia 

Aidid, Mohammed Farah . . . WorLdr V.2 

- Uganda 

Amin, Idi WorLdr V.2 

- United States 

Brooks, Vincent Sep 03 

Hopper, Grace Murray Science V.5 

McCain, John Apr 00 

Powell, Colin Jan 92; Update 93; 

Update 95; Update 01 

Schwarzkopf, H. Norman Jan 92 

Stanford, John Sep 99 

- Zaire 

Mobutu Sese Seko WorLdr V.2 

Miller, Rand Science V.5 

Miller, Robyn Science V.5 

Miller, Shannon Sep 94; Update 96 

Milosevic, Slobodan . . . Sep 99; Update 00; 

Update 01; Update 02 
mime 

Marceau, Marcel PerfArt V.2 

Mirra, Dave Sep 02 

Mittermeier, Russell A WorLdr V.l 

Miyamoto, Shigeru Science V.5 

Mobutu Sese Seko . . WorLdr V.2; Update 97 

Moceanu, Dominique Jan 98 

models 

Banks, Tyra PerfArt V.2 

Crawford, Cindy Apr 93 

Mohajer, Dineh Jan 02 

Monroe, Bill Sep 97 

Montana, Joe Jan 95; Update 95 

Moore, Henry Artist V.l 

Morgan, Garrett Science V.2 

Morissette, Alanis Apr 97 




Morita, Akio 


Science V.4 


Moroccan 


Hassan II 


WorLdr V.2; Update 99 


Morris, Nathan 


see Boyz II Men. . . . 


Jan 96 


Morris, Wanya 


see Boyz II Men. . . . 


Jan 96 


Morrison, Lillian . . . 


Author V. 12 


Morrison, Samuel . . 


Sep 97 


Morrison, Toni .... 


Jan 94 


Moseley, Jonny .... 


Sport V.8 


Moses, Grandma . . . 


Artist V.l 


Moss, Cynthia 


WorLdr V.3 


Moss, Randy 


Sport V.4 


Mother Teresa 


see Teresa, Mother . 


Apr 98 


mountain climbing 


Hargreaves, Alison 


Jan 96 


Hillary, Sir Edmund 


Sep 96 


Kamler, Kenneth . . 


Science V.6 


Krakauer, Jon 


Author V.6 


Lowe, Alex 


Sport V.4 



movies 

see actors/actresses 
see animators 
see directors 
see film critic 
see producers 
see screenwriters 



Mowat, Farley 


Author V.8 


Mugabe, Robert 


WorLdr V.2 


Muir, John 


WorLdr V.3 


Muldowney, Shirley . . 


Sport V.7 


Muniz, Frankie 


Jan 01 


Murie, Margaret 


WorLdr V.l 


Mime, Olaus J 


WorLdr V.l 


Murphy, Eddie 


PerfArt V.2 


Murray, Ty 


Sport V.7 


music 




Aaliyah 


Jan 02 


Abdul, Paula 


. . Jan 92; Update 02 


Adams, Yolanda 


Apr 03 


Aguilera, Christina . . . 


Apr 00 


Anderson, Marian. . . . 


Jan 94 


Ashanti 


PerfArt V.2 


Backstreet Boys 


Jan 00 


Battle, Kathleen 


Jan 93 


Blige, Mary J 


Apr 02 


Boyz II Men 


Jan 96 


Brandy 


Apr 96 


Brooks, Garth 


Oct 92 



208 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Carey, Mariah 


Apr 96 


Carpenter, Mary Chapin . . . . 


Sep 94 


Carter, Aaron 


Sep 02 


Clarkson, Kelly 


Jan 03 


Cobain, Kurt 


Sep 94 


Combs, Sean (Puff Daddy) . . 


Apr 98 


Coolio 


Sep 96 


Destiny's Child 


Apr 01 


Dion, Celine 


Sep 97 


Dixie Chicks 


. . . PerfArt V.l 


Domingo, Placido 


Sep 95 


Eminem 


Apr 03 


Estefan, Gloria 


Jul 92 


Fitzgerald, Ella 


Jan 97 


Franklin, Aretha 


Apr 01 


Garcia, Jerry 


Jan 96 


Gillespie, Dizzy 


Apr 93 


Gilman, Billy 


Apr 02 


Grant, Amy 


Jan 95 


Guy, Jasmine 


Sep 93 


Hammer 


Jan 92 


Hanson 


Jan 98 


Hill, Faith 


Sep 01 


Hill, Lauryn 


Sep 99 


Houston, Whitney 


Sep 94 


Ice-T 


Apr 93 


Iglesias, Enrique 


Jan 03 


Jewel 


Sep 98 


Johnson, Johanna 


Apr 00 


Jones, Norah 


. .PerfArt V.2 


Jones, Quincy 


. .PerfArt V.2 


lang, k.d 


Sep 93 


Lavigne, Avril 


. .PerfArt V.2 


Lopez, Jennifer 


Jan 02 


Ma, Yo-Yo 


Jul 92 


Marsalis, Wynton 


Apr 92 


Martin, Ricky 


Jan 00 


McEntire, Reba 


Sep 95 


Monroe, Bill 


Sep 97 


Morissette, Alanis 


Apr 97 


*N Sync 


Jan 01 


Nelly 


Sep 03 


Perlman, Itzhak 


Jan 95 


Queen Latifah 


./....Apr 92 


Rimes, LeAnn 


Jan 98 


Salt 'N' Pepa 


Apr 95 


Selena 


Jan 96 


Shakira 


. .PerfArt V.l 


Shakur, Tupac 


Apr 97 


Sinatra, Frank 


Jan 99 



Smith, Will Sep 94 

Spears, Britney Jan 01 

Stefani, Gwen Sep 03 

Stem, Isaac PerfArt V.l 

Suzuki, Shinichi Sep 98 

Twain, Shania Apr 99 

Uchida, Mitsuko Apr 99 

Usher PerfArt V.l 

Vidal, Christina PerfArt V.l 

Winans, CeCe Apr 00 

Myers, Walter Dean Jan 93; Update 94 

*N Sync Jan 01 

Nakamura, Leanne Apr 02 

Nash, John Forbes, Jr Science V.7 

Native Americans 

LaDuke, Winona . . WorLdr V.3; Update 00 

Mankiller, Wilma Apr 94 

Menchu, Rigoberta Jan 93 

Navratilova, Martina .... Jan 93; Update 94 

Naylor, Phyllis Reynolds Apr 93 

Ndeti, Cosmas Sep 95 

Nechita, Alexandra Jan 98 

Nelly Sep 03 

Nelson, Gaylord WorLdr V.3 

Nelson, Marilyn Author V.13 

Nevelson, Louise Artist V.l 

New Zealanders 

Hillary, Sir Edmund Sep 96 

Jackson, Peter PerfArt V.2 

Newbery Medal 

Alexander, Lloyd Author V.6 

Armstrong, William H Author V.7 

Cleary, Beverly Apr 94 

Creech, Sharon Author V.5 

Curtis, Christopher Paul Author V.4; 

Update 00 

Cushman, Karen Author V.5 

Freedman, Russell Author V.14 

George, Jean Craighead Author V.3 

Hamilton, Virginia Author V.l; 

Author V. 12 

Hesse, Karen Author V.5; L T pdate 02 

Konigsburg, E. L Author V.3 

L'Engle, Madeleine Jan 92; Apr 01 

Mac Lachlan, Patricia Author V.2 

Naylor, Phyllis Reynolds Apr 93 

O'Dell, Scott Author V.2 

Paterson, Katherine Author V.3 

Peck, Richard Author V.10 

Rylant, Cynthia Author V.l 

Sachar, Louis Author V.6 

Speare, Elizabeth George Sep 95 





209 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 





Spinelli, Jerry Apr 93 

Taylor, Mildred D. . . Author V.l; Update 02 

Voight, Cynthia Oct 92 

Nicklaus, Jack Sport V.2 

Nielsen, Jerri Science V.7 

Nigerians 

Olajuwon, Hakeem Sep 95 

Saro-Wiwa, Ken WorLdr V.l 

Nixon, Joan Lowery Author V.l 

Nixon, Richard Sep 94 

Nkrumah, Kwame WorLdr V.2 

Nobel Prize 

Alvarez, Luis W Science V.3 

Aung San Suu Kyi Apr 96; Update 98; 

Update 01; Update 02 

Bardeen, John Science V.l 

Bethe, Hans A Science V.3 

Dalai Lama Sep 98 

de Klerk, F.W Apr 94 

Elion, Gertrude Science V.6 

Gilbert, Walter Science V.2 

Gorbachev, Mikhail Jan 92 

Kim Dae-jung Sep 01 

Levi-Montalcini, Rita Science V.l 

Mandela, Nelson Jan 92; Update 94; 

Update 01 

McClintock, Barbara Oct 92 

Menchu, Rigoberta Jan 93 

Morrison, Toni Jan 94 

Nash, John Forbes, Jr Science V.7 

Ochoa, Severo Jan 94 

Pauling, Linus Jan 95 

Sadat, Anwar WorLdr V.2 

Teresa, Mother Apr 98 

Watson, James D Science V.l 

Norman, Greg Jan 94 

Norwegian 

Brundtland, Gro Harlem Science V.3 

Norwood, Brandy 

see Brandy Apr 96 

Novello, Antonia Apr 92; Update 93 

*N Sync Jan 01 

Nureyev, Rudolf Apr 93 

Nye, Bill Science V.2 

Nye, Naomi Shihab Author V.8 

Nyerere, Julius Kambarage . . . WorLdr V.2; 
Update 99 

Ocampo, Adriana C Science V.8 

Ochoa, Ellen Apr 01; Update 02 

Ochoa, Severo Jan 94 



O'Connor, Sandra Day Jul 92 

O'Dell, Scott Author V.2 

O'Donnell, Rosie Apr 97; Update 02 

Ohno, Apolo Sport V.8 

O'Keeffe, Georgia Artist V.l 

Olajuwon, Hakeem Sep 95 

Oleynik, Larisa Sep 96 

Oliver, Patsy Ruth WorLdr V.l 

Olsen, Ashley Sep 95 

Olsen, Mary Kate Sep 95 

Olympics 

Ali, Muhammad Sport V .2 

Ammann, Simon Sport V.8 

Armstrong, Lance Sep 00; Update 00; 

Update 01; Update 02 

Bahrke, Shannon Sport V.8 

Bailey, Donovan Sport V.2 

Baiul, Oksana Apr 95 

Bird, Larry Jan 92; Update 98 

Blair, Bonnie Apr 94 

Boulmerka, Hassiba Sport V.l 

Capriati, Jennifer Sport V.6 

Carter, Vince Sport V.5; Update 01 

Chastain, Brandi Sport V.4; Update 00 

Clark, Kelly Sport V.8 

Davenport, Lindsay Sport V.5 

Devers, Gail Sport V.2 

Dragila, Stacy Sport V.6 

Dunlap, Alison Sport V.7 

Evans, Janet Jan 95; Update 96 

Ewing, Patrick Jan 95; Update 02 

Fernandez, Lisa Sport V.5 

Flowers, Vonetta Sport V.8 

Freeman, Cathy Jan 01 

Fu Mingxia Sport V.5 

Garnett, Kevin Sport V.6 

Granato, Cammi Sport V.8 

Griffith Joyner, Horence Sport V.l; 

Update 98 

Hamm, Mia Sport V.2; Update 00 

Harding, Tonya Sep 94 

Hasek, Dominik Sport V.3 

Hill, Grant Sport V.l 

Hughes, Sarah Jan 03 

Jansen, Dan Apr 94 

Johnson, Michael Jan 97; Update 00 

Jones, Marion Sport V.5 

Joyner-Kersee, Jackie Oct 92; Update 

96; Update 97; Update 98 

Kerrigan, Nancy Apr 94 

Klug, Chris Sport V.8 



9 10 
1 1 * 



210 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Kwan, Michelle Sport V.3; Update 02 

Lewis, Carl Sep 96 

Lipinski, Tara Apr 98 

Lobo, Rebecca Sport V.3 

Miller, Shannon Sep 94; Update 96 

Moceanu, Dominique Jan 98 

Moseley, Jonny Sport V.8 

Ohno, Apolo Sport V.8 

Otto, Sylke Sport V.8 

Pippig, Uta Sport V.l 

Richardson, Dot Sport V.2; Update 00 

Roba, Fatuma Sport V.3 

Robinson, David Sep 96 

Roy, Patrick Sport V.7 

Rudolph, Wilma Apr 95 

Runyan, Marla Apr 02 

Sakic, Joe Sport V.6 

Sanborn, Ryne Sport V.8 

Sanchez Vicario, Arantxa Sport V.l 

Schwikert, Tasha Sport V.7 

Scurry, Briana Jan 00 

Shea, Jim, Jr Sport V.8 

Stockton, John Sport V.3 

Street, Picabo Sport V.3 

Summitt, Pat Sport V.3 

Swoopes, Sheryl Sport V.2 

Thompson, Jenny Sport V.5 

Van Dyken, Amy .... Sport V.3; Update 00 
Williams, Serena .... Sport V.4; Update 00; 
Update 02 

Williams, Venus Jan 99; Update 00; 

Update 01; Update 02 

Yamaguchi, Kristi Apr 92 

Zmeskal, Kim Jan 94 

O'Neal, Shaquille Sep 93 

Opdyke, Irene Gut Author V.9 

Oppenheimer, J. Robert Science V.l 

Otto, Sylke Sport V.8 

painters 
see artists 

Pak, Se Ri Sport V.4 

Pakistanis 

Bhutto, Benazir Apr 95; Update 99 

Masih, Iqbal Jan 96 

Palestinian 

Arafat, Yasir Sep 94; Update 94; 

Update 95; Update 96; Update 97; Update 
98; Update 00; Update 01; Update 02 

Park, Linda Sue Author V.12 

Parkinson, Jennifer Apr 95 

Parks, Gordon Artist V.l 



Parks, Rosa Apr 92; Update 94 

Pascal, Francine Author V.6 

Paterson, Katherine Author V.3 

Patrick, Ruth Science V.3 

Patterson, Ryan Science V.7 

Pauley, Jane Oct 92 

Pauling, Linus Jan 95 

Paulsen, Gary Author V.l 

Payton, Walter Jan 00 

Peck, Richard Author V. 10 

Peet, Bill Author V.4 

Pei, I.M Artist V.l 

Pele Sport V.l 

Perlman, Itzhak Jan 95 

Perot, H. Ross Apr 92; Update 93; 

Update 95; Update 96 

Perry, Luke Jan 92 

Peterson, Roger Troy WorLdr V.l 

Petty, Richard Sport V.2 

philanthropist 

McCarty, Oseola Jan 99; Update 99 

philosopher 

Caplan, Arthur Science V.6 

Phoenix, River Apr 94 

photographers 

Adams, Ansel Artist V.l 

Bourke-White, Margaret Artist V.l 

Land, Edwin Science V.l 

Leibovitz, Annie Sep 96 

Parks, Gordon Artist V.l 

Pierce, Tamora Author V.13 

Pike, Christopher Sep 96 

pilot 

Van Meter, Vicki Jan 95 

Pine, Elizabeth Michele Jan 94 

Pinkney, Andrea Davis Author V.10 

Pinkney, Jerry Author V.2 

Pinkwater, Daniel Author V.8 

Pinsky, Robert Author V.7 

Pippen, Scottie Oct 92 

Pippig, Uta Sport V.l 

Pitt, Brad Sep 98 

playwrights 

Bennett, Cherie Author V.9 

Hansberry, Lorraine Author V.5 

Hughes, Langston Author V.7 

Wilson, August Author 98 

poets 

Brooks, Gwendolyn Author V.3 

Dove, Rita Jan 94 

Dunbar, Paul Lawrence Author V.8 



213 - 



211 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 





Grimes, Nikki Author V.14 

Hughes, Langston Author V.7 

Jewel Sep 98 

Morrison, Lillian Author V.12 

Nelson, Marilyn Author V.13 

Nye, Naomi Shihab Author V.8 

Pinsky, Robert Author V.7 

Prelutsky, Jack Author V.2 

Senghor, Leopold Sedar WorLdr V.2 

Silverstein, Shel .... Author V.3; Update 99 

Sones, Sonya AuthorV.il 

Soto, Gary Author V.5 

Stepanek, Mattie Apr 02 

Polish 

John Paul II Oct 92; Update 94; 

Update 95 

Opdyke, Irene Gut Author V.9 

political leaders 

Abzug, Bella Sep 98 

Amin, Idi WorLdr V.2 

Annan, Kofi Jan 98; Update 01 

Arafat, Yasir Sep 94; Update 94; 

Update 95; Update 96; Update 97; Update 
98; Update 00; Update 01; Update 02 
Aristide, Jean-Bertrand . . Jan 95; Update 01 

Babbitt, Bruce Jan 94 

Baker, James Oct 92 

Banda, Hastings Kamuzu .... WorLdr V.2 

Bhutto, Benazir Apr 95; Update 99; 

Update 02 

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros . . Apr 93; Update 98 

Brundtland, Gro Harlem Science V.3 

Bush, George Jan 92 

Bush, George W Sep 00; Update 00; 

Update 01; Update 02 

Carter, Jimmy Apr 95; Update 02 

Castro, Fidel Jul 92; Update 94 

Cheney, Dick Jan 02 

Cisneros, Henry Sep 93 

Clinton, Bill Jul 92; Update 94; 

Update 95; Update 96; Update 97; Update 
98; Update 99; Update 00; Update 01 

Clinton, Hillary Rodham Apr 93; 

Update 94; Update 95; Update 96; Update 
99; Update 00; Update 01 

de Klerk, F.W Apr 94; Update 94 

Dole, Bob Jan 96; Update 96 

Duke, David Apr 92 

Fox, Vicente Apr 03 

Gingrich, Newt Apr 95; Update 99 

Giuliani, Rudolph Sep 02 



Glenn, John Jan 99 

Gorbachev, Mikhail Jan 92; Update 94; 

Update 96 

Gore, A1 Jan 93; Update 96; Update 97; 

Update 98; Update 99; Update 00; Update 
01 

Hussein, King Apr 99 

Hussein, Saddam Jul 92; Update 96; 

Update 01; Update 02 

Jackson, Jesse Sep 95; Update 01 

Jordan, Barbara Apr 96 

Kaunda, Kenneth WorLdr V.2 

Kenyatta, Jomo WorLdr V.2 

Kim Dae-jung Sep 01 

Lewis, John Jan 03 

Mandela, Nelson Jan 92; Update 94; 

Update 01 

McCain, John Apr 00 

Milosevic, Slobodan . . . Sep 99; Update 00; 

Update 01; Update 02 
Mobutu Sese Seko . . WorLdr V.2; Update 97 

Mugabe, Robert WorLdr V.2 

Nelson, Gaylord WorLdr V.3 

Nixon, Richard Sep 94 

Nkrumah, Kwame WorLdr V.2 

Nyerere, Julius Kambarage . . . WorLdr V.2; 
Update 99 

Perot, H. Ross Apr 92; Update 93; 

Update 95; Update 96 

Rabin, Yitzhak Oct 92; Update 93; 

Update 94; Update 95 

Rice, Condoleezza Apr 02 

Robinson, Mary Sep 93 

Sadat, Anwar WorLdr V.2 

Savimbi, Jonas WorLdr V.2 

Schroeder, Pat Jan 97 

Senghor, Leopold Sedar WorLdr V.2 

Tubman, William V. S WorLdr V.2 

Ventura, Jesse Apr 99; Update 02 

Yeltsin, Boris Apr 92; Update 93; 

Update 95; Update 96; Update 98; Update 
00 

Pope of the Roman Catholic Church 

John Paul II. Oct 92; Update 94; 

Update 95 

Portman, Natalie Sep 99 

Potter, Beatrix Author V.8 

Powell, Colin Jan 92; Update 93; 

Update 95; Update 01 

Prelutsky, Jack Author V.2 



r\ 

c 



14 



212 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 



presidents 

- Cuba 

Castro, Fidel Jul 92; Update 94 

- Egypt 

Sadat, Anwar WorLdr V.2 

- Ghana 

Nkrumah, Kwame WorLdr V.2 

- Haiti 

Aristide, Jean-Bertrand Jan 95; 

Update 01 

- Iraq 

Hussein, Saddam Jul 92; Update 96; 

Update 01 

- Ireland 

Robinson, Mary Sep 93 

- Kenya 

Kenyatta, Jomo WorLdr V.2 

- Liberia 

Tubman, William V. S WorLdr V.2 

- Malawi 

Banda, Hastings Kamuzu . . . WorLdr V.2 

- Republic of South Africa 

de Klerk, F.W Apr 94; Update 9 

Mandela, Nelson Jan 92; Update 94; 

Update 01 

- Republic of Tanzania 

Nyerere, Julius Kambarage . . WorLdr V.2; 
Update 99 

- Russian Federation 

Yeltsin, Boris Apr 92; Update 93; 

Update 95; Update 96; Update 98; Update 
00 

- Senegal 

Senghor, Leopold Sedar .... WorLdr V.2 

- South Korea 

Kim Dae-jung Sep 01 

- Soviet Union 

Gorbachev, Mikhail Jan 92 

- Uganda 

Amin, Idi WorLdr V.2 

- United States 

Bush, George Jan 92 

Bush, George W Sep 00; Update 00; 

Update 01; Update 02 

Carter, Jimmy Apr 95; Update 02 

Clinton, Bill Jul 92; Update 94; 

Update 95; Update 96; Update 97; Update 
98; Update 99; Update 00; Update 01 
Nixon, Richard Sep 94 

- Yugoslavia 

Milosevic, Slobodan .... Sep 99; Update 
00; Update 01; Update 02 



- Zaire 



Mobutu Sese Seko. . 




.WorLdr V.2; 


Update 97 

- Zambia 


Kaunda, Kenneth . 




.WorLdr V.2 


- Zimbabwe 


Mugabe, Robert . . . 




.WorLdr V.2 


Priestley, Jason 




Apr 92 


prime ministers 
- Israel 


Rabin, Yitzhak 


. . Oct 92; Update 93; 


Update 94; Update 95 




- Norway 


Brundtland, Gro Harlem . . . 


. Science V.3 


- Pakistan 


Bhutto, Benazir 


, . Apr 95; Update 99; 


Update 02 


Prinze, Freddie, Jr 




Apr 00 


Probst, Jeff 




Jan 01 


producers 


Barrymore, Drew 




Jan 01 


Carter, Chris 




. . Author V.4 


Chan, Jackie 




. . PerfArt V.l 


Combs, Sean (Puff Daddy) . . . 


Apr 98 


Cousteau, Jacques . . . . 




Jan 93 


Groppe, Laura 




. Science V.5 


Hillenburg, Stephen . . 




. Author V.14 


Jackson, Peter 




.PerfArt V.2 


Jones, Chuck 




, Author V.12 


Jones, Quincy 




.PerfArt V.2 


Lucas, George 


. . Apr 97; Update 02 


Spielberg, Steven 




Jan 94 


VVhedon, Joss 




. . Author V.9 


Williamson, Kevin .... 




. Author V.6 


Puerto Ricans 

see also Hispanics 


Lopez, Charlotte 




Apr 94 


Martin, Ricky 




Jan 00 


Novello, Antonia . . . . 




..... Apr 92 


Puff Daddy 


see Combs, Sean (Puff Daddy) 


Apr 98 


Puffy 


see Combs, Sean (Puff Daddy) 


Apr 98 


Pullman, Philip 




. Author V.9 


Qaddafi, Muammar . . . 




Apr 97 


Qing, Dai 


see Dai Qing 




.WorLdr V.3 


Queen Latifah 




Apr 92 


Quesada, Vicente Fox 


see Fox, Vicente 




Apr 03 



21 5 



213 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Quintanilla, Selena 


see Selena 


Jan 96 


Rabin, Yitzhak 


Oct 92; Update 93; 


Update 94; Update 95 


Radcliffe, Daniel 


Jan 02 


radio 


Hunter-Gault, Charlayne Jan 00 


Limbaugh, Rush 


. Sep 95; Update 02 


Roberts, Cokie 


Apr 95 


rappers 

see music 

Raymond, Usher, IV 


see Usher 


PerfArt V.l 


Reeve, Christopher 


. Jan 97; Update 02 


Reid Banks, Lynne 


Author V.2 


religious leaders 


Aristide, Jean-Bertrand . 


. Jan 95; Update 01 


Chavis, Benjamin 


. Jan 94; Update 94 


Dalai Lama 


Sep 98 


Farrakhan, Louis 


Jan 97 


Jackson, Jesse 


. Sep 95; Update 01 


Pope John Paul II 


Oct 92; Update 94; 


Update 95 


Teresa, Mother 


Apr 98 


Rennison, Louise 


Author V.10 


Reno, Janet 


. Sep 93; Update 98 


representatives 


Abzug, Bella 


Sep 98 


Cheney, Dick 


Jan 02 


Gingrich, Newt 


. Apr 95; Update 99 


Jordan, Barbara 


Apr 96 


Lewis, John 


Jan 03 


Schroeder, Pat 


Jan 97 


Republican Party 


Baker, James 


Oct 92 


Bush, George 


Jan 92 


Bush, George W 


Sep 00; Update 00; 


Update 01; Update 02 


Cheney, Dick 


Jan 02 


Gingrich, Newt 


. Apr 95; Update 99 


Giuliani, Rudolph 


Sep 02 


Nixon, Richard 


Sep 94 


Rice, Anne 


Author V.3 


Rice, Condoleezza 


Apr 02 


Rice, Jerry 


Apr 93 


Richardson, Dot Sport V.2; Update 00 


Richardson, Kevin 


see Backstreet Boys 


Jan 00 


Ride, Sally 


Jan 92 


Riley, Dawn 


Sport V.4 


Rimes, LeAnn 


Jan 98 


Rinaldi, Ann 


Author V.8 



216 



Ringgold, Faith 


Author V.2 


Ripken, Cal, Jr Sport V.l; Update 01 


Risca, Viviana 


Sep 00 


Rivera, Diego 


Artist V.l 


Roba, Fatuma 


Sport V.3 


Roberts, Cokie 


Apr 95 


Roberts, Julia 


Sep 01 


Robinson, David 


Sep 96 


Robinson, Jackie 


Sport V.3 


Robinson, Mary 


Sep 93 


Robison, Emily 




see Dixie Chicks 


PerfArt V.l 


rock climbing 




Allen, Tori 


Sport V.9 


Rockwell, Norman 


Artist V.l 


Roddick, Andy 


Jan 03 


rodeo 




Murray, Ty 


Sport V.7 


Rodman, Dennis 


Apr 96; Update 99 


Rodriguez, Alex 


Sport V.6 


Rodriguez, Eloy 


Science V.2 


Romanians 




Dumitriu, Ioana 


Science V.3 


Nechita, Alexandra .... 


Jan 98 


Risca, Viviana 


Sep 00 


Romero, John 


Science V.8 


Roper, Dee Dee 




see Salt 'N' Pepa 


Apr 95 


Rosa, Emily 


Sep 98 


Rose, Pete 


Jan 92 


Rowan, Carl 


Sep 01 


Rowland, Kelly 




see Destiny's Child 


Apr 01 


Rowling, J. K 


Sep 99; Update 00; 


Update 01; Update 02 




Roy, Patrick 


Sport V.7 


royalty 




Diana, Princess of Wales 


Jul 92; 


Update 96; Update 97; Jan 98 


Haile Selassie 


WorLdr V.2 


Hassan II WorLdr V.2; Update 99 


Hussein, King 


Apr 99 


Rubin, Jamie 


Science V.8 


Rudolph, Wilma 


Apr 95 


running 




Bailey, Donovan 


Sport V.2 


Boulmerka, Hassiba . . . . 


Sport V.l 


Freeman, Cathy 


Jan 01 


Griffith Joyner, Florence 


Sport V.l; 


Update 98 





214 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Johnson, Michael Jan 97; Update 00 

Jones, Marion Sport V.5 

Lewis, Carl Sep 96; Update 97 

Ndeti, Cosmas Sep 95 

Pippig, Uta Sport V.l 

Roba, Fatuma Sport V.3 

Rudolph, Wilma Apr 95 

Runyan, Marla Apr 02 

Webb, Alan Sep 01 

Runyan, Marla Apr 02 

Russians 

Chagall, Marc Artist V.l 

Fedorov, Sergei Apr 94; Update 94 

Gorbachev, Mikhail Jan 92; Update 96 

Nevelson, Louise Artist V.l 

Tartakovsky, Genndy Author V.ll 

Yeltsin, Boris Apr 92; Update 93; 

Update 95; Update 96; Update 98; Update 
00 

Ryan, Nolan Oct 92; Update 93 

Ryan, Pam Munoz Author V.12 

Ryder, Winona Jan 93 

Rylant, Cynthia Author V.l 

Sabin, Albert Science V.l 

Sachar, Louis Author V.6 

Sacks, Oliver Science V.3 

Sadat, Anwar WorLdr V.2 

Sagan, Carl Science V.l 

sailing 

Riley, Dawn Sport V.4 

Sakic, Joe Sport V.6 

Salinger, J.D Author V.2 

Salk, Jonas Jan 94; Update 95 

Salt 'N' Pepa Apr 95 

Sampras, Pete Jan 97; Update 02 

Sanborn, Ryne Sport V.8 

Sanchez Vicario, Arantxa Sport V.l 

Sanders, Barry Sep 95; Update 99 

Sanders, Deion Sport V.l 

Sapp, Warren Sport V.5 

Saro-Wiwa, Ken WorLdr V.l 

Satcher, David Sep 98 

Saudi 

bin Laden, Osama Apr 02 

Savimbi, Jonas WorLdr V.2 

Scarry, Richard Sep 94 

Schroeder, Pat Jan 97 

Schulz, Charles M . . Author V.2; Update 00 

Schwarzkopf, H. Norman Jan 92 

Schwikert, Tasha Sport V.7 



science competitions 

Cohen, Adam Ezra Apr 97 

Lisanti, Mariangela Sep 01 

Patterson, Ryan Science V.7 

Pine, Elizabeth Michele Jan 94 

Risca, Viviana Sep 00 

Rosa, Emily Sep 98 

Rubin, Jamie Science V.8 

Toro, Natalia Sep 99 

Vasan, Nina Science V.7 

scientists 

Alvarez, Luis W Science V.3 

Asimov, Isaac Jul 92 

Askins, Renee WorLdr V.l 

Attenborough, David Science V.4 

Ballard, Robert Science V.4 

Bardeen, John Science V.l 

Barton, Hazel Science V.6 

Berners-Lee, Tim Science V.7 

Bethe, Hans A Science V.3 

Brundtland, Gro Harlem Science V.3 

Calderone, Mary S Science V.3 

Carson, Ben Science V.4 

Carson, Rachel WorLdr V.l 

Collins, Francis Science V.6 

Cordova, France Science V.7 

Cray, Seymour Science V.2 

Earle, Sylvia Science V.l 

Elion, Gertrude Science V.6 

Engelbart, Douglas Science V.5 

Fauci, Anthony S Science V.7 

Fossey, Dian Science V.l 

Galdikas, Birute Science V.4 

Gayle, Helene Science V.8 

Gilbert, Walter Science V.2 

Goodall, Jane Science V.l; Update 02 

Gould, Stephen Jay Science V.2; 

Update 02 

Grandin, Temple Science V.3 

Gwaltney, John Langston Science V.3 

Harris, Bernard Science V.3 

Hawking, Stephen Apr 92 

Healy, Bemadine . . . Science V.l; Update 01 

Hendrickson, Sue Science V.7 

Ho, David Science V.6 

Homer, Jack Science V.l 

Jackson, Shirley Ann Science V.2 

Jemison, Mae Oct 92 

Krim, Mathilde Science V.l 

Kurzweil, Raymond Science V.2 



erIc 



217 



215 




CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Leakey, Louis Science V.l 

Leakey, Mary Science V.l 

Levi-Montalcini, Rita Science V.l 

Love, Susan Science V.3 

Lowman, Meg Science V.4 

Lucid, Shannon Science V.2 

Margulis, Lynn Sep 96 

McClintock, Barbara Oct 92 

Mead, Margaret Science V.2 

Mittermeier, Russell A WorLdr V.l 

Moss, Cynthia WorLdr V.3 

Ocampo, Adriana C Science V.8 

Ochoa, Severo Jan 94 

Oppenheimer, J. Robert Science V.l 

Patrick, Ruth Science V.3 

Pauling, Linus Jan 95 

Ride, Sally Jan 92 

Rodriguez, Eloy Science V.2 

Sabin, Albert Science V.l 

Sacks, Oliver Science V.3 

Sagan, Carl Science V.l 

Salk, Jonas Jan 94; Update 95 

Satcher, David Sep 98 

Tarter, Jill Science V.8 

Thomas, Lewis Apr 94 

Tuttle, Merlin Apr 97 

Villa -Komaroff, Lydia Science V.6 

Warrick, Earl Science V.8 

Watson, James D Science V.l 

Wilson, Edward O Science V.8 

Scieszka, Jon Author V.9 

Scottish 

Muir, John. WorLdr V.3 

screenwriters 

Affleck, Ben Sep 99 

Carter, Chris Author V.4 

Crichton, Michael Author V.5 

Jackson, Peter PerfArt V.2 

Mathison, Melissa Author V.4 

Peet, Bill Author V.4 

Whedon, Joss Author V.9 

Williamson, Kevin Author V.6 

sculptors 
see artists 

Scurry, Briana Jan 00 

Sealfon, Rebecca Sep 97 

Seinfeld, Jerry Oct 92; Update 98 

Selena Jan 96 

Seles, Monica Jan 96 



senators 

Clinton, Hillary Rodham Apr 93; 

Update 94; Update 95; Update 96; Update 
99; Update 00; Update 01 

Dole, Bob Jan 96; Update 96 

Glenn, John Jan 99 

Gore, A1 Jan 93; Update 96; Update 97; 

Update 98; Update 99; Update 00; Update 
01 

McCain, John Apr 00 

Nelson, Gaylord WorLdr V.3 

Nixon, Richard Sep 94 

Sendak, Maurice Author V.2 

Senegalese 

Senghor, Leopold Sedar WorLdr V.2 

Senghor, Leopold Sedar WorLdr V.2 

Serbian 

Milosevic, Slobodan . . . Sep 99; Update 00; 
Update 01; Update 02 

Seuss, Dr Jan 92 

Shabazz, Betty Apr 98 

Shakira PerfArt V.l 

Shakur, Tupac Apr 97 

Shatner, William Apr 95 

Shea, Jim, Jr. Sport V.8 

Shula, Don Apr 96 

Silva, Fabiola da 

see da Silva, Fabiola Sport V.9 

Silverstein, Shel .... Author V.3; Update 99 

Simmons, Ruth Sep 02 

Sinatra, Frank Jan 99 

singers 

see music 

Siskel, Gene Sep 99 

skateboarding 

Hawk, Tony Apr 01 

skating (ice) 

Baiul, Oksana Apr 95 

Blair, Bonnie Apr 94; Update 95 

Harding, Tonya Sep 94 

Hughes, Sarah Jan 03 

Jansen, Dan Apr 94 

Kerrigan, Nancy Apr 94 

Kwan, Michelle Sport V.3; Update 02 

Lipinski, Tara Apr 98 

Ohno, Apolo Sport V.8 

Yamaguchi, Kristi Apr 92 

skating (in-line) 

da Silva, Fabiola Sport V.9 



3 

ERIC 



218 



216 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 



skeleton 



Shea, Jim, Jr 




skiing 


Amman, Simon . . . 


Sport V.8 


Bahrke, Shannon . . 


Sport V.8 


Moseley, Jonny. . . . 


Sport V.8 


Street, Picabo 


Sport V.3 


Sleator, William . . . . 


Author V.ll 


sled-dog racing 


Butcher, Susan .... 


Sport V.l 


Zirkle, Aliy 


Sport V.6 


Small, David 


Author V.10 


Smith, Emmitt 


Sep 94 


Smith, Will 


Sep 94 


Smyers, Karen 


Sport V.4 


Snicket, Lemony. . . . 


Author V.12 


snowboarding 


Clark, Kelly 


Sport V.8 


Dakides, Tara 


Sport V. 7 


Klug, Chris 


Sport V.8 


soccer 


Chastain, Brandi . . . 


. . Sport V.4; Update 00 


Hamm, Mia 


. . Sport V.2; Update 00 


Lalas, Alexi 


Sep 94 


Mathis, Clint 


Apr 03 


Pele 


Sport V.l 


Scurry, Briana 


Jan 00 


softball 


Fernandez, Lisa . . . . 


Sport V.5 


Richardson, Dot . . . , 


. . Sport V.2; Update 00 


Somalian 


Aidid, Mohammed Farah WorLdr V.2 


Sones, Sonya 


Author V.ll 


Soren, Tabitha 


Jan 97 


Sorenstam, Annika . . 


Sport V.6 


Sosa, Sammy 


.... Jan 99; Update 99 


Soto, Gary 


Author V.5 


South Africans 


de Klerk, F.W 


. . . . Apr 94; Update 94 


Mandela, Nelson. . . 


. . . . Jan 92; Update 94; 


Update 01 


Mandela, Winnie . . 


WorLdr V.2 


South Korean 


Pak, Se Ri 


Sport V.4 


Spaniards 


Domingo, Placido . . . 


Sep 95 


Garcia, Sergio 


Sport V.7 


Iglesias, Enrique .... 


Jan 03 


Sanchez Vicario, Arantxa Sport V.l 


Speare, Elizabeth George Sep 95 


Spears, Britney 


Jan 01 



spelling bee competition 



Andrews, Ned 




Guey, Wendy 


Sep 96 


Hooper, Geoff 


Jan 94 


Maxwell, Jody- Anne 


Sep 98 


Sealfon, Rebecca .... 


Sep 97 


Thampy, George. . . . 


Sep 00 


Spelman, Lucy 


Science V.6 


Spencer, Diana 


see Diana, Princess of Wales Jul 92; 


Update 96; Update 97; Jan 98 


Spielberg, Steven. . . . 


. . . Jan 94; Update 94; 


Update 95 


Spinelli, Jerry 


Apr 93 


Spock, Dr. Benjamin. 


. . . Sep 95; Update 98 


sports 


Aaron, Hank 


Sport V.l 


Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem Sport V.l 


Agassi, Andre 


Jul 92 


Aikman, Troy 


. . . Apr 95; Update 01 


Ali, Muhammad .... 


Sport V.2 


Allen, Marcus 


Sep 97 


Allen, Tori 


Sport V.9 


Ammann, Simon . . . 


Sport V.8 


Andretti, Mario 


Sep 94 


Armstrong, Lance. . . . 


. . Sep 00; Update 00; 


Update 01; Update 02 


Ashe, Arthur 


Sep 93 


Bahrke, Shannon . . . , 


Sport V.8 


Bailey, Donovan 


Sport V.2 


Baiul, Oksana 


Apr 95 


Barkley, Charles .... 


. . . Apr 92; Update 02 


Beachley, Layne 


Sport V.9 


Bird, Larry 


. . . Jan 92; Update 98 


Bird, Sue 


Sport V.9 


Blair, Bonnie 


Apr 94 


Bonds, Barry 


Jan 03 


Boulmerka, Hassiba . . 


Sport V.l 


Brady, Tom 


Sport V.7 


Bryant, Kobe 


Apr 99 


Butcher, Susan 


Sport V.l 


Capriati, Jennifer . . . . 


Sport V.6 


Carter, Vince 


Sport V.5; Update 01 


Chamberlain, Wilt . . . 




Chastain, Brandi 


Sport V.4; Update 00 


Clark, Kelly 




Dakides, Tara 


Sport V.7 


Daniel, Beth 




da Silva, Fabiola 


Sport V.9 


Davenport, Lindsay . . 


Sport V.5 


Dayne, Ron 


Apr 00 





217 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 




Devers, Gail Sport V.2 

Dragila, Stacy Sport V.6 

Driscoll, Jean Sep 97 

Dumars, Joe Sport V.3; Update 99 

Dunlap, Alison Sport V.7 

Earnhardt, Dale Apr 01 

Elway, John Sport V.2; Update 99 

Evans, Janet Jan 95 

Evert, Chris Sport V.l 

Ewing, Patrick Jan 95; Update 02 

Favre, Brett Sport V.2 

Fedorov, Sergei Apr 94; Update 94 

Fernandez, Lisa Sport V.5 

Flowers, Vonetta Sport V.8 

Freeman, Cathy Jan 01 

Fu Mingxia Sport V.5 

Garcia, Sergio Sport V.7 

Garnett, Kevin Sport V.6 

George, Eddie Sport V.6 

Gordon, Jeff Apr 99 

Graf, Steffi Jan 92; Update 01 

Granato, Cammi Sport V.8 

Gretzky, Wayne Jan 92; Update 93; 

Update 99 

Griese, Brian Jan 02 

Griffey, Ken, Jr Sport V.l 

Griffith Joyner, Florence Sport V.l; 

Update 98 

Hamm, Mia Sport V.2; Update 00 

Harbaugh, Jim Sport V.3 

Hardaway, Anfemee "Penny" . . . Sport V.2 

Harding, Tonya Sep 94 

Hasek, Dominik Sport V.3 

Hawk, Tony Apr 01 

Hernandez, Livan Apr 98 

Hill, Grant Sport V.l 

Hingis, Martina Sport V.2 

Hogan, Hulk Apr 92 

Holdsclaw, Chamique Sep 00 

Howe, Gordie Sport V.2 

Hughes, Sarah Jan 03 

Iverson, Allen Sport V.7 

Jackson, Bo Jan 92; Update 93 

Jagr, Jaromir Sport V.5 

Jansen, Dan Apr 94 

Jeter, Derek Sport V.4 

Johnson, Jimmy Jan 98 

Johnson, Magic Apr 92; Update 02 

Johnson, Michael Jan 97; Update 00 

Johnson, Randy Sport V.9 

Jones, Marion Sport V.5 



Jordan, Michael Jan 92; Update 93; 

Update 94; Update 95; Update 99; Update 
01 

Joyner-Kersee, Jackie Oct 92; Update 

96; Update 97; Update 98 

Kerrigan, Nancy Apr 94 

Kidd, Jason Sport V.9 

Kiraly, Karch Sport V.4 

Klug, Chris Sport V.8 

Kwan, Michelle Sport V.3; Update 02 

Lalas, Alexi Sep 94 

Lee, Jeanette Apr 03 

Lemieux, Mario Jul 92; Update 93 

LeMond, Greg Sport V.l 

Lewis, Carl Sep 96; Update 97 

Lidstrom, Nicklas Sep 03 

Lipinski, Tara Apr 98 

Lobo, Rebecca Sport V.3 

Lowe, Alex Sport V.4 

Madden, John Sep 97 

Maddux, Greg Sport V.3 

Manning, Peyton Sep 00 

Mantle, Mickey Jan 96 

Marino, Dan Apr 93; Update 00 

Martinez, Pedro Sport V.5 

Mathis, Clint Apr 03 

McGwire, Mark Jan 99; Update 99 

McNabb, Donovan Apr 03 

Messier, Mark Apr 96 

Miller, Shannon Sep 94; Update 96 

Mirra, Dave Sep 02 

Moceanu, Dominique Jan 98 

Montana, Joe Jan 95; Update 95 

Moseley, Jonny Sport V.8 

Moss, Randy Sport V.4 

Muldowney, Shirley Sport V.7 

Murray, Ty Sport V.7 

Navratilova, Martina .... Jan 93; Update 94 

Ndeti, Cosmas Sep 95 

Nicklaus, Jack Sport V.2 

Ohno, Apolo Sport V.8 

Olajuwon, Hakeem Sep 95 

O'Neal, Shaquille Sep 93 

Otto, Sylke Sport V.8 

Pak, Se Ri Sport V.4 

Payton, Walter Jan 00 

Pele Sport V.l 

Petty, Richard Sport V.2 

Pippen, Scottie Oct 92 

Pippig, Uta Sport V.l 

Rice, Jerry Apr 93 



ERiC 



220 



218 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Richardson, Dot Sport V.2; Update 00 

Riley, Dawn Sport V.4 

Ripken, Cal, Jr Sport V.l; Update 01 

Roba, Fatuma Sport V.3 

Robinson, David Sep 96 

Robinson, Jackie Sport V.3 

Roddick, Andy Jan 03 

Rodman, Dennis Apr 96; Update 99 

Rodriguez, Alex Sport V.6 

Rose, Pete Jan 92 

Roy, Patrick Sport V.7 

Rudolph, Wilma Apr 95 

Runyan, Marla Apr 02 

Ryan, Nolan Oct 92; Update 93 

Sakic, Joe Sport V.6 

Sampras, Pete Jan 97; Update 02 

Sanchez Vicario, Arantxa Sport V.l 

Sanders, Barry Sep 95; Update 99 

Sanders, Deion Sport V.l 

Sapp, Warren Sport V.5 

Schwikert, Tasha Sport V.7 

Scurry, Briana Jan 00 

Seles, Monica Jan 96 

Shea, Jim, Jr Sport V.8 

Shula, Don Apr 96 

Smith, Emmitt Sep 94 

Smyers, Karen Sport V.4 

Sorenstam, Annika Sport V.6 

Sosa, Sammy Jan 99; Update 99 

Stewart, Kordell Sep 98 

Stewart, Tony Sport V.9 

Stiles, Jackie Sport V.6 

Stockton, John Sport V.3 

Street, Picabo Sport V.3 

Summitt, Pat Sport V.3 

Swoopes, Sheryl Sport V.2 

Thompson, Jenny Sport V.5 

Van E>yken, Amy .... Sport V.3; Update 00 

Ventura, Jesse Apr 99; Update 02 

Vernon, Mike Jan 98; Update 02 

Vick, Michael Sport V.9 

Ward, Charlie Apr 94 

Warner, Kurt Sport V.4 

Webb, Alan Sep 01 

Webb, Karrie Sport V.5; Update 01; 

Update 02 

Weinke, Chris Apr 01 

White, Reggje Jan 98 

Williams, Serena .... Sport V.4; Update 00; 

Update 02 



Williams, Ted 


Sport V.9 


Williams, Venus 


, Jan 99; Update 00; 


Update 01; Update 02 


Willingham, Tyrone . . . . 


Sep 02 


Winfield, Dave 


Jan 93 


Woods, Tiger Sport V.l; Update 00; 


Sport V.6 


Yamaguchi, Kristi 


Apr 92 


Yao Ming 


Sep 03 


Yelas, Jay 


Sport V.9 


Young, Steve 


. Jan 94; Update 00 


Yzerman, Steve 


Sport V.2 


Zirkle, Aliy 


Sport V.6 


Zmeskal, Kim 


Jan 94 


Stachowski, Richie 


Science V.3 


Stanford, John 


Sep 99 


Stefani, Gwen 


Sep 03 


Steinem, Gloria 


Oct 92 


Stem, Isaac 


PerfArt V.l 


Stewart, Kordell 


Sep 98 


Stewart, Patrick 


Jan 94 


Stewart, Tony 


Sport V.9 


Stiles, Jackie 


Sport V.6 


Stiles, Julia 


PerfArt V.2 


Stine, R.L 


Apr 94 


Stockman, Shawn 


see Boyz II Men 


Jan 96 


Stockton, John 


Sport V.3 


Strasser, Todd 


Author V.7 


Street, Picabo 


Sport V.3 


Strug, Kerri 


Sep 96 


Summitt, Pat 


Sport V.3 


Supreme Court 


Blackmun, Harry 


Jan 00 


Burger, Warren 


Sep 95 


Ginsburg, Ruth Bader . . 


Jan 94 


Marshall, Thurgood .... 


. Jan 92; Update 93 


O'Connor, Sandra Day . 


Jul 92 


Thomas, Clarence 


Jan 92 


surfer 


Beachley, Layne 


Sport V.9 


Suzuki, Shinichi 


Sep 98 


Swanson, Janese 


Science V.4 


Swedish 


Lidstrom, Nicklas 


Sep 03 


Lindgren, Astrid 


Author V.13 


Sorenstam, Annika .... 


Sport V.6 



swimming 

Evans, Janet Jan 95; Update 96 

Thompson, Jenny Sport V.5 

Van Dyken, Amy .... Sport V.3; Update 00 



221 



219 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Swiss 



Ammann, Simon 


Sport V.8 


Swoopes, Sheryl 


Sport V.2 


Taiwanese 




Ho, David 


Science V.6 


Tan, Amy 


Author V.9 


Tanzanian 




Nyerere, Julius Kambarage . . . WorLdr V.2; 


Update 99 




Tarbox, Katie 


Author V. 10 


Tartakovsky, Genndy . . 


AuthorV.il 


Tartar 




Nureyev, Rudolph .... 


Apr 93 


Tarter, Jill 


Science V.8 


Tarvin, Herbert 


Apr 97 


Taylor, Mildred D 


Author V.l; 


Update 02 




Taymor, Julie 


PerfArt V.l 


teachers 




see educators 




television 




Aba, Jessica 


Sep 01 


Allen, Tim 


. Apr 94; Update 99 


Aley, Kirstie 


Jul 92 


Amanpour, Christiane . 


Jan 01 


Anderson, Gillian 


Jan 97 


Aniston, Jennifer 


Apr 99 


Anold, Roseanne 


Oct 92 


Attenborough, David . 


Science V.4 


Banks, Tyra 


PerfArt V.2 


Bergen, Candice 


Sep 93 


Bialik, Mayim 


Jan 94 


Blanchard, Rachel 


Apr 97 


Bledel, Aexis 


Jan 03 


Brandis, Jonathan 


Sep 95 


Brandy 


Apr 96 


Bryan, Zachery Ty . . . . 


Jan 97 


Burke, Chris 


Sep 93 


Burns, Ken 


Jan 95 


Bynes, Amanda 


Sep 03 


Cameron, Candace . . . . 


Apr 95 


Campbell, Neve 


Apr 98 


Candy, John 


Sep 94 


Carter, Chris 


Author V.4 


Carvey, Dana 


Jan 93 


Chung, Connie 


. Jan 94; Update 95; 


Update 96 




Clarkson, Kelly 


Jan 03 


Cosby, Bill 


Jan 92 


Cousteau, Jacques .... 


Jan 93 


Crawford, Cindy 


Apr 93 



220 

222 



Crichton, Michael Author V.5 

Daly, Carson Apr 00 

Doherty, Shannen Apr 92; Update 94 

Duchovny, David Apr 96 

Duff, Hilary Sep 02 

Ellerbee, Linda Apr 94 

Fuentes, Daisy Jan 94 

Garth, Jennie Apr 96 

Gellar, Sarah Michelle Jan 99 

Gilbert, Sara Apr 93 

Goldberg, Whoopi Apr 94 

Goodman, John Sep 95 

Groening, Matt Jan 92 

Gumbel, Bryant Apr 97 

Guy, Jasmine Sep 93 

Hart, Melissa Joan Jan 94 

Hewitt, Jennifer Love Sep 00 

Holmes, Katie Jan 00 

Hunter-Gault, Charlayne Jan 00 

Irwin, Steve Science V.7 

Jennings, Peter Jul 92 

Jones, Quincy PerfArt V.2 

Leno, Jay Jul 92 

Letterman, David Jan 95 

Lewis, Shari Jan 99 

Limbaugh, Rush Sep 95; Update 02 

Locklear, Heather Jan 95 

Lopez, George PerfArt V.2 

Mac, Bernie PerfArt V.l 

Madden, John Sep 97 

Muniz, Frankie Jan 01 

Nye, Bill Science V.2 

O'Donnell, Rosie Apr 97; Update 02 

Oleynik, Larisa Sep 96 

Olsen, Ashley Sep 95 

Olsen, Mary Kate Sep 95 

Pauley, Jane Oct 92 

Perry, Luke Jan 92 

Priestley, Jason Apr 92 

Probst, Jeff Jan 01 

Roberts, Cokie Apr 95 

Sagan, Carl Science V.l 

Seinfeld, Jerry Oct 92; Update 98 

Shatner, William Apr 95 

Siskel, Gene Sep 99 

Smith, Will Sep 94 

Soren, Tabitha Jan 97 

Stewart, Patrick Jan 94 

Tartakovsky, Genndy Author V.ll 

Thiessen, Tiffani-Amber Jan 96 

Thomas, Jonathan Taylor Apr 95 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Vidal, Christina PerfArtV.l 

Walters, Barbara Sep 94 

Watson, Barry Sep 02 

Wayans, Keenen Ivory Jan 93 

Whedon, Joss Author V.9 

White, Jaleel Jan 96 

Williams, Robin Apr 92 

Williamson, Kevin Author V.6 

Winfrey, Oprah Apr 92; Update 00 

Zamora, Pedro Apr 95 

tennis 

Agassi, Andre Jul 92 

Ashe, Arthur Sep 93 

Capriati, Jennifer Sport V.6 

Davenport, Lindsay Sport V.5 

Evert, Chris Sport V.l 

Graf, Steffi Jan 92; Update 01 

Hingis, Martina Sport V.2 

Navratilova, Martina .... Jan 93; Update 94 

Roddick, Andy Jan 03 

Sampras, Pete Jan 97; Update 02 

Sanchez Vicario, Arantxa Sport V.l 

Seles, Monica Jan 96 

Williams, Serena .... Sport V.4; Update 00; 
Update 02 

Williams, Venus Jan 99; Update 00; 

Update 01; Update 02 

Tenzin Gyatso 

see Dalai Lama Sep 98 

Teresa, Mother Apr 98 

Thampy, George Sep 00 

Thiessen, Tiffani-Amber Jan 96 

Thomas, Clarence Jan 92 

Thomas, Dave Apr 96; Update 02 

Thomas, Jonathan Taylor Apr 95 

Thomas, Lewis Apr 94 

Thompson, Jenny Sport V.5 

Tibetan 

Dalai Lama Sep 98 

Timberlake, Justin 

see *N Sync Jan 01 

Tolan, Stephanie S Author V. 14 

Tolkien, J.R.R Jan 02 

Tompkins, Douglas WorLdr V.3 

Toro, Natalia Sep 99 

track 

Bailey, Donovan Sport V.2 

Devers, Gail Sport V.2 

Dragila, Stacy Sport V.6 

Griffith Joyner, Florence Sport V.l; 

Update 98 



Freeman, Cathy Jan 01 

Johnson, Michael Jan 97; Update 00 

Jones, Marion Sport V.5 

Joyner-Kersee, Jackie Oct 92; Update 

96; Update 97; Update 98 



Lewis, Carl 


Sep 96; Update 97 


Rudolph, Wilma 


Apr 95 


Runyan, Marla 


Apr 02 


Travers, P.L 


Author V.2 


triathalon 


Smyers, Karen 


Sport V.4 


Trinidadian 


Guy, Rosa 


Author V.9 


Tubman, William V. S. . 


WorLdr V.2 


Tucker, Chris 


Jan 01 


Tuttle, Merlin 


Apr 97 


Twain, Shania 


Apr 99 


Uchida, Mitsuko 


Apr 99 


Ugandan 


Amin, Idi 


WorLdr V.2 


Ukrainians 


Baiul, Oksana 


Apr 95 


Stem, Isaac 


PerfArt V.l 


United Nations 
- Ambassadors to 


Albright, Madeleine . . 


Apr 97 


Bush, George 


Jan 92 


- Secretaries General 


Annan, Kofi 


, Jan 98; Update 01 


Boutros-Ghali, Boutros 


Apr 93; 


Update 98 

United States 
- Attorney General 


Reno, Janet 


Sep 93; Update 98 


- Centers for Disease Control 


Gayle, Helene 


Science V.8 


- First Ladies 


Bush, Barbara 


Jan 92 



ERIC 



Bush, Laura Apr 03 

Clinton, Hillary Rodham Apr 93; 

Update 94; Update 95; Update 96; Update 
99; Update 00; Update 01 

- Joint Chiefs of Staff, Chairman 

Powell, Colin Jan 92; Update 93; 

Update 95; Update 01 

- National Institutes of Health 

Collins, Francis Science V.6 

Fauci, Anthony S Science V.7 

Healy, Bernadine Science V.l; 

Update 01 

OOO 



221 




CUMULATIVE INDEX 





National Security Advisor 

Rice, Condoleezza Apr 02 

Nuclear Regulatory Commission 

Jackson, Shirley Ann Science V.2 

Presidents 

Bush, George Jan 92 

Bush, George W Sep 00; Update 00; 

Update 01; Update 02 

Carter, Jimmy Apr 95; Update 02 

Clinton, BUI Jul 92; Update 94; 

Update 95; Update 96; Update 97; Update 
98; Update 99; Update 00; Update 01 

Nixon, Richard Sep 94 

Secretary of Commerce 

Brown, Ron Sep 96 

Secretary of Defense 
Cheney, Dick Jan 02 

- Secretary of Housing and 
Urban Development 

Cisneros, Henry Sep 93 

- Secretary of Interior 

Babbitt, Bruce Jan 94 

- Secretary of Labor 

Dole, Elizabeth Hanford Jul 92; 

Update 96; Update 99 

- Secretaries of State 

Albright, Madeleine Apr 97 

Baker, James Oct 92 

- Secretary of Transportation 

Dole, Elizabeth Jul 92; Update 96; 

Update 99 

- Secretary of Treasury 

Baker, James Oct 92 

- Senate Majority Leader 

Dole, Bob Jan 96; Update 96 

- Speaker of the House of 
Representatives 

Gingrich, Newt Apr 95; Update 99 

- Supreme Court Justices 

Blackmun, Harry Jan 00 

Burger, Warren Sep 95 

Ginsburg, Ruth Bader Jan 94 

Marshall, Thurgood ... Jan 92; Update 93 

O'Connor, Sandra Day Jul 92 

Thomas, Clarence Jan 92 

- Surgeons General 

Carmona, Richard Science V.8 

Novello, Antonia Apr 92; Update 93 

Satcher, David Sep 98 

- Vice-Presidents 

Bush, George Jan 92 

224 



Cheney, Dick Jan 02 

Gore, A1 Jan 93; Update 96; 

Update 97; Update 98; Update 99; Up- 
date 00; Update 01 

Nixon, Richard Sep 94 

Usher PerfArt V.l 

Van Allsburg, Chris Apr 92 

Van Draanen, Wendelin Author V.ll 

Van Dyken, Amy Sport V.3; Update 00 

Van Meter, Vicki Jan 95 

Vasan, Nina Science V.7 

Ventura, Jesse Apr 99; Update 02 

Vernon, Mike Jan 98; Update 02 

veterinarians 

Herriot, James Author V.l 

Spelman, Lucy Science V.6 

Vice-Presidents 

Bush, George Jan 92 

Cheney, Dick Jan 02 

Gore, A1 Jan 93; Update 96; 

Update 97; Update 98; Update 99; Update 
00; Update 01 

Nixon, Richard Sep 94 

Vick, Michael Sport V.9 

Vidal, Christina PerfArt V.l 

Villa-Komaroff, Lydia Science V.6 

Vincent, Mark 

see Diesel, Vin Jan 03 

Voigt, Cynthia Oct 92 

volleyball 

Kiraly, Karch Sport V.4 

Vonnegut, Kurt, Jr Author V.l 

Wa, Ka Hsaw 

see Ka Hsaw Wa WorLdr V.3 

Walters, Barbara Sep 94 

Wang, An Science V.2 

Ward, Charlie Apr 94 

Ward, Lloyd D Jan 01 

Warhol, Andy Artist V.l 

Warner, Kurt Sport V.4 

Warrick, Earl Science V.8 

Washington, Denzel .... Jan 93; Update 02 

Watson, Barry Sep 02 

Watson, Emma Apr 03 

Watson, James D Science V.l 

Watson, Paul WorLdr V.l 

Watterson, Bill Jan 92 

Wayans, Keenen Ivory Jan 93 

Webb, Alan Sep 01 

Webb, Karrie Sport V.5; Update 01; 

Update 02 



222 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 



Weinke, Chris 


Apr 01 


Woods, Tiger 


Sport V.l; Update 00; 


Werbach, Adam 


WorLdrV.l 


Sport V.6 




Whedon, Joss 




Woodson, Jacqueline 


Author V.7; 


White, E.B 




Update 01 




White, Jaieei 




World Wide Web 




White, Reggie 


Jan 98 


see Internet 




White, Ruth 


AuthorV.il 


Wortis, Avi 




Whitestone, Heather . . . 


. Apr 95; Update 02 


see Avi 


Jan 93 


Whitman, Meg 


Sep 03 


Wozniak, Steve 


Science V.5 


Wilder, Laura Ingalls. . . 


Author V.3 


Wrede, Patricia C 




WilderBrathwaite, Gloria Science V.7 


wrestling 




Williams, Garth 


Author V.2 


Hogan, Hulk 


Apr 92 


Williams, Michelle 




Ventura, Jesse 


. . . Apr 99; Update 02 


see Destiny's Child 


Apr 01 


Wright, Frank Lloyd . 


Artist V.l 


Williams, Robin 


Apr 92 


Wright, Richard 


Author V.5 


Williams, Serena .... Sport V.4; Update 00; 


Yamaguchi, Kristi . . . 


Apr 92 


Update 02 




Yao Ming 


Sep 03 


Williams, Ted 


Sport V.9 


Yelas, Jay 


Sport V.9 


Williams, Venus 


. Jan 99; Update 00; 


Yeltsin, Boris 


. . Apr 92; Update 93; 


Update 01; Update 02 




Update 95; Update 96; Update 98; Update 00 


Williamson, Kevin 


Author V.6 


Yep, Laurence 


Author V.5 


Willingham, Tyrone . . . 


Sep 02 


Yolen, Jane 


Author V.7 


Wilson, August 


Author V.4 


Young, Steve 


. . . Jan 94; Update 00 


Wilson, Edward O 




Yzerman, Steve 


Sport V.2 


Wilson, Mara 


Jan 97 


Zairian 


Winans, CeCe 


Apr 00 


Mobutu Sese Seko . . . 


WorLdr V.2; 


Winfield, Dave 


Jan 93 


Update 97 




Winfrey, Oprah 


. Apr 92; Update 00 


Zambian 




Winslet, Kate 


Sep 98 


Kaunda, Kenneth . . . 


WorLdr V.2 


Witherspoon, Reese . . . . 


Apr 03 


Zamora, Pedro 


Apr 95 


Wojtyla, Karol Josef 




Zimbabwean 


see John Paul II 


Oct 92; Update 94; 


Mugabe, Robert 


WorLdr V.2 


Update 95 




Zindel, Paul Author V.l; Update 02 


Wolf, Hazel 


WorLdr V.3 


Zirkle, Aliy 


Sport V.6 


Wolff, Virginia Euwer . 


Author V.13 


Zmeskal, Kim 


Jan 9 


Wood, Elijah 


Apr 02 





Places of Birth Index 



The following index lists the places of birth for the individuals profiled in Biography Today. 
Places of birth are entered under state, province, and/or country. 



Alabama 

Aaron, Hank - Mobile Sport V.l 

Allen, Tori - Auburn Sport V.9 

Barkley, Charles - Leeds Apr 92 

Flowers, Vonetta - Birmingham . . Sport V.8 

Fuller, Millard - Lanett Apr 03 

Hamm, Mia - Selma Sport V.2 

Hurston, Zora Neale 

- Notasulga Author V.6 

Jackson, Bo - Bessemer Jan 92 

Jemison, Mae - Decatur Oct 92 

Johnson, Angela - Tuskegee .... Author V.6 

Johnson, Lonnie - Mobile Science V.4 

Lee, Harper - Monroeville Author V.9 

Lewis, Carl - Birmingham Sep 96 

Lewis, John - Pike County Jan 03 

Parks, Rosa - Tuskegee Apr 92 

Rice, Condoleezza - Birmingham . . . Apr 02 

Satcher, David - Anniston Sep 98 

Whitestone, Heather - Dothan Apr 95 

Wilson, Edward O. 

- Birmingham Science V.8 

Alaska 

Brooks, Vincent -Anchorage Sep 03 

Algeria 

Boulmerka, Hassiba 

- Constantine Sport V.l 

Angola 

Savimbi, Jonas - Munhango . . . WorLdr V.2 

Arizona 

Chavez, Cesar - Yuma Sep 93 

Chavez, Julz - Yuma Sep 02 

Farmer, Nancy - Phoenix Author V.6 

Morrison, Sam - Flagstaff. Sep 97 

Murray, Ty - Phoenix Sport V.7 

Strug, Kerri - Tucson Sep 96 

Arkansas 

Bates, Daisy - Huttig Apr 00 

Clinton, Biil - Hope Jul 92 



Clinton, Chelsea - Little Rock Apr 96 

Grisham, John - Jonesboro Author V.l 

Johnson, John - Arkansas City Jan 97 

Pippen, Scottie - Hamburg Oct 92 

Australia 

Beachley, Layne - Sydney Sport V.9 

Freeman, Cathy - Mackay, 

Queensland Jan 01 

Irwin, Steve - Victoria Science V.7 

Norman, Greg - Mt. Isa, Queensland Jan 94 
Travers, P.L. - Maryborough, 

Queensland Author V.2 

Webb, Karri e-Ayr, Queensland . . Sport V.5 
Bosnia-Herzogovina 

Filipovic, Zlata - Sarajevo Sep 94 

Brazil 

da Silva, Fabiola - Sao Paulo Sport V.9 

Mendes, Chico - Xapuri, Acre. . WorLdr V.l 
Pele - Tres Coracoe s, 

Minas Gerais Sport V.l 

Bulgaria 

Christo - Gabrovo Sep 96 

Burma 

Aung San Suu Kyi - Rangoon Apr 96 

Ka Hsaw Wa - Rangoon WorLdr V.3 

California 

Abdul, Paula - Van Nuys Jan 92 

Adams, Ansel - San Francisco .... Artist V.l 

Affleck, Ben - Berkeley Sep 99 

Aikman, Troy - West Covina Apr 95 

Alba, Jessica - Pomona Sep 01 

Allen, Marcus - San Diego Sep 97 

Alvarez, Luis W. - San 

Francisco Science V.3 

Aniston, Jennifer - Sherman Oaks . . . Apr 99 

Babbitt, Bruce - Los Angeles Jan 94 

Bahrke, Shannon - Tahoe City . . . Sport V.8 

Banks, Tyra - Los Angeles PerfArt V.2 

Barrymore, Drew - Los Angeles Jan 01 

Bergen, Candice - Beverly Hills Sep 93 




226 



225 



PLACES OF BIRTH INDEX 



Bialik, Mayim - San Diego Jan 94 

Bonds, Barry - Riverside Jan 03 

Brady, Tom - San Mateo Sport V.7 

Breathed, Berke - Encino Jan 92 

Brower, David - Berkeley WorLdr V.l 

Bynes, Amanda - Thousand Oaks . . . Sep 03 

Cameron, Candace Apr 95 

Carter, Chris - Bellflower Author V.4 

Chastain, Brandi - San Jose Sport V.4 

Coolio - Los Angeles Sep 96 

Dakides, Tara - Mission Viejo .... Sport V.7 
Davenport, Lindsay 

- Palos Verdes Sport V.5 

DiCaprio, Leonardo - Hollywood . . . Apr 98 

Dragila, Stacy - Auburn Sport V.6 

Evans, Janet - Fullerton Jan 95 

Fernandez, Lisa - Long Beach .... Sport V.5 

Fielder, Cecil - Los Angeles Sep 93 

Fields, Debbi - East Oakland Jan 96 

Fossey, Dian - San Francisco . . . Science V.l 
Freedman, Russell 

- San Francisco Author V.14 

Garcia, Jerry - San Francisco Jan 96 

Gilbert, Sara - Santa Monica Apr 93 

Gordon, Jeff - Vallejo Apr 99 

Griffith Joyner, Florence - Los 

Angeles Sport V.l 

Hammer - Oakland Jan 92 

Hanks, Tom - Concord Jan 96 

Hawk, Tony - San Diego Apr 01 

Jackson, Shirley -San Francisco. .Author V.6 
Jobs, Steven - San Francisco Jan 92; 

Science V.5 

Johnson, Johanna Apr 00 

Johnson, Randy - Walnut Creek . . Sport V.9 

Jones, Marion - Los Angeles Sport V.5 

Kidd, Jason - San Francisco Sport V.9 

Kistler, Darci - Riverside Jan 93 

Kwan, Michelle -Torrance Sport V.3 

LaDuke, Winona - Los Angeles . . WorLdr V.3 

Lasseter, John - Hollywood Sep 00 

Le Guin, Ursula K. - Berkeley. . . Author V.8 

LeMond, Greg - Los Angeles Sport V.l 

Locklear, Heather - Los Angeles Jan 95 

Lopez, George - Mission Hills . . PerfArt V.2 

Lucas, George - Modesto Apr 97 

Mathison, Melissa Author V.4 

McGwire, Mark - Pomona Jan 99 

Moceanu, Dominique - Hollywood . . Jan 98 
Nixon, Joan Lowery - Los 

Angeles Author V.l 



9 o n 



Nixon, Richard - Yorba Linda Sep 94 

Ochoa, Ellen - Los Angeles Apr 01 

O'Dell, Scott - Terminal Island . . Author V.2 

Oleynik, Larisa - San Fancisco Sep 96 

Olsen, Ashley Sep 95 

Olsen, Mary Kate Sep 95 

Prinze, Freddie, Jr. - Los Angeles . . . Apr 00 

Ride, Sally - Encino Jan 92 

Runyan, Marla - Santa Maria Apr 02 

Ryan, Pam Munoz - 

Bakersfield Author V.12 

Snicket, Lemony 

- San Francisco Author V.12 

Soto, Gary - Fresno Author V.5 

Stachowski, Richie Science V.3 

Stefani, Gwen - Fullerton Sep 03 

Swanson, Janese - San Diego . . . Science V.4 

Tan, Amy - Oakland Author V.9 

Thiessen, Tiffini-Amber - Modesto . . . Jan 96 
Werbach, Adam - Tarzana .... WorLdr V.l 

White, Jaleel - Los Angeles Jan 96 

Williams, Ted - San Diego Sport V.9 

Williams, Venus - Lynwood Jan 99 

Wilson, Mara - Burbank Jan 97 

Woods, Tiger - Long Beach Sport V.l, 

Sport V.6 

Wozniak, Steve - San Jose Science V.5 

Yamaguchi, Kristi - Fremont Apr 92 

Yep, Laurence - San Francisco . . Author V.5 

Canada 



Blanchard, Rachel - Toronto, Ontario Apr 97 
Campbell, Neve - Toronto, Ontario . . Apr 98 
Candy, John - Newmarket, Ontario . . Sep 94 
Carrey, Jim - Newmarket, Ontario . . . Apr 96 
Dion, Celine - Charlemagne, Quebec . Sep 97 
Gretzky, Wayne - Brantford, Ontario Jan 92 
Howe, Gordie - Floral, 

Saskatchewan Sport V.2 

Jennings, Peter - Toronto, Ontario . . . . Jul 92 
Johnston, Lynn - Collingwood, 

Ontario Jan 99 

Kielburger, Craig - Toronto, Ontario . . Jan 00 

lang, k.d. - Edmonton, Alberta Sep 93 

Lavigne, Avril - Belleville, 

Ontario PerfArt V.2 

Lemieux, Mario - Montreal, Quebec . . Jul 92 
Martin, Bernard - Petty Harbor, 

Newfoundland WorLdr V.3 

Messier, Mark - Edmonton, Alberta . . Apr 96 
Morissette, Alanis - Ottawa, Ontario Apr 97 
Mowat, Farley - Belleville, 

Ontario Author V.8 



226 



PLACES OF BIRTH INDEX 



Priestley, Jason - Vancouver, 

British Columbia Apr 92 

Roy, Patrick - Quebec City, 

Quebec Sport V.7 

Sakic, Joe - Bumbary, 

British Columbia Sport V.6 

Shatner, William - Montreal, Quebec Apr 95 
Twain, Shania - Windsor, Ontario. . . Apr 99 

Vernon, Mike - Calgary, Alberta Jan 98 

Watson, Paul - Toronto, Ontario. . WorLdr V.l 
Wolf, Hazel - Victoria, 

British Columbia WorLdr V.3 

Yzerman, Steve - Cranbrook, 

British Columbia Sport V.2 

China 

Chan, Jackie - Hong Kong PerfArt V.l 

Dai Qing - Chongqing WorLdr V.3 

Fu Mingxia - Wuhan Sport V.5 

Lucid, Shannon - Shanghai .... Science V.2 
Paterson, Katherine - Qing Jiang, 

Jiangsu Author 97 

Pei, I.M. - Canton Artist V.l 

Wang, An - Shanghai Science V.2 

Yao Ming - Shanghai Sep 03 

Colombia 
Ocampo, Adriana C. 

- Barranquilla Science V.8 

Shakira - Barranquilla PerfArt V.l 

Colorado 

Allen, Tim - Denver Apr 94 

Bryan, Zachery Ty - Aurora Jan 97 

Dunlap, Alison - Denver Sport V.7 

Handler, Ruth - Denver Apr 98 

Klug, Chris - Vail Sport V.8 

Patterson, Ryan - Grand 

Junction Science V.7 

Romero, John 

- Colorado Springs Science V.8 

Stachowski, Richie - Denver. . . Science V.3 

Toro, Natalia - Boulder Sep 99 

Van Dyken, Amy - Englewood . . . Sport V.3 

Connecticut 

Brandis, Jonathan - Danbury Sep 95 

Bush, George W. - New Haven Sep 00 

dePaola, Tomie -Meriden Author V.5 

Land, Edwin - Bridgeport Science V.l 

Leibovitz, Annie - Waterbury Sep 96 

Lobo, Rebecca - Hartford Sport V.3 

McClintock, Barbara - Hartford Oct 92 

Shea, Jim, Jr. - Hartford Sport V.8 

Spelman, Lucy - Bridgeport .... Science V.6 



Spock, Benjamin - New Haven Sep 95 

Tarbox, Katie - New Canaan . . . Author V.10 

Cuba 

Castro, Fidel - Mayari, Oriente Jul 92 

Estefan, Gloria - Havana Jul 92 

Fuentes, Daisy - Havana Jan 94 

Hernandez, Livan - Villa Clara Apr 98 

Zamora, Pedro Apr 95 

Czechoslovakia 

Albright, Madeleine - Prague Apr 97 

Hasek, Dominik - Pardubice Sport V.3 

Hingis, Martina - Kosice Sport V.2 

Jagr, Jaromir - Kladno Sport V.5 

Navratilova, Martina - Prague Jan 93 

Delaware 

Heimlich, Henry - Wilmington . . Science V.6 

Dominican Republic 



Martinez, Pedro - Manoguayabo. . Sport V.5 
Sosa, Sammy -San Pedro de Macoris . . Jan 99 



Egypt 

Arafat, Yasir - Cairo Sep 94 

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros - Cairo Apr 93 

Sadat, Anwar - MitAbu 

al-Kum WorLdr V.2 

England 

Almond, David - Newcastle . . . Author V.10 
Amanpour, Christiane - London .... Jan 01 
Attenborough, David - London . . Science V.4 

Barton, Hazel - Bristol Science V.6 

Berners-Lee, Tim - London .... Science V.7 
Diana, Princess of Wales - Norfolk . . Jul 92; 
Jan 98 

Goodall, Jane - London Science V.l 

Handford, Martin - London Jan 92 

Hargreaves, Alison - Belper Jan 96 

Hawking, Stephen - Oxford Apr 92 

Herriot, James - Sunderland .... Author V.l 

Jacques, Brian - Liverpool Author V.5 

Leakey, Mary - London Science V.l 

Macaulay, David 

- Burton-on-Trent Author V.2 

Moore, Henry - Castleford Artist V.l 

Pottter, Beatrix - London Author V.8 

Pullman, Philip - Norwich Author V.9 

Radcliffe, Daniel - London Jan 02 

Reid Banks, Lynne - London . . . Author V.2 

Rennison, Louise - Leeds Author V.10 

Rowling, J. K - Bristol Sep 99 

Sacks, Oliver - London Science V.3 



228 



227 



PLACES OF BIRTH INDEX 



Stewart, Patrick - Mirfield Jan 94 

Winslet, Kate - Reading Sep 98 

Ethiopia 

Haile Selassie - Ejarsa Goto, 

Harar WorLdr V.2 

Roba, Fatuma - Bokeji Sport V.3 

Florida 

Carter, Aaron - Tampa Sep 02 

Carter, Vince - Daytona Beach. . . . Sport V.5 

Dorough, Howie - Orlando Jan 00 

Evert, Chris - Ft. Lauderdale Sport V.l 

Griese, Brian - Miami Jan 02 

McLean, A.J. - West Palm Beach Jan 00 

Reno, Janet - Miami Sep 93 

Richardson, Dot - Orlando Sport V.2 

Robinson, David - Key West Sep 96 

Rubin, Jamie - Fort Myers Science V.8 

Sanders, Deion - Ft. Myers Sport V.l 

Sapp, Warren - Plymouth Sport V.5 

Smith, Emmitt - Pensacola Sep 94 

Tarvin, Herbert - Miami Apr 97 

France 

Cordova, France - Paris Science V.7 

Cousteau, Jacques - St. Andre-de- 

Cubzac Jan 93 

Ma, Yo-Yo - Paris Jul 92 

Marceau, Marcel - Strasbourg . . PerfArt V.2 
Georgia 

Carter, Jimmy - Plains Apr 95 

Grant, Amy - Augusta Jan 95 

Hogan, Hulk - Augusta Apr 92 

Johns, Jasper - Augusta Artist V.l 

Lee, Spike - Atlanta Apr 92 

Mathis, Clint - Conyers Apr 03 

Roberts, Julia -Atlanta Sep 01 

Robinson, Jackie - Cairo Sport V.3 

Rowland, Kelly - Atlanta Apr 01 

Thomas, Clarence - Pin Point Jan 92 

Tucker, Chris - Decatur Jan 01 

Ward, Charlie - Thomasville Apr 94 

Germany 

Bethe, Hans A. - Strassburg. . . . Science V.3 

Frank, Anne - Frankfort Author V.4 

Galdikas, Birute - Wiesbaden . . . Science V.4 

Graf, Steffi - Mannheim Jan 92 

Otto, Sylke - Karl-Marx Stad 

(Chemnitz) Sport V.8 

Pippig, Uta - Berlin Sport V.l 

Ghana 

Annan, Kofi - Kumasi Jan 98 

Nkrumah, Kwame - Nkrofro. . . WorLdr V.2 



Guatemala 

Menchu, Rigoberta - Chimel, 



El Quiche Jan 93 

Haiti 

Aristide, Jean-Bertrand - Port-Salut. . . Jan 95 

Hawaii 

Case, Steve - Honolulu Science V.5 

Lowry, Lois - Honolulu Author V.4 

Nakamura, Leanne - Honolulu Apr 02 

Tuttle, Merlin - Honolulu Apr 97 

Yelas, Jay - Honolulu Sport V.9 

Holland 
Lionni, Leo - 

Water graafsmeer Author V.6 

Hungary 

Erdos, Paul - Budapest Science V.2 

Idaho 

Street, Picabo - Triumph Sport V.3 

Illinois 

Anderson, Gillian - Chicago Jan 97 

Bauer, Joan - River Forest Author V.10 

Blackmun, Harry - Nashville Jan 00 

Blum, Deborah - Urbana Science V.8 

Boyd, Candy Dawson - Chicago . Author V.3 

Bradbury, Ray - Waukegan Author V.3 

Clinton, Hillary Rodham - Chicago . . Apr 93 

Crawford, Cindy - De Kalb Apr 93 

Crichton, Michael - Chicago. . . . Author V.5 
Cushman, Karen - Chicago .... Author V.5 

Ford, Harrison - Chicago Sep 97 

Garth, Jennie - Urbana Apr 96 

Gorey, Edward - Chicago Author V.13 

Granato, Cammi - 

Downers Grove Sport V.8 

Greenburg, Dan - Chicago .... Author V.14 
Hansberry, Lorraine - Chicago. . Author V.5 
Hendrickson, Sue - Chicago . . . Science V.7 

Jones, Quincy - Chicago PerfArt V.2 

Joyner-Kersee, Jackie - East 

St. Louis Oct 92 

Mac, Bernie - Chicago PerfArt V.l 

Margulis, Lynn - Chicago Sep 96 

McCully, Emily Arnold - Galesburg . . Jul 92 
McGruder, Aaron - Chicago . . . Author V.10 

McNabb, Donovan - Chicago Apr 03 

Park, Linda Sue - Urbana Author V.12 

Peck, Richard - Decatur Author V.10 

Silverstein, Shel - Chicago Author V.3 

Siskel, Gene - Chicago Sep 99 

Van Draanen, Wendelin - 
Chicago AuthorV.il 



228 



229 



PLACES OF BIRTH INDEX 



Watson, James D. - Chicago . . . Science V.l 

Williams, Michelle - Rockford Apr 01 

Wrede, Patricia C. - Chicago . . . Author V.7 

Indiana 

Bird, Larry - West Baden Jan 92 

Cabot, Meg - Bloomington .... Author V.12 

Davis, Jim - Marion Author V.l 

Letterman, David - Indianapolis Jan 95 

Naylor, Phyllis Reynolds - Anderson Apr 93 

Pauley, Jane - Indianapolis Oct 92 

Peet, Bill - Grandview Author V.4 

Stewart, Tony - Rushville Sport V.9 

Vonnegut, Kurt - Indianapolis . . Author V.l 
Iowa 

Benson, Mildred - Ladora Jan 03 

Leopold, Aldo - Burlington .... WorLdr V.3 

Warner, Kurt - Burlington Sport V.4 

Wood, Elijah - Cedar Rapids Apr 02 

Iraq 

Hussein, Saddam - al-Auja Jul 92 

Ireland, Northern 

Lewis, C. S. - Belfast Author V.3 

Ireland, Republic of 

Colfer, Eoin - Wexford Author V.13 

Flannery, Sarah - Blarney, 

County Cork Science V.5 

Robinson, Mary - Ballina Sep 93 

Israel 

Perlman, Itzhak - Tel Aviv Jan 95 

Portman, Natalie -Jerusalem Sep 99 

Rabin, Yitzhak - Jerusalem Oct 92 

Italy 

Andretti, Mario - Montona Sep 94 

Krim, Mathilde - Como Science V.l 

Levi-Montalcini, Rita - Turin . . Science V.l 

Jamaica 

Ashley, Maurice - St. Andrew Sep 99 

Bailey, Donovan - Manchester . . . Sport V.2 

Denton, Sandi - Kingston Apr 95 

Ewing, Patrick - Kingston Jan 95 

Maxwell, Jody- Anne - St. Andrew . . Sep 98 
Japan 

Miyamoto, Shigeru - Sonobe . . . Science V.5 

Morita, Akio - Kasugaya Science V.4 

Suzuki, Shinichi - Nagoya Sep 98 

Uchida, Mitsuko - Tokyo Apr 99 

Jordan 

Hussein, King -Amman Apr 99 

Kansas 

Alley, Kirstie - Wichita Jul 92 

Ballard, Robert - Wichita Science V.4 



Brooks, Gwendolyn - Topeka. . . Author V.3 

Dole, Bob - Russell Jan 96 

Parks, Gordon - Fort Scott Artist V.l 

Patrick, Ruth Science V.3 

Probst, Jeff - Wichita Jan 01 

Sanders, Barry - Wichita Sep 95 

Stiles, Jackie - Kansas City Sport V.6 

Kentucky 

Ali, Muhammad - Louisville Sport V.2 

Littrell, Brian - Lexington Jan 00 

Monroe, Bill - Rosine Sep 97 

Morgan, Garrett - Paris Science V.2 

Richardson, Kevin - Lexington Jan 00 

Kenya 

Leakey, Louis - Nairobi Science V.l 

Kenyatta, Jomo - Ngenda WorLdr V.2 

Maathai, Wangari - Nyeri WorLdr V.l 

Ndeti, Cosmas - Machakos Sep 95 

Liberia 

Tubman, William V. S. 

- Harper City WorLdr V.2 

Libya 

Qaddafi, Muammar Apr 97 

Louisiana 

Dumars, Joe - Natchitoches Sport V.3 

Gumbel, Bryant - New Orleans Apr 97 

Kapell, Dave - Leesville Science V.8 

Manning, Peyton - New Orleans .... Sep 00 
Marsalis, Wynton - New Orleans . . . Apr 92 

Rice, Anne - New Orleans Author V.3 

Roberts, Cokie - New Orleans Apr 95 

Spears, Britney - Kentwood Jan 01 

Stewart, Kordell - Marrero Sep 98 

Witherspoon, Reese - New Orleans . . Apr 03 
Macedonia 

Teresa, Mother - Skopje Apr 98 

Maine 

King, Stephen - Portland Author V.l 

Malawi 

Banda, Hastings Kamuzu 

- Chiwengo, Nyasaland WorLdr V.2 

Maryland 

Atwater-Rhodes, Amelia 

- Silver Spring Author V.8 

Collier, Bryan - Salisbury Author V.ll 

Hesse, Karen - Baltimore Author V.5 

Marshall, Thurgood - Baltimore Jan 92 

Ripken, Cal, Jr. - Havre de Grace. . Sport V.l 
Sleator, William 

- Havre de Grace Author V.ll 



Stepanek, Mattie - Upper Marlboro . . Apr 02 



230 



229 



PLACES OF BIRTH INDEX 




Massachusetts 

Bush, George - Milton Jan 92 

Butcher, Susan - Cambridge Sport V.l 

Caplan, Arthur - Boston Science V.6 

Cormier, Robert - Leominister . . Author V.l 
Fanning, Shawn - Brockton .... Science V.5 
Gilbert, Walter - Cambridge. . . . Science V.2 

Grandin, Temple - Boston Science V.3 

Guey, Wendy - Boston Sep 96 

Guy, Jasmine - Boston Sep 93 

Kerrigan, Nancy - Woburn Apr 94 

Krakauer, Jon - Brookline Author V.6 

Lynch, Chris - Boston Author V.13 

Meltzer, Milton - Worcester . . . Author V.ll 
Pine, Elizabeth Michele - Boston .... Jan 94 

Robison, Emily - Pittsfield PerfArt V.l 

Scarry, Richard - Boston Sep 94 

Seuss, Dr. - Springfield Jan 92 

Sones, Sonya - Boston Author V.ll 

Speare, Elizabeth George 

- Melrose Sep 95 

Taymor, Julie - Newton PerfArt V.l 

Thompson, Jenny - Georgetown . . Sport V.5 

Voigt, Cynthia - Boston Oct 92 

Walters, Barbara - Boston Sep 94 

Mexico 

Fox, Vicente - Mexico City . Apr 03 

Jimenez, Francisco - San Pedro, 

Tlaquepaque, Author V.13 

Rivera, Diego - Guanajuato Artist V.l 

Michigan 

Applegate, K.A Jan 00 

Askins, Renee WorLdr V.l 

Canady, Alexa - Lansing Science V.6 

Carson, Ben - Detroit Science V.4 

Curtis, Christopher Paul - Flint Author V.4 
Galeczka, Chris - Sterling Heights . . . Apr 96 

Johnson, Magic - Lansing Apr 92 

Kiraly, Karch -Jackson Sport V.4 

Krone, Julie - Benton Harbor Jan 95 

Lalas, Alexi - Royal Oak Sep 94 

Mohajer, Dineh - Bloomfield Hills . . . Jan 02 

Riley, Dawn - Detroit Sport V.4 

Scieszka, Jon - Flint Author V.9 

Shabazz, Betty - Detroit Apr 98 

Small, David - Detroit Author V.10 

Van Allsburg, Chris - Grand Rapids. . Apr 92 

Ward, Lloyd D. - Romulus Jan 01 

Watson, Barry - Traverse City Sep 02 

Webb, Alan -Ann Arbor Sep 01 



Williams, Serena - Saginaw Sport V.4 

Winans, CeCe - Detroit Apr 00 

Minnesota 

Burger, Warren - St. Paul Sep 95 

Douglas, Marjory Stoneman 

- Minneapolis WorLdr V.l 

Hartnett, Josh - St. Paul Sep 03 

Madden, John - Austin Sep 97 

Mars, Forrest, Sr. - Minneapolis Science V.4 

Murie, Olaus J WorLdr V.l 

Paulsen, Gary - Minneapolis . . . Author V.l 

Ryder, Winona - Winona Jan 93 

Schulz, Charles - Minneapolis . . Author V.2 

Scurry, Briana - Minneapolis Jan 00 

Ventura, Jesse - Minneapolis Apr 99 

Weinke, Chris - St. Paul Apr 01 

Winfield, Dave - St. Paul Jan 93 

Mississippi 

Bass, Lance - Clinton Jan 01 

Brandy - McComb Apr 96 

Favre, Brett - Gulfport Sport V.2 

Forman, Michele - Biloxi Jan 03 

Hill, Faith - Jackson Sep 01 

Jones, James Earl - Arkabutla 

Township Jan 95 

McCarty, Oseola - Wayne County . . . Jan 99 

Payton, Walter - Columbia Jan 00 

Rice, Jerry - Crawford Apr 93 

Rimes, LeAnn -Jackson Jan 98 

Taylor, Mildred D. - Jackson .... Author V.l 

Winfrey, Oprah - Kosciusko Apr 92 

Wright, Richard - Natchez Author V.5 

Missouri 

Angelou, Maya - St. Louis Apr 93 

Champagne, Larry III - St. Louis. . . . Apr 96 

Eminem - Kansas City Apr 03 

Goodman, John - Affton Sep 95 

Heinlein, Robert - Butler Author V.4 

Hughes, Langston -Joplin Author V.7 

Lester, Julius - St. Louis Author V.7 

Limbaugh, Rush - Cape Girardeau . . Sep 95 

Miller, Shannon - Rolla Sep 94 

Nye, Naomi Shihab - St. Louis . . Author V.8 
Montana 

Carvey, Dana - Missoula Jan 93 

Homer, Jack - Shelby Science V.l 

Lowe, Alex - Missoula Sport V.4 

Morocco 

Hassan II - Rabat WorLdr V.2 

Myanmar 
see Burma 





230 



PLACES OF BIRTH INDEX 



Nebraska 

Cheney, Dick - Lincoln Jan 02 

Roddick, Andy - Omaha Jan 03 

Nevada 

Agassi, Andre - Las Vegas Jul 92 

Schwikert, Tasha - Las Vegas .... Sport V.7 

New Hampshire 

Zirkle, Aliy - Manchester Sport V.6 

New Jersey 

Blume, Judy Jan 92 

Carpenter, Mary Chapin 

-Princeton Sep 94 

Clements, Andrew - Camden . . Author V.13 
Dunst, Kirsten - Point Pleasant . . PerfArt V.l 

Earle, Sylvia - Gibbstown Science V.l 

Glover, Savion - Newark Apr 99 

Gwaltney, John Langston - 

Orange Science V.3 

Hill, Lauryn - South Orange Sep 99 

Houston, Whitney - Newark Sep 94 

Ice-T - Newark Apr 93 

Jeter, Derek - Pequannock Sport V.4 

Lawrence, Jacob -Atlantic City . . Artist V.l 
Love, Susan - Long Branch .... Science V.3 

Martin, Ann M. - Princeton Jan 92 

Morrison, Lillian -Jersey City. . Author V.12 

Muniz, Frankie - Ridgewood Jan 01 

O'Neal, Shaquille - Newark Sep 93 

Pinsky, Robert - Long Branch . . Author V.7 

Queen Latifah - Newark Apr 92 

Rodman, Dennis - Trenton Apr 96 

Schwarzkopf, H. Norman - Trenton. . Jan 92 

Sinatra, Frank - Hoboken Jan 99 

Thomas, Dave -Atlantic City Apr 96 

New Mlexico 

Bezos, Jeff - Albuquerque Apr 01 

Foreman, Dave- Albuquerque. . . WorLdrV.l 

Huerta, Dolores - Dawson Sep 03 

Villa-Komaroff, Lydia - 

Las Vegas Science V.6 

New York State 

Aaliyah - Brooklyn Jan 02 

Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem 

- New York City Sport V.l 

Abzug, Bella - Bronx Sep 98 

Aguilera, Christina - Staten Island . . Apr 00 
Anderson, Laurie Halse - 

Potsdam Author V.ll 

Ashanti - Glen Cove PerfArt V.2 

Avi - New York City Jan 93 



Baldwin, James 

- New York City Author V.2 

Bennett, Cherie - Buffalo Author V.9 

Bird, Sue - Syosset Sport V.9 

Blair, Bonnie - Cornwall Apr 94 

Blige, Mary J. - Yonkers Apr 02 

Bourke-White, Margaret 

- New York City Artist V.l 

Brody, Jane - Brooklyn Science V.2 

Brown, Claude 

- New York City Author V.12 

Burke, Chris - New York City Sep 93 

Burns, Ken - Brooklyn Jan 95 

Bush, Barbara - New York City Jan 92 

Calderone, Mary S. 

- New York City Science V.3 

Capriati, Jennifer - Long Island . . . Sport V.6 

Carey, Mariah - New York City Apr 96 

Carle, Eric - Syracuse Author V.l 

Carmona, Richard 

- New York City Science V.8 

Carter, Nick - Jamestown Jan 00 

Cohen, Adam Ezra - New York City Apr 97 

Collins, Eileen - Elmira Science V.4 

Combs, Sean (Puff Daddy) 

- New York City Apr 98 

Cooney, Barbara - Brooklyn .... Author V.8 
Cooney, Caroline B. - Geneva. . . Author V.4 

Coville, Bruce - Syracuse Author V.9 

Cronin, John - Yonkers WorLdr V.3 

Culkin, Macaulay - New York City . . Sep 93 

Danes, Claire - New York City Sep 97 

de Mille, Agnes - New York City .... Jan 95 

Diesel, Vin - New York City Jan 03 

Duchovny, David - New York City . . Apr 96 
Elion, Gertrude 

- New York City Science V.6 

Farrakhan, Louis - Brora Jan 97 

Fatone, Joey - Brooklyn Jan 01 

Fauci, Anthony S. - Brooklyn. . . Science V.7 
Frankenthaler, Helen 

- New York City Artist V.l 

Gayle, Helene - Buffalo Science V.8 

Gellar, Sarah Michelle 

- New York City Jan 99 

Giff, Patricia Reilly - Queens. . . . Author V.7 
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader - Brooklyn .... Jan 94 

Giuliani, Rudolph - Brooklyn Sep 02 

Goldberg, Whoopi 

- New York City Apr 94 





231 



PLACES OF BIRTH INDEX 





Gould, Stephen Jay 

- New York City Science V.2 

Grimes, Nikki 

- New York City Author V.14 

Haley, Alex - Ithaca Apr 92 

Hart, Melissa Joan - Smithtown Jan 94 

Healy, Bernadine - Queens .... Science V.l 

Holdsclaw, Chamique - Queens Sep 00 

Hopper, Grace Murray 

- New York City Science V.5 

Hughes, Sarah - Great Neck Jan 03 

James, Cheryl - New York City Apr 95 

Jones, Norah - New York City . . PerfArt V.2 

Jordan, Michael - Brooklyn Jan 92 

Juster, Norton - Brooklyn Author V.14 

Kamler, Kenneth 

- New York City Science V.6 

Kerr, M.E. - Auburn Author V.l 

Konigsburg, E. L. 

- New York City Author V.3 

Kurzweil, Raymond 

- New York City Science V.2 

Lee, Jeanette - Brooklyn Apr 03 

Lee, Stan - New York City Author V.7 

Lemelson, Jerome - Staten 

Island Science V.3 

L'Engle, Madeleine - New York 

City Jan 92; Apr 01 

Leno, Jay - New Rochelle Jul 92 

Lewis, Shari - New York City Jan 99 

Lipsyte, Robert 

- New York City Author V.12 

Lisanti, Mariangela - Bronx Sep 01 

Lopez, Jennifer - Bronx Jan 02 

Lowman, Meg - Elmira Science V.4 

Mirra, Dave - Syracuse Sep 02 

Mittermeier, Russell A. 

- New York City WorLdr V.l 

Moses, Grandma - Greenwich . . . Artist V.l 

Moss, Cynthia - Ossining WorLdr V.3 

Murphy, Eddie - Brooklyn PerfArt V.2 

O'Donnell, Rosie - Commack Apr 97 

Oppenheimer, J. Robert 

- New York City Science V.l 

Pascal, Francine 

- New York City Author V.6 

Peterson, Roger Tory 

- Jamestown WorLdr V.l 

Pike, Christopher - Brooklyn Sep 96 

Powell, Colin - New York City Jan 92 

Prelutsky, Jack - Brooklyn Author V.2 



Reeve, Christopher - Manhattan .... Jan 97 
Rinaldi, Ann - New York City. . . Author V.8 
Ringgold, Faith - New York City . Author V.2 
Rockwell, Norman 

- New York City Artist V.l 

Rodriguez, Alex - New York City . . Sport V.6 
Roper, Dee Dee - New York City. . . . Apr 95 
Sachar, Louis - East Meadow . . . Author V.6 

Sagan, Carl - Brooklyn Science V.l 

Salinger, J.D. - New York City . . Author V.2 

Salk, Jonas - New York City Jan 94 

Sealfon, Rebecca - New York City . . . Sep 97 

Seinfeld, Jerry - Brooklyn Oct 92 

Sendak, Maurice - Brooklyn Author V.2 

Shakur, Tupac - Bronx Apr 97 

Stiles, Julia - New York City .... PerfArt V.2 
Strasser, Todd - New York City . . Author V.7 

Tarter, Jill - Eastchester Science V.8 

Vidal, Christina - Queens PerfArt V.l 

Washington, Denzel -Mount Vernon . . Jan 93 
Wayans, Keenen Ivory 

- New York City Jan 93 

White, E.B. - Mount Vernon .... Author V.l 
Whitman, Meg - 

Cold Spring Harbor Sep 03 

WilderBrathwaite, Gloria 

- Brooklyn Science V.7 

Williams, Garth - New York City . Author V.2 
Yolen, Jane - New York City .... Author V.7 
Zindel, Paul - Staten Island Author V.l 

New Zealand 

Hillary, Sir Edmund - Auckland .... Sep 96 
Jackson, Peter - Pukerua Bay . . . PerfArt V.2 

Nigeria 

Olajuwon, Hakeem - Lagos Sep 95 

Saro-Wiwa, Ken - Bori, 

Rivers State WorLdr V.l 

North Carolina 

Bearden, Romare - Charlotte Artist V.l 

Burnside, Aubyn - Hickory Sep 02 

Byars, Betsy - Charlotte Author V.4 

Chavis, Benjamin - Oxford Jan 94 

Delany, Bessie - Raleigh Sep 99 

Dole, Elizabeth Hanford - Salisbury . . Jul 92 

Earnhardt, Dale - Kannapolis Apr 01 

Petty, Richard - Level Cross Sport V.2 

Williamson, Kevin - New Bern. . Author V.6 

Willingham, Tyrone - Kinston Sep 02 

Norway 

Brundtland, Gro Harlem 

- Baerum Science V.3 



2 




232 



PLACES OF BIRTH INDEX 



Ohio 

Anderson, Terry - Lorain Apr 92 

Battle, Kathleen - Portsmouth Jan 93 

Berry, Halle - Cleveland Jan 95 

Creech, Sharon - Mayfield 

Heights Author V.5 

Dove, Rita - Akron Jan 94 

Draper, Sharon - Cleveland Apr 99 

Dunbar, Paul Laurence 

- Dayton Author V.8 

Farrell, Suzanne - Cincinnati . . . PerfArt V.l 

Glenn, John - Cambridge Jan 99 

Guisewite, Cathy - Dayton Sep 93 

Haddix, Margaret Peterson 

- Washington Court House . . . Author V.ll 
Hamilton, Virginia - Yellow 



Springs Author V.l, Author V.12 



Hampton, David Apr 99 

Harbaugh, Jim - Toledo Sport V.3 

Holmes, Katie - Toledo Jan 00 

Lin, Maya - Athens Sep 97 

Lovell, Jim - Cleveland Jan 96 

Morrison, Toni - Lorain Jan 94 

Nelson, Marilyn - Cleveland. . . Author V.13 

Nicklaus, Jack - Columbus Sport V.2 

Nielsen, Jerri - Salem Science V.7 

Perry, Luke - Mansfield Jan 92 

Rose, Pete - Cincinnati Jan 92 

Shula, Don - Grand River Apr 96 

Spielberg, Steven - Cincinnati Jan 94 

Steinem, Gloria - Toledo Oct 92 

Stine, R.L. - Columbus Apr 94 

Tolan, Stephanie S. - Canton . . . Author V.14 
Tompkins, Douglas 

- Conneaut WorLdr V.3 

Woodson, Jacqueline 

- Columbus Author V.7 

Oklahoma 

Brooks, Garth - Tulsa Oct 92 

Duke, David - Tulsa Apr 92 

Ellison, Ralph - Oklahoma City . . Author V.3 

Hanson, Ike - Tulsa Jan 98 

Hanson, Taylor - Tulsa Jan 98 

Hanson, Zac - Tulsa Jan 98 

Hill, Anita - Morris Jan 93 

FEUenburg, Stephen - Fort Sill. . Author V.14 

Hinton, S.E. - Tulsa Author V.l 

Mankiller, Wilma - Tahlequah Apr 94 

Mantle, Mickey - Spavinaw Jan 96 

McEntire, Reba -McAlester Sep 95 

Pitt, Brad - Shawnee Sep 9 8 



Oregon 

Cleary, Beverly - McMinnville Apr 94 

Engelbart, Douglas - Portland . . Science V.5 

Groening, Matt - Portland Jan 92 

Harding, Tonya - Portland Sep 94 

Hooper, Geoff - Salem Jan 94 

Pauling, Linus - Portland Jan 95 

Phoenix, River - Madras Apr 94 

Schroeder, Pat - Portland Jan 97 

Wolff, Virginia Euwer 

- Portland Author V.13 

Pakistan 

Bhutto, Benazir - Karachi Apr 95 

Masih, Iqbal Jan 96 

Palestine 

Perlman, Itzhak - Tel Aviv Jan 95 

Rabin, Yitzhak -Jerusalem Oct 92 

Panama 

McCain, John - Panama 
Canal Zone Apr 00 

Pennsylvania 

Abbey, Edward -Indiana WorLdr V.l 



Alexander, Lloyd - Philadelphia. Author V.6 
Anderson, Marian - Philadelphia .... Jan 94 
Armstrong, Robb - Philadelphia . . Author V.9 
Berenstain, Jan - Philadelphia . . Author V.2 
Berenstain, Stan - Philadelphia . Author V.2 

Bradley, Ed - Philadelphia Apr 94 

Bryant, Kobe - Philadelphia Apr 99 

Calder, Alexander - Lawnton .... Artist V.l 
Carson, Rachel - Springdale . . . WorLdr V.l 
Chamberlain, Wilt - Philadelphia . . Sport V.4 

Cosby, Bill Jan 92 

DiCamillo, Kate - Philadelphia . . Author V.10 

Diemer, Walter - Philadelphia Apr 98 

Duncan, Lois - Philadelphia Sep 93 

Hake, Sharon - Philadelphia. . . Author V.13 
Gantos, Jack - Mount Pleasant . . Author V.10 

George, Eddie - Philadelphia Sport V.6 

Gingrich, Newt - Harrisburg Apr 95 

Griffey, Ken, Jr. - Donora Sport V.l 

Iacocca, Lee A. - Allentown Jan 92 

Jamison, Judith - Philadelphia Jan 96 

Kirkpatrick, Chris - Clarion Jan 01 

Lipinski, Tara - Philadelphia Apr 98 

Maguire, Martie - York PerfArt V.l 

Marino, Dan - Pittsburgh Apr 93 

McCary, Michael - Philadelphia Jan 96 

McDaniel, Lurlene - 

Philadelphia Author V.14 



234 




PLACES OF BIRTH INDEX 



Mead, Margaret - Philadelphia . Science V.2 



Montana, Joe - New Eagle Jan 95 

Morris, Nathan - Philadelphia Jan 96 

Morris, Wanya - Philadelphia Jan 96 

Pierce, Tamora - Connellsville . . Author V.13 
Pinkney, Jerry - Philadelphia . . . Author V.2 

Smith, Will - Philadelphia Sep 94 

Smyers, Karen - Cony Sport V.4 

Stanford, John - Darby Sep 99 

Stockman, Shawn - Philadelphia .... Jan 96 
Thomas, Jonathan Taylor 

- Bethlehem Apr 95 

Van Meter, Vicki -Meadville Jan 95 

Warhol, Andy Artist V.l 

Warrick, Earl - Butler Science V.8 

Wilson, August - Pittsburgh .... Author V.4 
Poland 

John Paul II - Wadowice Oct 92 

Opdyke, Irene Gut - Kozienice . . Author V.9 
Sabin, Albert - Bialystok Science V.l 

Puerto Rico 

Lopez, Charlotte Apr 94 

Martin, Ricky - Santurce Jan 00 

Moseley, Jonny - San Juan Sport V.8 

Novello, Antonia - Fajardo Apr 92 

Rhode Island 

Clark, Kelly - Newport Sport V.8 

Gilman, Billy - Westerly Apr 02 

Romania 

Dumitriu, Ioana - Bucharest . . . Science V.3 

Nechita, Alexandra - Vaslui Jan 98 

Risca, Viviana - Bucharest Sep 00 

Russia 

Asimov, Isaac - Petrovichi Jul 92 

Chagall, Marc - Vitebsk Artist V.l 

Fedorov, Sergei - Pskov Apr 94 

Gorbachev, Mikhail - Privolnoye .... Jan 92 

Nevelson, Louise - Kiev Artist V.l 

Nureyev, Rudolf Apr 93 

Tartakovsky, Genndy 

-Moscow Author V.ll 

Yeltsin, Boris - Butka Apr 92 

Saudi Arabia 

bin Laden, Osama - Riyadh Apr 02 

Scotland 

Muir, John - Dunbar WorLdr V.3 

Senegal 



Senghor, Leopold Sedar -Joal . . . WorLdr V.2 

Serbia 

Milosevic, Slobodan - Pozarevac Sep 99 

Seles, Monica - Novi Sad Jan 96 



Somalia 

Aidid, Mohammed Farah WorLdr V.2 

South Africa 

de Klerk, F.W. -Mayfair Apr 94 

Mandela, Nelson - Umtata, Transkei . . Jan 92 
Mandela, Winnie 

- Pondoland, Transkei WorLdr V.2 

Tolkien, J.R.R. - Bloemfontein Jan 02 

South Carolina 

Childress, Alice - Charleston . . . Author V.l 

Daniel, Beth - Charleston Sport V.l 

Edelman, Marian Wright 

- Bennettsville Apr 93 

Garnett, Kevin - Greenville Sport V.6 

Gillespie, Dizzy - Cheraw Apr 93 

Hunter-Gault, Charlayne 

- Due West Jan 00 

Jackson, Jesse - Greenville Sep 95 

South Dakota 

GrandPre, Mary - Aberdeen . . . Author V. 14 

South Korea 

An Na Author V.12 

Kim Dae-jung - Hugwang Sep 01 

Pak, Se Ri - Daejeon Sport V.4 

Spain 

Domingo, Placido - Madrid Sep 95 

Garcia, Sergio - Castellon Sport V.7 

Iglesias, Enrique - Madrid Jan 03 

Ochoa, Severo - Luarca Jan 94 

Sanchez Vicario, Arantxa 

- Barcelona Sport V.l 

Sweden 

Lidstrom, Nicklas - Vaster as Sep 03 

Lindgren, Astrid - Vimmerby . . Author V.13 
Sorenstam, Annika - Stockholm . . . Sport V.6 

Taiwan 

Ho, David - Taichung Science V.6 

Tanzania 

Nyerere, Julius Kambarage .... WorLdr V.2 

Tennessee 

Andrews, Ned - Oakridge Sep 94 

Doherty, Shannen - Memphis Apr 92 

Fitzhugh, Louise - Memphis . . . . Author V.3 

Franklin, Aretha - Memphis Apr 01 

Hardaway, Anfemee "Penny" 

- Memphis Sport V.2 

McKissack, Fredrick L. 

- Nashville Author V.3 



McKissack, Patricia C. - Smyrna . Author V.3 



234 



235 



PLACES OF BIRTH INDEX 




Pinkwater, Daniel - Memphis . . Author V.8 

Rowan, Carl T. - Ravenscroft Sep 01 

Rudolph, Wilma - St. Bethlehem .... Apr 95 

Summitt, Pat - Henrietta Sport V.3 

Timberlake, Justin - Memphis Jan 01 

White, Reggie - Chattanooga Jan 98 

Texas 

Adams, Yolanda -Houston Apr 03 

Armstrong, Lance - Plano Sep 00 

Baker, James - Houston Oct 92 

Bledel, Alexis - Houston Jan 03 

Bush, Laura - Midland Apr 03 

Cisneros, Henry - San Antonio Sep 93 

Clarkson, Kelly - Burleson Jan 03 

Duff, Hilary - Houston Sep 02 

Ellerbee, Linda - Bryan Apr 94 

Fiorina, Carly- Austin Sep 01 

Groppe, Laura - Houston Science V.5 

Harris, Bernard - Temple Science V.3 

Hewitt, Jennifer Love - Waco Sep 00 

Hill, Grant - Dallas Sport V.l 

Johnson, Jimmy - Port Arthur Jan 98 

Johnson, Michael - Dallas Jan 97 

Jordan, Barbara - Houston Apr 96 

Knowles, Beyonce - Houston Apr 01 

Maddux, Greg - San Angelo Sport V.3 

Maines, Natalie - Lubbock PerfArt V.l 

Nelly - Austin Sep 03 

O'Connor, Sandra Day - El Paso . . . . Jul 92 
Oliver, Patsy Ruth - Texarkana. . WorLdr V.l 

Perot, H. Ross - Texarkana Apr 92 

Rodriguez, Eloy - Edinburg .... Science V.2 

Ryan, Nolan - Refugio Oct 92 

Selena - Lake Jackson Jan 96 

Simmons, Ruth - Grapeland Sep 02 

Soren, Tabitha - San Antonio Jan 97 

Swoopes, Sheryl - Brownfield .... Sport V.2 

Thampy, George - Houston Sep 00 

Usher - Dallas PerfArt V.l 

Zmeskal, Kim - Houston Jan 94 

Tibet 

Dalai Lama - Takster, Amdo Sep 98 

Trinidad 

Guy, Rosa - Diego Martin Author V.9 

Uganda 

Amin, Idi - Koboko WorLdr V.2 

Ukraine 

Baiul, Oksana - Dnepropetrovsk Apr 95 

Stern, Isaac - Kreminiecz PerfArt V.l 



USSR - Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics 

Asimov, Isaac - Petrovichi, Russia .... Jul 92 
Baiul, Oksana - Dnepropetrovsk, 

Ukraine Apr 95 

Fedorov, Sergei - Pskov, Russia Apr 94 

Gorbachev, Mikhail - Privolnoye, 

Russia Jan 92 

Nureyev, Rudolf - Russia Apr 93 

Yeltsin, Boris - Butka, Russia Apr 92 

Utah 

Arnold, Roseanne - Salt Lake City . . Oct 92 

Bennett, Olivia - Salt Lake City Sep 03 

Jewel - Pay son Sep 98 

Young, Steve - Salt Lake City Jan 94 

Vermont 



Muldowney, Shirley - Burlington . . Sport V.7 



Virginia 

Armstrong, William H. 

- Lexington Author V.7 

Ashe, Arthur - Richmond Sep 93 

Collins, Francis - Staunton Science V.6 

Dayne, Ron - Blacksburg Apr 00 

Delany, Sadie - Lynch's Station Sep 99 

Fitzgerald, Ella - Newport News Jan 97 

Hillenbrand, Laura - Fairfax . . Author V.14 

Iverson, Allen - Hampton Sport V.7 

Rylant, Cynthia - Hopewell Author V.l 

Vick, Michael - Newport News . . . Sport V.9 

White, Ruth - Whitewood Author V.ll 

Wales 

Dahl, Roald — Llandaff. Author V.l 

Washington, D.C. 

Brown, Ron Sep 96 

Chasez, JC Jan 01 

Chung, Connie Jan 94 

Danziger, Paula Author V.6 

George, Jean Craighead Author V.3 

Gore, A1 Jan 93 

Jackson, Shirley Ann Science V.2 

Nye, Bill Science V.2 

Pinkney, Andrea Davis Author V.10 

Sampras, Pete Jan 97 

Vasan, Nina Science V.7 

Watterson, Bill Jan 92 

Washington State 

Card, Orson Scott - Richland. . Author V.14 

Cobain, Kurt - Aberdeen Sep 94 

Devers, Gail - Seattle Sport V.2 

Elway, John - Port Angeles Sport V.2 



Gates, Bill - Seattle .... Apr 93; Science V.5 



236 



235 




PLACES OF BIRTH INDEX 



Jones, Chuck - Spokane Author V.12 

Larson, Gary - Tacoma Author V.l 

Murie, Margaret - Seattle WorLdr V.l 

Ohno, Apolo - Seattle Sport V.8 

Stockton, John - Spokane Sport V.3 

West Virginia 

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. - Keyser .... Apr 00 

Moss, Randy - Rand Sport V.4 

Myers, Walter Dean 

- Martinsburg Jan 93 

Nash, John Forbes, Jr. 

- Bluefield Science V. 7 

Wisconsin 

Bardeen, John - Madison Science V.l 

Cray, Seymour - Chippewa Falls . Science V.2 

Driscoll, Jean - Milwaukee Sep 97 

Henry, Marguerite - Milwaukee Author V.4 

Jansen, Dan - Milwaukee Apr 94 

Nelson, Gaylord - Clear Lake . . WorLdr V.3 



O'Keeffe, Georgia - Sun Prairie . . Artist V.l 
Wilder, Laura Ingalls - Pepin . . . Author V.3 



Wright, Frank Lloyd 

- Richland Center Artist V.l 

Wyoming 

MacLachlan, Patricia 

- Cheyenne Author V.2 

Yugoslavia 

Filipovic, Zlata - Sarajevo, 

Bosnia-Herzogovina Sep 94 

Milosevic, Slobodan - Pozarevac, 

Serbia Sep 99 

Seles, Monica - Novi Sad, Serbia .... Jan 96 
Zaire 

Mobutu Sese Seko - Lisala .... WorLdr V.2 

Zambia 

Kaunda, Kenneth - Lubwa .... WorLdr V.2 

Zimbabwe 

Mugabe, Robert - Kutama WorLdr V.2 




236 



Birthday Index 



January Year 

1 Salinger, J.D 1919 

2 Asimov, Isaac 1920 

3 Fuller, Millard 1935 

Tolkien, J.R.R 1892 

4 Naylor, Phyllis Reynolds 1933 

Runyan, Marla 1969 

Shula, Don 1930 

5 Ocampo, Adriana C 1955 

6 Van Draanen, Wendelin 7 

7 Hurston, Zora Neale 71891 

Rodriguez, Eloy 1947 

8 Hawking, Stephen W 1942 

Spelman, Lucy 1963 

9 Garcia, Sergio 1980 

McLean, A.J 1978 

Menchu, Rigoberta 1959 

Nixon, Richard 1913 

11 Leopold, Aldo 1887 

12 Amanpour, Christiane 1958 

Bezos, Jeff 1964 

Lasseter, John 71957 

Limbaugh, Rush 1951 

13 Burnside, Aubyn 1985 

Webb, Alan 1983 

14 Lucid, Shannon 1943 

15 Werbach, Adam 1973 

16 Aaliyah 1979 

Fossey, Dian 1932 

Lipsyte, Robert 1938 

Tarter, Jill 1944 

17 Carrey, Jim 1962 

Cormier, Robert 1925 

Jones, James Earl 1931 

Lewis, Shari 71934 

Tartakovsky, Genndy 1970 

18 Ali, Muhammad 1942 

Chavez, Julz 1962 

Messier, Mark 1961 

19 Askins, Renee 1959 

Johnson, John 1918 



21 Domingo, Placido 1941 

Nicklaus, Jack 1940 

Olajuwon, Hakeem 1963 

22 Chavis, Benjamin 1948 

Ward, Lloyd D 1949 

23 Elion, Gertrude 1918 

Thiessen, Tiffani-Amber 1974 

24 Haddock, Doris (Granny D) 1910 

25 Alley, Kirstie 1955 

26 Carter, Vince 1977 

Morita, Akio 1921 

Siskel, Gene 1946 

Tarbox, Katie 1982 

27 Lester, Julius 1939 

Vasan, Nina 1984 

28 Carter, Nick 1980 

Fa tone, Joey 1977 

Gretzky, Wayne 1961 

Wood, Elijah 1981 

29 Abbey, Edward 1927 

Gilbert, Sara 1975 

Hasek, Dominik 1965 

Peet, Bill 1915 

Winfrey, Oprah 1954 

30 Alexander, Lloyd 1924 

Cheney, Dick 1941 

Engelbart, Douglas 1925 

31 Collier, Bryan 1967 

Flannery, Sarah 1982 

Robinson, Jackie 1919 

Ryan, Nolan 1947 

Timberlake, Justin 1981 

February Year 

1 Cabot, Meg 1967 

Hughes, Langston 1902 

Spinelli, Jerry 1941 

Yeltsin, Boris 1931 

2 Shakira 1977 

3 Heimlich, Henry 1920 

Nixon, Joan Lowery 1927 

Rockwell, Norman 1894 

Sanborn, Ryne 1989 



birthday index 




February (continued) Year 

4 Parks, Rosa 1913 

5 Aaron, Hank 1934 

6 Leakey, Mary 1913 

Rosa, Emily 1987 

Zmeskal, Kim 1976 

7 Brooks, Garth 1962 

Wang, An 1920 

Wilder, Laura Ingalls 1867 

8 Grisham, John 1955 

9 Love, Susan 1948 

10 Konigsburg, E. L 1930 

Norman, Greg 1955 

11 Aniston, Jennifer 1969 

Brandy 1979 

Rowland, Kelly 1981 

Yolen, Jane 1939 

12 Blume, Judy 1938 

Kurzweil, Raymond 1948 

Small, David 1945 

Woodson, Jacqueline 71964 

13 GrandPre, Mary 1954 

Moss, Randy 1977 

Sleator, William 1945 

15 Groening, Matt 1954 

Jagr, Jaromir 1972 

Sones, Sonya 1952 

Van Dyken, Amy 1973 

16 Freeman, Cathy 1973 

17 Anderson, Marian 1897 

Hargreaves, Alison 1962 

Jordan, Michael 1963 

18 Morrison, Toni 1931 

19 Tan, Amy 1952 

20 Adams, Ansel 1902 

Barkley, Charles 1963 

Cobain, Kurt 1967 

Crawford, Cindy 1966 

Hernandez, Livan 1975 

Littrell, Brian 1975 

21 Carpenter, Mary Chapin 1958 

Hewitt, Jennifer Love 1979 

Jordan, Barbara 1936 

Lewis, John 1940 

Mugabe, Robert 1924 

22 Barrymore, Drew 1975 

Fernandez, Lisa 1971 

Gorey, Edward 1925 

23 Brown, Claude 1937 

24 Jobs, Steven 1955 

Vernon, Mike 1963 

Whitestone, Heather 1973 



25 Voigt, Cynthia 1942 

26 Thompson, Jenny 1973 

27 Clinton, Chelsea 1980 

Hunter-Gault, Charlayne 1942 

28 Andretti, Mario 1940 

Pauling, Linus 1901 

March Year 

1 Ellison, Ralph Waldo 1914 

Murie, Olaus J 1889 

Nielsen, Jerri 1952 

Rabin, Yitzhak 1922 

Zamora, Pedro 1972 

2 Gorbachev, Mikhail 1931 

Satcher, David 1941 

Seuss, Dr 1904 

3 Hooper, Geoff 1979 

Joyner-Kersee, Jackie 1962 

MacLachlan, Patricia 1938 

4 Armstrong, Robb 1962 

Morgan, Garrett 1877 

5 Margulis, Lynn 1938 

6 Ashley, Maurice 1966 

7 McCarty, Oseola 1908 

8 Prinze, Freddie Jr 1976 

10 Guy, Jasmine 1964 

Miller, Shannon 1977 

Wolf, Hazel 1898 

12 Hamilton, Virginia 1936 

Nye, Naomi Shihab 1952 

13 Van Meter, Vicki 1982 

14 Dayne, Ron 1977 

Hanson, Taylor 1983 

Jones, Quincy 1933 

Williamson, Kevin 1965 

15 Ginsburg, Ruth Bader 1933 

White, Ruth 1942 

16 O'Neal, Shaquille 1972 

17 Hamm, Mia 1972 

Nureyev, Rudolf 1938 

18 Blair, Bonnie 1964 

de Klerk, F.W 1936 

Griese, Brian 1975 

Queen Latifah 1970 

19 Blanchard, Rachel 1976 

20 Lee, Spike 1957 

Lowry, Lois 1937 

Sachar, Louis 1954 

21 Gilbert, Walter 1932 

O'Donnell, Rosie 1962 



ERIC 



238 



239 



BIRTHDAY INDEX 



March (continued) Year 

22 Marceau, Marcel 1923 

Shatner, William 1931 

23 Kidd, Jason 1973 

24 Manning, Peyton 1976 

25 Dragila, Stacy 1971 

Franklin, Aretha 1942 

Granato, Cammi 1971 

Lovell, Jim 1928 

Park, Linda Sue 1960 

Steinem, Gloria 1934 

Swoopes, Sheryl 1971 

26 Allen, Marcus 1960 

Erdos, Paul 1913 

O'Connor, Sandra Day 1930 

Stockton, John 1962 

Witherspoon, Reese 1976 

27 Carey, Mariah 1970 

Wrede, Patricia C 1953 

28 James, Cheryl 

McEntire, Reba 1955 

Stiles, Julia 1981 

Tompkins, Douglas 1943 

29 Capriati, Jennifer 1976 

30 Dion, Celine 1968 

Hammer 1933 

Jones, Norah 1979 

31 Caplan, Arthur 1950 

Chavez, Cesar 1927 

Gore, A1 1948 

Howe, Gordie 1928 

April Year 

1 Maathai, Wangari 1940 

2 Carvey, Dana 1955 

3 Bynes, Amanda 1986 

Garth, Jennie 1972 

Goodall, Jane 1934 

Murphy, Eddie 1961 

Street, Picabo 1971 

4 Angelou, Maya 1928 

Mirra, Dave 1974 

5 McDaniel, Lurlene 1944 

Peck, Richard 1934 

Powell, Colin 1937 

6 Watson, James D 1928 

7 Chan, Jackie 1954 

Douglas, Marjory Stoneman 1890 

Forman, Michele 1946 

8 Annan, Kofi 1938 

9 Haddix, Margaret Peterson 1964 



10 Huerta, Dolores 1930 

Madden, John 1936 

12 Cleary, Beverly 1916 

Danes, Claire 1979 

Doherty, Shannen 1971 

Hawk, Tony 1968 

Letterman, David 1947 

Soto, Gary 1952 

13 Brandis, Jonathan 1976 

Henry, Marguerite 1902 

14 Collins, Francis 1950 

Gellar, Sarah Michelle 1977 

Maddux, Greg 1966 

Rose, Pete 1941 

15 Martin, Bernard 1954 

Watson, Emma 1990 

16 Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem 1947 

Atwater-Rhodes, Amelia 1984 

Selena 1971 

Williams, Garth 1912 

17 Champagne, Larry III 1985 

18 Hart, Melissa Joan 1976 

20 Brundtland, Gro Harlem 1939 

21 Muir, John 1838 

22 Levi-Montalcini, Rita 1909 

Oppenheimer, J. Robert 1904 

23 Lopez, George 1961 

Watson, Barry 1974 

24 Clarkson, Kelly 1982 

25 Fitzgerald, Ella 1917 

26 Giff, Patricia Reilly 1935 

Nelson, Marilyn 1946 

Pei, I.M 1917 

27 Wilson, August 1945 

28 Alba, Jessica 1981 

Baker, James 1930 

Duncan, Lois 1934 

Hussein, Saddam 1937 

Kaunda, Kenneth 1924 

Lee, Harper 1926 

Leno, Jay 1950 

Lidstrom, Nicklas 1970 

29 Agassi, Andre 1970 

Earnhardt, Dale 1951 

Seinfeld, Jerry 1954 

30 Dunst, Kirsten 1982 

May Year 

2 Hughes, Sarah 1985 

Spock, Benjamin 1903 

4 Bass, Lance 1979 



240 



239 



birthday index 



May (continued) Year 

5 Lionni, Leo 1910 

Maxwell, Jody- Anne 1986 

Opdyke, Irene Gut 1922 

Strasser, Todd 1950 

WilderBrathwaite, Gloria 1964 

7 Land, Edwin 1909 

8 Attenborough, David 1926 

Iglesias, Enrique 1975 

Meltzer, Milton 1915 

9 Bergen, Candice 1946 

Yzerman, Steve 1965 

10 Cooney, Caroline B 1947 

Curtis, Christopher Paul 1953 

Galdikas, Birute 1946 

Jamison, Judith 1944 

Ochoa, Ellen 1958 

11 Farrakhan, Louis 1933 

12 Mowat, Farley 1921 

13 Pascal, Francine 1938 

Rodman, Dennis 1961 

14 Kapell, Dave 1962 

Lucas, George 1944 

Smith, Emmitt 1969 

15 Albright, Madeleine 1937 

Almond, David 1951 

Hillenbrand, Laura 1967 

Johns, Jasper 1930 

Zindel, Paul 1936 

16 Coville, Bruce 1950 

17 Paulsen, Gary 1939 

18 John Paul II 1920 

19 Brody, Jane 1941 

Garnett, Kevin 1976 

Hansberry, Lorraine 1930 

20 Stewart, Tony 1971 

21 Robinson, Mary 1944 

22 Ohno, Apolo 1982 

23 Bardeen, John 1908 

Jewel 1974 

O'Dell, Scott 1898 

24 Beachley, Layne 1972 

Dumars, Joe 1963 

Gilman, Billy 1988 

26 Hill, Lauryn 1975 

Ride, Sally 1951 

27 Carson, Rachel 1907 

Kerr, M.E 1927 

28 Giuliani, Rudolph 1944 

Johnston, Lynn 1947 

Shabazz, Betty 1936 




29 Clements, Andrew 1949 

30 Cohen, Adam Ezra 1979 

? McGruder, Aaron 1974 

June Year 

1 Lalas, Alexi 1970 

Morissette, Alanis 1974 

2 Juster, Norton 1929 

4 Kistler, Darci 1964 

Nelson, Gaylord 1916 

5 Scarry, Richard 1919 

6 Rylant, Cynthia 1954 

7 Brooks, Gwendolyn 1917 

Iverson, Allen 1975 

Oleynik, Larisa 1981 

8 Berners-Lee, Tim 1955 

Bush, Barbara 1925 

Davenport, Lindsay 1976 

Edelman, Marian Wright 1939 

Wayans, Keenen Ivory 1958 

Wright, Frank Lloyd 1869 

9 Portman, Natalie 1981 

10 Frank, Anne 1929 

Lipinski, Tara 1982 

Sendak, Maurice 1928 

Shea, Jim, Jr 1968 

Wilson, Edward 0 1929 

11 Cousteau, Jacques 1910 

Montana-, Joe 1956 

12 Bush, George 1924 

Rubin, Jamie 1986 

13 Allen, Tim 1953 

Alvarez, Luis W 1911 

Christo 1935 

Nash, John Forbes, Jr 1928 

14 Bourke-White, Margaret 1904 

Graf, Steffi 1969 

Summitt, Pat 1952 

Yep, Laurence 1948 

15 Horner, Jack 1946 

Jacques, Brian 1939 

16 McClintock, Barbara 1902 

Shakur, Tupac 1971 

17 Gingrich, Newt 1943 

Jansen, Dan 1965 

Williams, Venus 1980 

18 da Silva, Fabiola 1979 

Johnson, Angela 1961 

Morris, Nathan 1971 

Van Allsburg, Chris 1949 





240 



BIRTHDAY INDEX 



June (continued) 


Year 




Sakic, Joe 


. . . 1969 


19 


Abdul, Paula 


.... 1962 




Stachowski, Richie 


. . 1985 




Aung San Suu Kyi 


.... 1945 


8 


Hardaway, Anfernee "Penny" . . 


. . 1971 




Muldowney, Shirley 


1940 




Sealfon, Rebecca 


. . 1983 


20 


Goodman, John 


.... 1952 


9 


Farmer, Nancy 


. . . 1941 




Greenburg, Dan 


1936 




Hanks, Tom 


. . 1956 


21 


Bhutto, Benazir 


.... 1953 




Hassan II 


. . 1929 




Breathed, Berke 


.... 1957 




Krim, Mathilde 


. . 1926 


22 


Bradley, Ed 


.... 1941 




Lee, Jeanette 


, . . 1971 




Daly, Carson 


1973 




Sacks, Oliver 


, . . 1933 




Warner, Kurt 


1971 


10 


Ashe, Arthur 


. . 1943 


23 


Rudolph, Wilma 


.... 1940 




Benson, Mildred 


. . 1905 




Thomas, Clarence 


.... 1948 




Boulmerka, Hassiba 


. . 1969 


25 


Carle, Eric 


.... 1929 


11 


Cisneros, Henry 


. . 1947 




Gibbs, Lois 


.... 1951 




White, E.B 


. . 1899 


26 


Ammann, Simon 


1981 


12 


Bauer, Joan 


. . 1951 




Harris, Bernard 


1956 




Cosby, Bill 


. . 1937 




Jeter, Derek 


1974 




Johnson, Johanna 


, . . 1983 




LeMond, Greg 


.... 1961 




Yamaguchi, Kristi 


. . 1972 




Vick, Michael 


1980 


13 


Ford, Harrison 


. . 1942 


27 


Babbitt, Bruce 


.... 1938 




Stewart, Patrick 


. . 1940 




Dunbar, Paul Laurence 


1872 


15 


Aristide, Jean-Bertrand 


. . 1953 




Perot, H. Ross 


.... 1930 




Ventura, Jesse 


. . 1951 


28 


Elway, John 


1960 


16 


Johnson, Jimmy 


. . 1943 


29 


Jimenez, Francisco 


.... 1943 




Sanders, Barry 


. . 1968 


30 


Ballard, Robert 


1942 


17 


An Na 


. . 1972 










Stepanek , Mattie 


. . 1990 


July 


Year 


18 


Diesel, Vin 


. . 1967 


l 


Brower, David 


.... 1912 




Glenn, John 


. . 1921 




Calderone, Mary S 


1904 




Lemelson, Jerome 


. . 1923 




Diana, Princess of Wales . . . . 


.... 1961 




Mandela, Nelson 


. . 1918 




Duke, David 


.... 1950 


19 


Tarvin, Herbert 


. . 1985 




Lewis, Carl 


.... 1961 


20 


Hillary, Sir Edmund 


. . 1919 




McCully, Emily Arnold 


.... 1939 


21 


Chastain, Brandi 


. . 1968 


2 


Bethe, Hans A 


1906 




Hartnett, Josh 


. . 1978 




Fox, Vicente 


1942 




Reno, Janet 


. . 1938 




Gantos, Jack 


.... 1951 




Riley, Dawn 


. . 1964 




George, Jean Craighead 


.... 1919 




Stern, Isaac 


. . 1920 




Lynch, Chris 


1962 




Williams, Robin 


. . 1952 




Marshall, Thurgood 


.... 1908 


22 


Calder, Alexander 


. . 1898 




Petty, Richard 


1937 




Dole, Bob 


. . 1923 




Thomas, Dave 


.... 1932 




Hinton, S.E 


. . 1948 


3 


Simmons, Ruth 


.... 1945 


23 


Haile Selassie 


. . 1892 


5 


Watterson, Bill 


.... 1958 




Williams, Michelle 


. . 1980 


6 


Bush, George W 


.... 1946 


24 


Abzug, Bella 


. . 1920 




Dalai Lama 


.... 1935 




Bonds, Barry 


. . 1964 




Dumitriu, Ioana 


.... 1976 




Krone, Julie 


. . 1963 


7 


Chagall, Marc 


.... 1887 




Lopez, Jennifer 


. . 1970 




Heinlein, Robert 


.... 1907 




Moss, Cynthia 


. . 1940 




Kwan, Michelle 


.... 1980 




Wilson, Mara 


. . 1987 




Otto, Sylke 


.... 1969 


25 


Payton, Walter 


. . 1954 



242 



241 



BIRTHDAY INDEX 




July (continued) Year 

26 Berenstain, Jan 1923 

Clark, Kelly 1983 

27 Dunlap, Alison 1969 

Rodriguez, Alex 1975 

28 Davis, Jim 1945 

Pottter, Beatrix 1866 

29 Burns, Ken 1953 

Creech, Sharon 1945 

Dole, Elizabeth Hanford 1936 

Jennings, Peter 1938 

Morris, Wanya 1973 

30 Allen, Tori 1988 

Hill, Anita 1956 

Moore, Henry 1898 

Schroeder, Pat 1940 

31 Cronin, John 1950 

Radcliffe, Daniel 1989 

Reid Banks, Lynne 1929 

Rowling, J. K 1965 

Weinke, Chris 1972 

August Year 

1 Brown, Ron 1941 

Coolio 1963 

Garcia, Jerry 1942 

2 Baldwin, James 1924 

Healy, Bernadine 1944 

3 Brady, Tom 1977 

Roper, Dee Dee ? 

Savimbi, Jonas 1934 

4 Gordon, Jeff 1971 

Whitman, Meg 1956 

5 Cordova, France 1947 

Ewing, Patrick 1962 

Jackson, Shirley Ann 1946 

6 Cooney, Barbara 1917 

Robinson, David 1965 

Warhol, Andy ?1928 

7 Byars, Betsy 1928 

Duchovny, David 1960 

Leakey, Louis 1903 

Villa-Komaroff, Lydia 1947 

8 Boyd, Candy Dawson 1946 

Chasez, JC 1976 

9 Anderson, Gillian 1968 

Holdsclaw, Chamique 1977 

Houston, Whitney 1963 

McKissack, Patricia C 1944 

Sanders, Deion 1967 

Travers, P.L ?1899 



11 Haley, Alex 1921 

Hogan, Hulk 1953 

Rowan, Carl T 1925 

Wozniak, Steve 1950 

12 Barton, Hazel 1971 

Martin, Ann M 1955 

McKissack, Fredrick L 1939 

Myers, Walter Dean 1937 

Sampras, Pete 1971 

13 Battle, Kathleen 1948 

Castro, Fidel 1927 

14 Berry, Halle ?1967 

Johnson, Magic 1959 

Larson, Gary 1950 

15 Affleck, Benjamin 1972 

Ellerbee, Linda 1944 

16 Bennett, Olivia 1989 

Farrell, Suzanne 1945 

Fu Mingxia 1978 

Gayle, Helene 1955 

Robison, Emily 1972 

Thampy, George 1987 

18 Danziger, Paula 1944 

Murie, Margaret 1902 

19 Clinton, Bill 1946 

Soren, Tabitha 1967 

20 Chung, Connie 1946 

Dakides, Tara 1975 

Milosevic, Slobodan 1941 

21 Chamberlain, Wilt 1936 

Draper, Sharon 1952 

Hillenburg, Stephen 1961 

Toro, Natalia 1984 

22 Bradbury, Ray 1920 

Dorough, Howie 1973 

Schwarzkopf, H. Norman 1934 

23 Bryant, Kobe 1978 

Novello, Antonia 1944 

Phoenix, River 1970 

24 Arafat, Yasir 1929 

Card, Orson Scott 1951 

Dai Qing 1941 

Ripken, Cal, Jr 1960 

25 Case, Steve 1958 

Wolff, Virginia Euwer 1937 

26 Burke, Christopher 1965 

Culkin, Macaulay 1980 

Sabin, Albert 1906 

Teresa, Mother 1910 

Tuttle, Merlin 1941 




242 




BIRTHDAY INDEX 



August (continued) Year 

27 Adams, Yolanda 1961 

Moseley, Jonny 1975 

Nechita, Alexandra 1985 

Rinaldi, Ann 1934 

28 Dove, Rita 1952 

Evans, Janet 1971 

Peterson, Roger Tory 1908 

Priestley, Jason 1969 

Rimes, LeAnn 1982 

Twain, Shania 1965 

29 Grandin, Temple 1947 

Hesse, Karen 1952 

McCain, John 1936 

30 Earle, Sylvia 1935 

Roddick, Andy 1982 

Williams, Ted 1918 

31 Perlman, Itzhak 1945 

September Year 

1 Estefan, Gloria 1958 

Guy, Rosa 1925 

Smyers, Karen 1961 

2 Bearden, Romare 71912 

Galeczka, Chris 1981 

Lisanti, Mariangela 1983 

Mohajer, Dineh 1972 

Yelas, Jay 1965 

3 Delany, Bessie 1891 

4 Knowles, Beyonce 1981 

Wright, Richard 1908 

5 Guisewite, Cathy 1950 

6 Fiorina, Carly 1954 

7 Lawrence, Jacob 1917 

Moses, Grandma 1860 

Pippig, Uta 1965 

Scurry, Briana 1971 

8 Prelutsky, Jack 1940 

Scieszka, Jon 1954 

Thomas, Jonathan Taylor 1982 

10 Gould, Stephen Jay 1941 

Johnson, Randy 1963 

12 YaoMing 1980 

13 Johnson, Michael 1967 

Monroe, Bill 1911 

Taylor, Mildred D 1943 

14 Armstrong, William H 1914 

Stanford, John 1938 

15 dePaola, Tomie 1934 

Marino, Dan 1961 



16 Bledel, Alexis 1981 

Dahl, Roald 1916 

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr 1950 

17 Burger, Warren 1907 

18 Armstrong, Lance 1971 

Carson, Ben 1951 

de Mille, Agnes 1905 

Fields, Debbi 1956 

Nakamura, Leanne 1982 

19 Delany, Sadie 1889 

21 Fielder, Cecil 1963 

Hill, Faith 1967 

Jones, Chuck 1912 

King, Stephen 1947 

Nkrumah, Kwame 1909 

22 Richardson, Dot 1961 

23 Nevelson, Louise 1899 

Warrick, Earl 1911 

24 George, Eddie 1973 

Ochoa, Severo 1905 

25 Gwaltney, John Langston 1928 

Locklear, Heather 1961 

Lopez, Charlotte 1976 

Pinkney, Andrea Davis 1963 

Pippen, Scottie 1965 

Reeve, Christopher 1952 

Smith, Will 1968 

Walters, Barbara 1931 

26 Mandela, Winnie 1934 

Stockman, Shawn 1972 

Williams, Serena 1981 

27 Handford, Martin 1956 

Lavigne, Avril 1984 

28 Cray, Seymour 1925 

Duff, Hilary 1987 

Pak, Se Ri 1977 

29 Berenstain, Stan 1923 

Guey, Wendy 1983 

Gumbel, Bryant 1948 

30 Hingis, Martina 1980 

Moceanu, Dominique 1981 

October Year 

1 Carter, Jimmy 1924 

McGwire, Mark 1963 

2 Leibovitz, Annie 1949 

3 Campbell, Neve 1973 

Herriot, James 1916 

Richardson, Kevin 1972 

Stefani, Gwen 1969 

Winfield, Dave 1951 






243 



BIRTHDAY INDEX 



October (continued) Year 

4 Cushman, Karen 1941 

Kamler, Kenneth 1947 

Rice, Anne 1941 

5 Fitzhugh, Louise 1928 

Hill, Grant 1972 

Lemieux, Mario 1965 

Lin, Maya 1959 

Roy, Patrick 1965 

Winslet, Kate 1975 

6 Bennett, Cherie 1960 

Lobo, Rebecca 1973 

7 Ma, Yo-Yo 1955 

8 Jackson, Jesse 1941 

Ringgold, Faith 1930 

Stine, R.L 1943 

Winans, CeCe 1964 

9 Bryan, Zachery Ty 1981 

Senghor, Leopold Sedar 1906 

Sorenstam, Annika 1970 

10 Favre, Brett 1969 

Saro-Wiwa, Ken 1941 

11 Freedman, Russell 1929 

Murray, Ty 1969 

Perry, Luke 71964 

Young, Steve 1961 

12 Childress, Alice 71920 

Jones, Marion 1975 

Maguire, Martie 1969 

Ward, Charlie 1970 

13 Ashanti 1980 

Carter, Chris 1956 

Kerrigan, Nancy 1969 

Rice, Jerry 1962 

14 Daniel, Beth 1956 

Maines, Natalie 1974 

Mobutu Sese Seko 1930 

Usher 1978 

15 Iacocca, Lee A 1924 

16 Stewart, Kordell 1972 

17 Eminem 1972 

Jemison, Mae 1956 

Kirkpatrick, Chris 1971 

18 Bird, Sue 1980 

Foreman, Dave 1946 

Marsalis, Wynton 1961 

Navratilova, Martina 1956 

Suzuki, Shinichi 1898 

19 Blum, Deborah 1954 

Pullman, Philip 1946 



20 Grimes, Nikki 1950 

Kenyatta, Jomo 71891 

Mantle, Mickey 1931 

Pinsky, Robert 1940 

21 Gillespie, Dizzy 1956 

Le Guin, Ursula K 1929 

22 Hanson, Zac 1985 

23 Anderson, Laurie Halse 1961 

Crichton, Michael 1942 

Pele 1940 

25 Martinez, Pedro 1971 

Tolan, Stephanie S 1942 

26 Clinton, Hillary Rodham 1947 

27 Anderson, Terry 1947 

Morrison, Lillian 1917 

28 Gates, Bill 1955 

Roberts, Julia 1967 

Romero, John 1967 

Salk, Jonas 1914 

29 Flowers, Vonetta 1973 

Ryder, Winona 1971 

31 Candy, John 1950 

Jackson, Peter 1961 

Paterson, Katherine 1932 

Patterson, Ryan 1983 

Pauley, Jane 1950 

Tucker, Chris 1973 

November Year 

2 lang, k.d 1961 

Nelly 1974 

3 Arnold, Roseanne 1952 

Ho, David 1952 

Kiraly, Karch 1960 

4 Bush, Laura 1946 

Combs, Sean (Puff Daddy) 1969 

Handler, Ruth 1916 

7 Bahrke, Shannon 1980 

Canady, Alexa 1950 

8 Mittermeier, Russell A 1949 

9 Denton, Sandi 

Sagan, Carl 1934 

10 Bates, Daisy 71914 

11 Blige, Mary J 1971 

DiCaprio, Leonardo 1974 

Vonnegut, Kurt 1922 

12 Andrews, Ned 1980 

Blackmun, Harry 1908 

Harding, Tonya 1970 

Sosa, Sammy 1968 



ERIC 



244 



245 



BIRTHDAY INDEX 



November (continued) Year 

13 Goldberg, Whoopi 1949 

14 Boutros-Ghali, Boutros 1922 

Hussein, King 1935 

Lindgren, Astrid 1907 

Rice, Condoleezza 1954 

15 O'Keeffe, Georgia 1887 

Pinkwater, Daniel 1941 

16 Baiul, Oksana 1977 

Miyamoto, Shigeru 1952 

17 Fuentes, Daisy 1966 

Hanson, Ike 1980 

18 Driscoll, Jean 1966 

Klug, Chris. 1972 

Mankiller, Wilma 1945 

Vidal, Christina 1981 

19 Collins, Eileen 1956 

Devers, Gail 1966 

Glover, Savion 1973 

Strug, Kerri 1977 

21 Aikman, Troy 1966 

Griffey, Ken, Jr 1969 

Schwikert, Tasha 1984 

Speare, Elizabeth George 1908 

22 Carmona, Richard 1949 

24 Ndeti, Cosmas 1971 

25 Grant, Amy 1960 

Mathis, Clint 1976 

McNabb, Donovan 1976 

Thomas, Lewis 1913 

26 Patrick, Ruth 1907 

Pine, Elizabeth Michele 1975 

Schulz, Charles 1922 

27 Nye, Bill 1955 

White, Jaleel 1977 

29 L'Engle, Madeleine 1918 

Lewis, C. S 1898 

Tubman, William V. S 1895 

30 Jackson, Bo 1962 

Parks, Gordon 1912 

December Year 

2 Hendrickson, Sue 1949 

Macaulay, David 1946 

Seles, Monica 1973 

Spears, Britney 1981 

Watson, Paul 1950 

3 Kim Dae-jung ?1925 

Filipovic, Zlata 1980 

4 Banks, Tyra 1973 



5 Muniz, Frankie 1985 

6 Risca, Viviana 1982 

7 Bird, Larry 1956 

Carter, Aaron 1987 

8 Rivera, Diego 1886 

9 Hopper, Grace Murray 1906 

12 Bialik, Mayim 1975 

Frankenthaler, Helen 1928 

Sinatra, Frank 1915 

13 Fedorov, Sergei 1969 

Pierce, Tamora 1954 

14 Jackson, Shirley 1916 

15 Aidid, Mohammed Farah 1934 

Mendes, Chico 1944 

Taymor, Julie 1952 

16 Bailey, Donovan 1967 

McCary, Michael 1971 

Mead, Margaret 1901 

17 Kielburger, Craig 1982 

18 Aguilera, Christina 1980 

Holmes, Katie 1978 

Pitt, Brad 1964 

Sanchez Vicario, Arantxa 1971 

Spielberg, Steven 1947 

19 Morrison, Sam 1936 

Sapp, Warren 1972 

White, Reggie 1961 

20 Uchida, Mitsuko 1948 

Zirkle, Aliy 1969 

21 Evert, Chris 1954 

Griffith Joyner, Florence 1959 

Stiles, Jackie 1978 

Webb, Karrie 1974 

22 Pinkney, Jerry 1939 

23 Avi 1937 

Harbaugh, Jim 1963 

Lowman, Meg 1953 

24 Fauci, Anthony S 1940 

Hake, Sharon 1955 

Lowe, Alex 1958 

Martin, Ricky 1971 

25 Ryan, Pam Munoz 1951 

Sadat, Anwar 1918 

26 Butcher, Susan 1954 

27 Roberts, Cokie 1943 

28 Lee, Stan 1922 

Washington, Denzel 1954 

30 Willingham, Tyrone 1953 

Woods, Tiger 1975 




246 



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LOOK WHO'S APPEARED — GENERAL SERIES 



1992 

Paula Abdul 
Andre Agassi 
Kirstie Alley 
Terry Anderson 
Roseanne Arnold 
Isaac Asimov 
James Baker 
Charles Barkley 
Larry Bird 
JudyBlume 
Berke Breathed 
Garth Brooks 
Barbara Bush 
George Bush 
Fidel Castro 
Bill Clinton 
Bill Cosby 

Diana, Princess of Wales 
Shannen Doherty 
Elizabeth Dole 
David Duke 
Gloria Estefan 
Mikhail Gorbachev 
Steffi Graf 
Wayne Gretzky 
Matt Groening 
Alex Haley 
Hammer 
Martin Handford 
Stephen Hawking 
Hulk Hogan 
Saddam Hussein 
Lee Iacocca 
Bo Jackson 
Mae Jemison 
Peter Jennings 
Steven Jobs 
Pope John Paul II 
Magic Johnson 
Michael Jordon 
Jackie Joyner-Kersee 
Spike Lee 
Mario Lemieux 
Madeleine L'Engle 
Jay Leno 
Yo-Yo Ma 
Nelson Mandela 
Wynton Marsalis 
Thurgood Marshall 
Ann Martin 
Barbara McClintock 
Emily Arnold McCully 
Antonia Novello 



Sandra Day O'Connor 
Rosa Parks 
Jane Pauley 
H. Ross Perot 
Luke Perry 
Scottie Pippen 
Colin Powell 
Jason Priestley 
Queen Latifah 
Yitzhak Rabin 
Sally Ride 
Pete Rose 
Nolan Ryan 
H. Norman 
Schwarzkopf 
Jerry Seinfeld 
Dr. Seuss 
Gloria Steinem 
Clarence Thomas 
Chris Van Allsburg 
Cynthia Voigt 
Bill Watterson 
Robin Williams 
Oprah Winfrey 
Kristi Yamaguchi 
Boris Yeltsin 

1993 

Maya Angelou 
Arthur Ashe 
Avi 

Kathleen Battle 
Candice Bergen 
Boutros Boutros-Ghali 
Chris Burke 
Dana Carvey 
Cesar Chavez 
Henry Cisneros 
Hillary Rodham Clinton 
Jacques Cousteau 
Cindy Crawford 
Macaulay Culkin 
Lois Duncan 
Marian Wright Edelman 
Cecil Fielder 
Bill Gates 
Sara Gilbert 
Dizzy Gillespie 
A1 Gore 

Cathy Guisewite 
Jasmine Guy 
Anita Hill 
Ice-T 

Darci Kistler 



k.d. lang 
Dan Marino 
Rigoberta Menchu 
Walter Dean Myers 
Martina Navratilova 
Phyllis Reynolds Naylor 
Rudolf Nureyev 
Shaquille O'Neal 
Janet Reno 
Jerry Rice 
Mary Robinson 
Winona Ryder 
Jerry Spinelli 
Denzel Washington 
Keenen Ivory Wayans 
Dave Winfield 

1994 

Tim Allen 
Marian Anderson 
Mario Andretti 
Ned Andrews 
Yasir Arafat 
Bruce Babbitt 
Mayim Bialik 
Bonnie Blair 
Ed Bradley 
John Candy 
Mary Chapin Carpenter 
Benjamin Chavis 
Connie Chung 
Beverly Cleary 
Kurt Cobain 
F.W. de Klerk 
Rita Dove 
Linda Ellerbee 
Sergei Fedorov 
Zlata Filipovic 
Daisy Fuentes 
Ruth Bader Ginsburg 
Whoopi Goldberg 
Tonya Harding 
Melissa Joan Hart 
Geoff Hooper 
Whitney Houston 
Dan Jansen 
Nancy Kerrigan 
Alexi Lalas 
Charlotte Lopez 
Wilma Mankiller 
Shannon Miller 
Toni Morrison 
Richard Nixon 
Greg Norman 
Severo Ochoa 



River Phoenix 
Elizabeth Pine 
Jonas Salk 
Richard Scarry 
Emmitt Smith 
Will Smith 
Steven Spielberg 
Patrick Stewart 
R.L. Stine 
Lewis Thomas 
Barbara Walters 
Charlie Ward 
Steve Young 
Kim Zmeskal 

1995 

Troy Aikman 
Jean-Bertrand Aristide 
Oksana Baiul 
Halle Berry 
Benazir Bhutto 
Jonathan Brandis 
Warren E. Burger 
Ken Bums 
Candace Cameron 
Jimmy Carter 
Agnes de Mille 
Placido Domingo 
Janet Evans 
Patrick Ewing 
Newt Gingrich 
John Goodman 
Amy Grant 
Jesse Jackson 
James Earl Jones 
Julie Krone 
David Letterman 
Rush Limbaugh 
Heather Locklear 
Reba McEntire 
Joe Montana 
Cosmas Ndeti 
Hakeem Olajuwon 
Ashley Olsen 
Mary-Kate Olsen 
Jennifer Parkinson 
Linus Pauling 
Itzhak Perlman 
Cokie Roberts 
Wilma Rudolph 
Salt 'N' Pepa 
Barry Sanders 
William Shatner 
Elizabeth George 
Speare 




248 



LOOK WHO'S APPEARED — GENERAL SERIES 



Dr. Benjamin Spock 
Jonathan Taylor 
Thomas 

Vicki Van Meter 
Heather Whitestone 
Pedro Zamora 

1996 

Aung San Suu Kyi 
Boyz II Men 
Brandy 
Ron Brown 
Mariah Carey 
Jim Carrey 
Larry Champagne III 
Christo 

Chelsea Clinton 
Coolio 
Bob Dole 
David Duchovny 
Debbi Fields 
Chris Galeczka 
Jerry Garcia 
Jennie Garth 
Wendy Guey 
Tom Hanks 
Alison Hargreaves 
Sir Edmund Hillary 
Judith Jamison 
Barbara Jordan 
Annie Leibovitz 
Carl Lewis 
Jim Lovell 
Mickey Mantle 
Lynn Margulis 
Iqbal Masih 
Mark Messier 
Larisa Oleynik 
Christopher Pike 
David Robinson 
Dennis Rodman 
Selena 

Monica Seles 
Don Shula 
Kerri Strug 

Tiffani-Amber Thiessen 
Dave Thomas 
Jaleel White 



1997 

Madeleine Albright 
Marcus Allen 
Gillian Anderson 
Rachel Blanchard 
Zachery Ty Bryan 
Adam Ezra Cohen 
Claire Danes 
Celine Dion 
Jean Driscoll 
Louis Farrakhan 
Ella Fitzgerald 
Harrison Ford 
Bryant Gumbel 
John Johnson 
Michael Johnson 
Maya Lin 
George Lucas 
John Madden 
Bill Monroe 
Alanis Morissette 
Sam Morrison 
Rosie O'Donnell 
Muammar el-Qaddafi 
Christopher Reeve 
Pete Sampras 
Pat Schroeder 
Rebecca Sealfon 
Tupac Shakur 
Tabitha Soren 
Herbert Tarvin 
Merlin Tuttle 
Mara Wilson 

1998 

Bella Abzug 
Kofi Annan 
Neve Campbell 
Sean Combs (Puff 
Daddy) 

Dalai Lama (Tenzin 
Gyatso) 

Diana, Princess of Wales 
Leonardo DiCaprio 
Walter E. Diemer 
Ruth Handler 
Hanson 

Livan Hernandez 
Jewel 

Jimmy Johnson 
Tara Lipinski 
Jody- Anne Maxwell 
Dominique Moceanu 
Alexandra Nechita 



Brad Pitt 
LeAnn Rimes 
Emily Rosa 
David Satcher 
Betty Shabazz 
Kordell Stewart 
Shinichi Suzuki 
Mother Teresa 
Mike Vernon 
Reggie White 
Kate Winslet 

1999 

Ben Affleck 
Jennifer Aniston 
Maurice Ashley 
Kobe Bryant 
Bessie Delany 
Sadie Delany 
Sharon Draper 
Sarah Michelle Gellar 
John Glenn 
Savion Glover 
Jeff Gordon 
David Hampton 
Lauryn Hill 
King Hussein 
Lynn Johnston 
Shari Lewis 
Oseola McCarty 
Mark McGwire 
Slobodan Milosevic 
Natalie Portman 
J. K. Rowling 
Frank Sinatra 
Gene Siskel 
Sammy Sosa 
John Stanford 
Natalia Toro 
Shania Twain 
Mitsuko Uchida 
Jesse Ventura 
Venus Williams 




2000 

Christina Aguilera 
K.A. Applegate 
Lance Armstrong 
Backstreet Boys 
Daisy Bates 
Harry Blackmun 
George W. Bush 
Carson Daly 
Ron Dayne 
Henry Louis Gates, Jr. 
Doris Haddock 
(Granny D) 

Jennifer Love Hewitt 
Chamique Holdsclaw 
Katie Holmes 
Charlayne Hunter-Gault 
Johanna Johnson 
Craig Kielburger 
John Lasseter 
Peyton Manning 
Ricky Martin 
John McCain 
Walter Payton 
Freddie Prinze, Jr. 
Viviana Risca 
Briana Scurry 
George Thampy 
CeCe Winans 

2001 

Jessica Alba 
Christiane Amanpour 
Drew Barrymore 
Jeff Bezos 
Destiny's Child 
Dale Earnhardt 
Carly Fiorina 
Aretha Franklin 
Cathy Freeman 
Tony Hawk 
Faith Hill 
Kim Dae-jung 
Madeleine L'Engle 
Mariangela Lisanti 
Frankie Muniz 
*N Sync 
Ellen Ochoa 
Jeff Probst 
Julia Roberts 
Carl T. Rowan 
Britney Spears 
Chris Tucker 
Lloyd D. Ward 
Alan Webb 
Chris Weinke 



249 



249 



LOOK WHO'S APPEARED — GENERAL SERIES 



2002 

Aaliyah 

Osama bin Laden 
Mary J. Blige 
Aubyn Burnside 
Aaron Carter 
Julz Chavez 
Dick Cheney 
Hilary Duff 
Billy Gilman 
Rudolph Giuliani 
Brian Griese 
Jennifer Lopez 
Dave Mirra 
Dineh Mohajer 
Leanne Nakamura 
Daniel Radcliffe 
Condoleezza Rice 
Marla Runyan 
Ruth Simmons 
Mattie Stepanek 
J.R.R. Tolkien 
Barry Watson 
Tyrone Willingham 
Elijah Wood 



2003 

Yolanda Adams 
Olivia Bennett 
Mildred Benson 
Alexis Bledel 
Barry Bonds 
Vincent Brooks 
Laura Bush 
Amanda Bynes 
Kelly Clarkson 
Vin Diesel 
Eminem 
Michele Forman 
Vicente Fox 
Millard Fuller 
Josh Hartnett 
Dolores Huerta 
Sarah Hughes 
Enrique Iglesias 
Jeanette Lee 
John Lewis 
Nicklas Lidstrom 
Clint Mathis 
Donovan McNabb 
Nelly 

Andy Roddick 
Gwen Stefani 
Emma Watson 
Meg Whitman 
Reese Witherspoon 
Yao Ming 




250 



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LOOK WHO'S APPEARED — SUBJECT SERIES 



Artists 

VOLUME 1 

Ansel Adams 
Rom are Bearden 
Margaret Bourke-White 
Alexander Calder 
Marc Chagall 
Helen Frankenthaler 
Jasper Johns 
Jacob Lawrence 
Henry Moore 
Grandma Moses 
Louise Nevelson 
Georgia O'Keeffe 
Gordon Parks 
I.M. Pei 
Diego Rivera 
Norman Rockwell 
Andy Warhol 
Frank Lloyd Wright 

Authors 

VOLUME 1 

Eric Carle 
Alice Childress 
Robert Cormier 
Roald Dahl 
Jim Davis 
John Grisham 
Virginia Hamilton 
James Herriot 
S.E. Hinton 
M.E. Kerr 
Stephen King 
Gary Larson 
Joan Lowery Nixon 
Gary Paulsen 
Cynthia Rylant 
Mildred D. Taylor 
Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. 

E.B. White 
Paul Zindel 

VOLUME 2 

James Baldwin 

Stan and Jan Berenstain 

David Macaulay 

Patricia MacLachlan 

Scott O'Dell 

Jerry Pinkney 

Jack Prelutsky 



Lynn Reid Banks 
Faith Ringgold 
J.D. Salinger 
Charles Schulz 
Maurice Sendak 
P.L. Travers 
Garth Williams 

VOLUME 3 

Candy Dawson Boyd 
Ray Bradbury 
Gwendolyn Brooks 
Ralph W. Ellison 
Louise Fitzhugh 
Jean Craighead George 
E.L. Konigsburg 
C.S. Lewis 

Fredrick L. McKissack 
Patricia C. McKissack 
Katherine Paterson 
Anne Rice 
Shel Silverstein 
Laura Ingalls Wilder 

VOLUME 4 

Betsy Byars 
Chris Carter 
Caroline B. Cooney 
Christopher Paul Curtis 
Anne Frank 
Robert Heinlein 
Marguerite Henry 
Lois Lowry 
Melissa Mathison 
Bill Peet 
August Wilson 

VOLUME 5 

Sharon Creech 
Michael Crichton 
Karen Cushman 
Tomie dePaola 
Lorraine Hansberry 
Karen Hesse 
Brian Jacques 
Gary Soto 
Richard Wright 
Laurence Yep 

VOLUME 6 

Lloyd Alexander 
Paula Danziger 
Nancy Farmer 
Zora Neale Hurston 



Shirley Jackson 
Angela Johnson 
Jon Krakauer 
Leo Lionni 
Francine Pascal 
Louis Sachar 
Kevin Williamson 

VOLUME 7 

William H. Armstrong 
Patricia Reilly Giff 
Langston Hughes 
Stan Lee 
Julius Lester 
Robert Pinsky 
Todd Strasser 
Jacqueline Woodson 
Patricia C. Wrede 
Jane Yolen 

VOLUME 8 

Amelia Atwater-Rhodes 
Barbara Cooney 
Paul Laurence Dunbar 
Ursula K. Le Guin 
Farley Mowat 
Naomi Shihab Nye 
Daniel Pinkwater 
Beatrix Potter 
Ann Rinaldi 

VOLUME 9 

Robb Armstrong 
Cherie Bennett 
Bruce Coville 
Rosa Guy 
Harper Lee 
Irene Gut Opdyke 
Philip Pullman 
Jon Scieszka 
Amy Tan 
Joss Whedon 

VOLUME 10 

David Almond 
Joan Bauer 
Kate DiCamillo 
Jack Gantos 
Aaron McGruder 
Richard Peck 
Andrea Davis Pinkney 
Louise Rennison 
David Small 
Katie Tarbox 



VOLUME 11 

Laurie Halse Anderson 
Bryan Collier 
Margaret Peterson 
Haddix 

Milton Meltzer 
William Sleator 
Sonya Sones 
Genndy Tartakovsky 
Wendelin Van Draanen 
Ruth White 

VOLUME 12 

An Na 

Claude Brown 
Meg Cabot 
Virginia Hamilton 
Chuck Jones 
Robert Lipsyte 
Lillian Morrison 
Linda Sue Park 
Pam Munoz Ryan 
Lemony Snicket 
(Daniel Handler) 

VOLUME 13 

Andrew Clements 
Eoin Colfer 
Sharon Flake 
Edward Gorey 
Francisco Jimenez 
Astrid Lindgren 
Chris Lynch 
Marilyn Nelson 
Tamora Pierce 
Virginia Euwer Wolff 

VOLUME 14 

Orson Scott Card 
Russell Freedman 
Mary GrandPre 
Dan Greenburg 
Nikki Grimes 
Laura Hillenbrand 
Stephen Hillenburg 
Norton Juster 
Lurlene McDaniel 
Stephanie S. Tolan 




252 



LOOK WHO'S APPEARED — SUBJECT SERIES 



Performing 

Artists 

VOLUME 1 

Jackie Chan 
Dixie Chicks 
Kirsten Dunst 
Suzanne Farrell 
Bemie Mac 
Shakira 
Isaac Stem 
Julie Taymor 
Usher 

Christina Vidal 

VOLUME 2 

Ashanti 
Tyra Banks 
Peter Jackson 
Norah Jones 
Quincy Jones 
Avril Lavigne 
George Lopez 
Marcel Marceau 
Eddie Murphy 
Julia Stiles 



Scientists 
& Inventors 

VOLUME 1 

John Bardeen 
Sylvia Earle 
Dian Fossey 
Jane Goodall 
Bemadine Healy 
Jack Homer 
Mathilde Krim 
Edwin Land 
Louise & Mary Leakey 
Rita Levi-Montalcini 
J. Robert Oppenheimer 
Albert Sabin 
Carl Sagan 
James D. Watson 



VOLUME 2 

Jane Brody 
Seymour Cray 
Paul Erdos 
Walter Gilbert 
Stephen Jay Gould 
Shirley Ann Jackson 
Raymond Kurzweil 
Shannon Lucid 
Margaret Mead 
Garrett Morgan 
Bill Nye 
Eloy Rodriguez 
An Wang 

VOLUME 3 

Luis W. Alvarez 
Hans A. Bethe 
Gro Harlem Brundtland 
Mary S. Calderone 
Ioana Dumitriu 
Temple Grandin 
John Langston 
Gwaltney 
Bernard Harris 
Jerome Lemelson 
Susan Love 
Ruth Patrick 
Oliver Sacks 
Richie Stachowski 

VOLUME 4 

David Attenborough 
Robert Ballard 
Ben Carson 
Eileen Collins 
Birute Galdikas 
Lonnie Johnson 
Meg Lowman 
Forrest Mars Sr. 

Akio Morita 
Janese Swanson 

VOLUME 5 

Steve Case 
Douglas Engelbart 
Shawn Fanning 
Sarah Flannery 
Bill Gates 
Laura Groppe 
Grace Murray Hopper 
Steven Jobs 

Rand and Robyn Miller 
Shigeru Miyamoto 
Steve Wozniak 



VOLUME 6 

Hazel Barton 
Alexa Canady 
Arthur Caplan 
Francis Collins 
Gertrude Elion 
Henry Heimlich 
David Ho 
Kenneth Kamler 
Lucy Spelman 
Lydia Villa-Komaroff 

VOLUME 7 

Tim Berners-Lee 
France Cordova 
Anthony S. Fauci 
Sue Hendrickson 
Steve Irwin 
John Forbes Nash, Jr. 
Jerri Nielsen 
Ryan Patterson 
Nina Vasan 

Gloria WilderBrathwaite 

VOLUME 8 

Deborah Blum 
Richard Carmona 
Helene Gayle 
Dave Kapell 
Adriana C. Ocampo 
John Romero 
Jamie Rubin 
Jill Tarter 
Earl Warrick 
Edward O. Wilson 



Sports 

VOLUME 1 

Hank Aaron 
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar 
Hassiba Boulmerka 
Susan Butcher 
Beth Daniel 
Chris Evert 
Ken Griffey, Jr. 

Florence Griffith Joyner 
Grant Hill 
Greg LeMond 
Pele 

Uta Pippig 
Cal Ripken, Jr. 

Arantxa Sanchez Vicario 
Deion Sanders 
Tiger Woods 




253 



VOLUME 2 

Muhammad Ali 
Donovan Bailey 
Gail Devers 
John Elway 
Brett Favre 
Mia Hamm 
Anfemee "Penny" 
Hardaway 
Martina Plingis 
Gordie Howe 
Jack Nicklaus 
Richard Petty 
Dot Richardson 
Sheryl Swoopes 
Steve Yzerman 

VOLUME 3 

Joe Dumars 
Jim Harbaugh 
Dominik Hasek 
Michelle Kwan 
Rebecca Lobo 
Greg Maddux 
Fatuma Roba 
Jackie Robinson 
John Stockton 
Picabo Street 
Pat Summit! 

Amy Van Dyken 

VOLUME 4 

Wilt Chamberlain 
Brandi Chastain 
Derek Jeter 
Karch Kiraly 
Alex Lowe 
Randy Moss 
SeRiPak 
Dawn Riley 
Karen Smyers 
Kurt Warner 
Serena Williams 

VOLUME 5 

Vince Carter 
Lindsay Davenport 
Lisa Fernandez 
Fu Mingxia 
Jaromir Jagr 
Marion Jones 
Pedro Martinez 
Warren Sapp 
Jenny Thompson 
Karrie Webb 



253 



LOOK WHO'S APPEARED — SUBJECT SERIES 



VOLUME 6 

Jennifer Capriati 
Stacy Dragila 
Kevin Garnett 
Eddie George 
Alex Rodriguez 
Joe Sakic 

Annika Sorenstam 
Jackie Stiles 
Tiger Woods 
Aliy Zirkle 

VOLUME 7 

Tom Brady 
Tara Dakides 
Alison Dunlap 
Sergio Garcia 
Allen Iverson 
Shirley Muldowney . 
Ty Murray 
Patrick Roy 
Tasha Schwiker 



VOLUME 8 

Simon Ammann 
Shannon Bahrke 
Kelly Clark 
Vonetta Flowers 
Cammi Granato 
Chris Klug 
Jonny Moseley 
Apolo Ohno 
Sylke Otto 
Ryne Sanborn 
Jim Shea, Jr. 




VOLUME 9 

Tori Allen 
Layne Beachley 
Sue Bird 
Fabiola da Silva 
Randy Johnson 
Jason Kidd 
Tony Stewart 
Michael Vick 
Ted Williams 
Jay Yelas 



254 



World 

Leaders 

VOLUME 1: 
Environmental 
Leaders 1 

Edward Abbey 
Renee Askins 
David Brower 
Rachel Carson 
Marjory Stoneman 
Douglas 
Dave Foreman 
Lois Gibbs 
Wangari Maathai 
Chico Mendes 
Russell A. Mittermeier 
Margaret and Olaus J. 
Murie 

Patsy Ruth Oliver 
Roger Tory Peterson 
Ken Saro-Wiwa 
Paul Watson 
Adam Werbach 

VOLUME 2: 
Modem African 
Leaders 

Mohammed Farah 
Aidid 
Idi Amin 

Hastings Kamuzu Banda 
Haile Selassie 
Hassan II 
Kenneth Kaunda 
Jomo Kenya tta 
Winnie Mandela 
Mobutu Sese Seko 
Robert Mugabe 
Kwame Nkrumah 
Julius Kambarage 
Nyerere 
Anwar Sadat 
Jonas Savimbi 
Leopold Sedar Senghor 
William V. S. Tubman 



VOLUME 3: 
Environmental 
Leaders 2 

John Cronin 
Dai Qing 
Ka Hsaw Wa 
Winona LaDuke 
Aldo Leopold 
Bernard Martin 
Cynthia Moss 
John Muir 
Gaylord Nelson 
Douglas Tompkins 
Hazel Wolf 



254 



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Biografias Hoy Serie General, 
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biography Today 

Authors Volume 1 4 

Laura Hillenbrand .journalist 

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The Phantom Tollbooth 

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Speechless? 



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